Najdi Arabic

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from ISO 639:ars)
Jump to: navigation, search
Najdi Arabic
Native to Saudi Arabia, Jordan, Kuwait, Iraq, Syria
Native speakers
(undated figure of 10 million)[1]
Arabic alphabet
Language codes
ISO 639-3 ars
Glottolog najd1235[2]

Najdi Arabic (Arabic: اللهجة النجدية‎) is a variety of Arabic spoken in the Najd region of Saudi Arabia.

There are three major dialects of Najdi Arabic.

  1. Northern Najdi, spoken in Ha'il Region and Al-Qassim Region in the Najd.
  2. Central Najdi (Urban Najdi), spoken in the city of Riyadh and surrounding towns and farming communities.
  3. Southern Najdi, spoken in the city of Al-Kharj and surrounding towns, and in the Rub' al-Khali.

Phonology[edit]

Consonants[edit]

Here is a table of the consonant sounds of Najdi Arabic. The phonemes /p/پ⟩ and /v/ڤ⟩ (not used by all speakers) are not considered to be part of the phonemic inventory, as they exist only in foreign words and can be pronounced as /b/ and /f/ respectively depending on the speaker.

Consonant phonemes of Najdi Arabic[3]
Labial Dental Denti-alveolar Palatal Velar Pharyngeal Glottal
 plain  emphatic
Nasal m n
Occlusive voiceless t k ʔ
voiced b d d͡ʒ ɡ
Fricative voiceless f θ s ʃ x ħ h
voiced ð z ðˤ ɣ ʕ
Trill r
Approximant l (ɫ) j w

Phonetic notes:

  • The classicized [q] is an allophone for /ɡ/ ⟨ق⟩ in few words and proper names as in القرآن [alqurˈʔaːn] ('Quran') and قانون [qaːnuːn] ('Law').[4]
  • The distinction between the classical /dˤ/ ⟨ض⟩ and /ðˤ/ ⟨ظ⟩ was completely lost in Najdi Arabic, and both are realised as /ðˤ/.
  • the marginal phoneme /ɫ/ only occurs in the word الله /aɫːaːh/ ('god') and words derived from it,[5][incomplete citation] it contrasts with /l/ in والله /waɫːa/ ('i swear') vs. ولَّا /walːa/ ('or'), but it occurs as an allophone of /l/ in many other contexts, especially when neighboring the phonemes /ɡ, x, , / e.g. قَلَم "pencile" /ɡalam/→[ɡaɫam].
  • The phonemes /ɣ/ ⟨غ⟩ and /x/ ⟨خ⟩ can be realised as uvular fricatives [ʁ] and [χ] respectively.
  • In the consonantal system of Najdi Arabic, there is an occurrence of the alveolar affricates [t͡s] and [d͡z] as allophonic variants of the velar stops /k/ and /ɡ/, respectively.[6]

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ Najdi Arabic at Ethnologue (13th ed., 1996).
  2. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Najdi Arabic". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. 
  3. ^ Al Motairi (2015:5)
  4. ^ Al Motairi (2015:6)
  5. ^ Watson (2002:16)
  6. ^ Al Motairi (2015)

Bibliography[edit]