Ende language (Indonesia)

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Native toIndonesia
Regioncentral Flores
Native speakers
110,000 (2009)[1]
Lontara script (Lota Ende variant)
Language codes
ISO 639-3end
Approximate location where Ende is spoken
Approximate location where Ende is spoken
Coordinates: 8°43′S 121°34′E / 8.71°S 121.56°E / -8.71; 121.56

Ende is an Austronesian language spoken in the central part of Flores, one of the Lesser Sunda Islands in the eastern half of Indonesia.[2] It belongs to the Central Flores subgroup.[3]


Labial Alveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal m n ŋ ⟨ng⟩
Plosive voiceless p t k ʔ ⟨'⟩
voiced b d ɡ
prenasalized ᵐb ⟨mb⟩ ⁿd ⟨nd⟩ ᵑɡ ⟨ngg⟩
ejective ɓ ⟨bh⟩ ɗ ⟨dh⟩
Affricate d͡ʒ ⟨j⟩
Fricative f s ɣ ⟨gh⟩ (h)
Trill r
Lateral l
Approximant w ɹ ⟨rh⟩


Like all Central Flores languages, Ende has a highly isolating structure.[4]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Ende at Ethnologue (22nd ed., 2019) closed access
  2. ^ a b McDonnell, Bradley (2009). "A Preliminary Description of Ende Phonology" (PDF). Journal of the Southeast Asian Linguistics Society. 2: 195–226.
  3. ^ Elias, Alexander (2019). Lio and the Central Flores languages (M.A. thesis). Leiden University. hdl:1887/69452.
  4. ^ Elias, Alexander (2020). "Are the Central Flores languages really typologically unusual?". Berkeley: University of California.