Upper Arrernte language
|Region||Northern Territory, Australia|
|4,000 (2005) to 5,500 (2006 census)|
|Aranda Sign Language|
Arrernte or Aranda (//; Arrernte [aɾəⁿɖə]) or more specifically Upper Arrernte (Upper Aranda), is a dialect cluster spoken in and around Alice Springs (Mparntwe in Arrernte) in the Northern Territory, Australia. The name is sometimes spelled Arunta or Arrarnta.
- Alyawarr (Alyawarra), spoken by the Alyawarre
- Anmatjirra (Anmatyerre)
- Antekerrepenhe (Andegerebinha)
- Ayerrerenge (Ayerreyenge)
- Eastern Arrernte (Ikngerripenhe) and Central Arrernte (Mparntwe Arrernte; east of Alice Springs)
- Western Arrernte (Akarre, Tyuretye Arrernte, Arrernte Alturlerenj; west of Alice Springs)
A Southern Arrernte (Pertame) is listed by Dixon, but not by Bowern, who also lumps together Central and Eastern.
There is much debate on whether these are dialects of an Arrernte language, or separate languages, both among linguists and among the Arrernte people themselves. Lower Arrernte, however, is clearly distinct.
|Stop||p pʷ||k kʷ||c cʷ||t̪ t̪ʷ||t tʷ||ʈ ʈʷ|
|Nasal||m mʷ||ŋ ŋʷ||ɲ ɲʷ||n̪ n̪ʷ||n nʷ||ɳ ɳʷ|
|Prestopped nasal||ᵖm ᵖmʷ||ᵏŋ ᵏŋʷ||ᶜɲ ᶜɲʷ||ᵗn̪ ᵗn̪ʷ||ᵗn ᵗnʷ||ᵗɳ ᵗɳʷ|
|Prenasalized stop||ᵐb ᵐbʷ||ᵑɡ ᵑɡʷ||ᶮɟ ᶮɟʷ||ⁿd̪ ⁿd̪ʷ||ⁿd ⁿdʷ||ⁿɖ ⁿɖʷ|
|Lateral Approximant||ʎ ʎʷ||l̪ l̪ʷ||l lʷ||ɭ ɭʷ|
|Approximant||ɰ~ʁ w||j jʷ||ɻ ɻʷ|
Stops are unaspirated. Prenasalized stops are voiced throughout; prestopped nasals are voiceless during the stop. These sounds arose as normal consonant clusters; Ladefoged states that they now occur initially, where consonant clusters are otherwise forbidden, due to historical loss of initial vowels; however, it has also been argued that such words start with a phonemic schwa, which may not be pronounced (see below).
All dialects have at least /ə a/.
The vowel system of Arrernte is unusual in that there are only two contrastive vowel phonemes, /a/ and /ə/. Two-vowel systems are very rare worldwide, but are also found in some Northwest Caucasian languages. It seems that the vowel system derives from an earlier one with more phonemes, but after the development of labialised consonants in the vicinity of round vowels, the vowels lost their roundedness/backness distinction, merging into just two phonemes. There is no allophonic variation in different consonantal contexts for the vowels. Instead, the phonemes can be realised by various different articulations in free variation. For example, the phoneme /ə/ can be pronounced [ɪ ~ e ~ ə ~ ʊ] in any context.
The underlying syllable structure of Arrernte is argued to be VC(C), with obligatory codas and no onsets. Underlying phrase-initial /ə/ is realised as zero, except before a rounded consonant where, by a rounding process of general applicability, it is realised as [ʊ]. It is also common for phrases to carry a final [ə] corresponding to no underlying segment.
Among the evidence for this analysis is that some suffixes have suppletive variants for monosyllabic and bisyllabic bases. Stems that appear monosyllabic and begin with a consonant in fact select the bisyllabic variant. Stress falls on the first nucleus preceded by a consonant, which by this analysis can be stated more uniformly as the second underlying syllable. And the frequentative is formed by reduplicating the final VC syllable of the verb stem; it does not include the final [ə].
Arrernte orthography does not write word-initial /ə/, and adds an e to the end of every word.
|+eyewe||really strong emphasis|
|+le||actor in a sentence|
|-arenye||from (origin), association|
|-iperre, -ipenhe||after, from|
|-ketye||because (bad consequence)|
|-kwenye||not having, without|
|-mpele||by way of, via|
|+tyeke||purpose or intent|
Pronouns decline with a nominative rather than ergative alignment:
The Arrernte have a highly developed sign language.
Arrernte in school
In most primary schools in Alice Springs, students (of all races and nationalities) are taught Arrernte (or in some cases Western Arrernte) as a compulsory language, often alongside the French or Indonesian languages. Additionally, most Alice Springs high schools give the option to study Arrernte language throughout high school as a separate subject, and it can also be learned at Centralian College as part of a TAFE course. Future plans are that it will be included as a university subject.
Arrernte in the workplace
Many Alice Springs workplaces require that employees learn at least basic Arrernte to communicate effectively with the large numbers of Arrernte people. Many workplaces offer learning of Arrernte as an option and will fund the course.
||G'day, What's new?
||Are you alright?
||See you later
Peter Sculthorpe's music theatre work Rites of Passage (1972–73) is written partly in Arrernte and partly in Latin. Western and Southern Arrernte were also used in parts of the libretto for Andrew Schultz' and Gordon Williams' Journey to Horseshoe Bend, based on the novel by T. G. H. Strehlow.
- Arrernte at the Australian Indigenous Languages Database, Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies (see the info box for additional links)
- Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin; Bank, Sebastian, eds. (2016). "Aranda". Glottolog 2.7. Jena: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
- Laurie Bauer, 2007, The Linguistics Student's Handbook, Edinburgh; also // "Aranda". Oxford English Dictionary (3rd ed.). Oxford University Press. September 2005. (Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
- Dixon, R. M. W. (2002). Australian Languages: Their Nature and Development. Cambridge University Press. p. xxxix.
- Bowern, Claire. 2011. "How Many Languages Were Spoken in Australia?", Anggarrgoon: Australian languages on the web, 23 December 2011 (corrected 6 February 2012)
- Green (2005).
- Ladefoged, Peter; Maddieson, Ian (1996). The Sounds of the World's Languages. Oxford: Blackwell. p. 129. ISBN 0-631-19814-8.
- Ladefoged and Maddieson (1996)
- Breen & Pensalfini (1999).
- Breen & Pensalfini (1999), pp. 2–3.
- Arrernte on Omniglot
- Green (2005), pp. 46–47.
- Green (2005), p. 54.
- Green (2005), p. 55.
- "Fact Sheet 3" (PDF). (681 KB)
- Breen, Gavan (2000). Introductory Dictionary of Western Arrernte. Alice Springs: IAD Press. ISBN 0-949659-98-3.
- Breen, Gavan (2001). "The wonders of Arandic phonology". In Simpson, Jane; Nash, David; Laughren, Mary; Austin, Peter; Alpher, Barry. Forty Years On: Ken Hale and Australian Languages. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics. pp. 45–69.
- Breen, Gavan; Dobson, Veronica (2005). "Illustrations of the IPA: Central Arrernte". Journal of the International Phonetic Association. 35 (2): 249–254. doi:10.1017/S0025100305002185.
- Breen, Gavan; Pensalfini, Rob (1999). "Arrernte: A Language with No Syllable Onsets". Linguistic Inquiry. 30 (1): 1–25. doi:10.1162/002438999553940.
- Dixon, R. M. W. (2002). Australian Languages: Their Nature and Development. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-47378-0.
- Green, Jenny (2005). A learner's guide to Eastern and Central Arrernte. Alice Springs: IAD Press. ISBN 1-86465-081-8.
- Henderson, John (1988). Topics in Eastern and Central Arrernte grammar. PhD dissertation. University of Western Australia.
- Henderson, John; Veronica Dobson (1994). Eastern and Central Arrernte to English Dictionary. Alice Springs: IAD Press. ISBN 0-949659-74-6.
- Henderson, John (2003). "The word in Eastern/Central Arrernte". In R. M. W. Dixon; Alexandra Y. Aikhenvald. Word: A Cross-Linguistic Typology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 100–124.
- Ladefoged, Peter; Ian Maddieson (1996). The Sounds of the World's Languages. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers Ltd. ISBN 0-631-19815-6.
- Mathews, R. H. (Oct–Dec 1907). "The Arran'da Language, Central Australia". Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society. 46 (187): 322–339.
- Strehlow, T. G. H. (1944). Aranda phonetics and grammar. Sydney: Oceania Monographs.
- Wilkins, David P. (1988). "Switch-reference in Mparntwe Arrernte (Aranda): form, function, and problems of identity". In Austin, P. K. Complex sentence constructions in Australian languages. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. pp. 141–176.
- Wilkins, David P. (1989). Mparntwe Arrernte (Aranda): studies in the structure and semantics of grammar. PhD dissertation, Australian National University.
- Wilkins, David P. (1991). "The semantics, pragmatics and diachronic development of "associated motion" in Mparntwe Arrente". Buffalo Working Papers in Linguistics. 91: 207–257.
- Yallop, C. (1977). Alyawarra, an Aboriginal language of central Australia. Canberra: Australian Institute of Aboriginal Studies. ISBN 0-85575-062-6.
- Keeping The Aboriginal Language Strong
- Central Land Council
- Bibliographies of published, rare or special materials on Arrernte language and people, at the Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies
- PARADISEC open-access collection of Eastern Arrernte recordings