Maʼanyan language

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(Redirected from ISO 639:mhy)
Native toIndonesia
Native speakers
150,000 (2003)[1]
Language codes
ISO 639-3mhy

Maanyan or Maʼanyan (also Maanjan or Maanyak Dayak) is an Austronesian language belonging to the East Barito languages. It is spoken by about 150,000 Ma'anyan people (subgroup of Dayak people) living in the province of Central Kalimantan and South Kalimantan, Indonesia. It is closely related to the Malagasy language spoken in Madagascar.



Labial Alveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
Plosive voiceless p t k ʔ
voiced b d ɟ ɡ
Nasal m n ɲ ŋ
Fricative s h
Trill r
Lateral l
Approximant w j

/r/ can also be heard as a tap sound [ɾ].


Front Back
Close i u
Open ɛ a

/i, u/ can be heard as [ɪ, ʊ] in closed syllables.[2]

Connection with Malagasy[edit]

The Malagasy language is an Austronesian language spoken in Madagascar. Malagasy is believed to have originated from the Southeast Barito language, and Ma'anyan is believed to be its closest relative, with numerous Malay and Javanese loanwords.[3][4] It is known that Ma'anyan people were brought as labourers and slaves by Malay and Javanese people in their trading fleets, which reached Madagascar by ca. 50–500 AD.[5][6][7] There is high lexical similarity with other East Barito languages like Paku (77%) and Dusun Witu (75%).


Vocabulary comparison between Malay, Banjarese, Ma'anyan, and Malagasy.

Malay Banjarese Ma'anyan Malagasy English
monyet warik warik varika ('lemur') monkey
bemban bamban waman
bulian balian wadian
patih patih patis regent
lama lawas lawah lava long (as in time)
kawan kawal kawal/hengau namana friend
obat tatamba tatamba tambavy medicine
senang aray aray ravo happy, easy
masih magun pagun manangona ('to accumulate') to keep
arya aria uria
demang damang damhong spider


  1. ^ Ma'anyan at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015) (subscription required)
  2. ^ Gudai, Darmansyah (1988). A Grammar of Maanyan, A Language of Central Kalimantan. Australian National University.
  3. ^ Dahl, Otto Christian (1951). Malgache et maanjan: une comparaison linguistique. Egede-Instituttet Avhandlinger, no. 3 (in French). Oslo: Egede-Instituttet. p. 13.
  4. ^ There are also some Sulawesi loanwords, which Adelaar attributes to contact prior to the migration to Madagascar: See Adelaar, K. Alexander (2006). "The Indonesian Migrations to Madagascar: Making Sense of the Multidisciplinary Evidence". In Truman Simanjuntak; Ingrid Harriet Eileen Pojoh; Muhammad Hisyam (eds.). Austronesian Diaspora and the Ethnogeneses of People in Indonesian Archipelago. Jakarta: Indonesian Institute of Sciences. pp. 8–9.
  5. ^ Dewar, Robert E.; Wright, Henry T. (1993). "The Culture History of Madagascar". Journal of World Prehistory. 7 (4): 417–466. doi:10.1007/bf00997802. hdl:2027.42/45256.
  6. ^ Burney, David A.; Burney, Lida Pigott; Godfrey, Laurie R.; Jungers, William L.; Goodman, Steven M.; Wright, Henry T.; Jull, A. J. Timothy (2004). "A Chronology for Late Prehistoric Madagascar". Journal of Human Evolution. 47 (1–2): 25–63. doi:10.1016/j.jhevol.2004.05.005. PMID 15288523.
  7. ^ Kumar, Ann (2012). "Dominion Over Palm and Pine: Early Indonesia's Maritime Reach". In Wade, Geoff (ed.). Anthony Reid and the Study of the Southeast Asian Past. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. pp. 101–122.

External links[edit]