Manggarai language

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Native toIndonesia
Native speakers
(undated figure of 900,000)[1]
Language codes
ISO 639-3mqy
Glottologmang1405  Manggarai
Location map of the regency of Greater Manggarai, which consists of three regencies: Manggarai Regency, West Manggarai Regency and East Manggarai Regency, on Flores island, in East Nusa Tenggara Province, Indonesia

The Manggarai language (tombo Manggarai, Indonesian: bahasa Manggarai) is the language of the Manggarai people from the western parts of the island of Flores, in East Nusa Tenggara Province, Indonesia.


Manggarai is the native language of the Manggarai people of Flores island in East Nusa Tenggara province, Indonesia. Based on statistical data reported by the Central Agency on Statistics (BPS) in 2009, it is the native language of more than 730,000 people in the province of East Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia.[2]

Outside Flores, there are some Manggarai-speaking people in the village of Manggarai in the eastern part of Jakarta, the capital city of Indonesia. Formerly a concentration of workers from Greater Manggarai, the population is now just a few of the original people, because the majority in the village has now become the Betawi.

The Manggarai language is part of the Austronesian family, and is therefore related to Indonesian and other Malay varieties. Most speakers of Manggarai also speak Indonesian for official and commercial purposes and to communicate with non-Manggarai Indonesians. Riung is often considered a dialect of Maranggai or a separate language.



Consonant phonemes[3]
Labial Alveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
voiceless p t k ʔ
voiced b d ɡ
prenasal vl. ᵐp ⁿt ⁿtʃ ᵑk
prenasal vd. ᵐb ⁿd ⁿdʒ ᵑɡ
Nasal m n ŋ
Fricative v s h
Lateral l
Trill r
Approximant j


Vowel phonemes[4]
Front Central Back
Close i u
Mid e ə o
Open a


  1. ^ Manggarai at Ethnologue (17th ed., 2013)
  2. ^ This data include statistics for the population of the Regency of Greater Manggarai on Flores island, which consists of three districts: Manggarai district, West Manggarai district, and East Manggarai district.
  3. ^ Verheijen & Grimes (1995), p. 586
  4. ^ Verheijen & Grimes (1995), p. 587


  • Verheijen, J. A. J.; Grimes, C. E. (1995). "Manggarai". In Tryon, D.T. (ed.). Comparative Austronesian Dictionary: An Introduction to Austroneasian Studies. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. pp. 585–592.
  • Burger, P. Adolf (1946). "Voorlopige Manggaraise Spraakkunst". Bijdragen tot de Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde van Nederlandsch-Indië (in Dutch). 103 (1/2): 15–265. doi:10.1163/22134379-90001214. JSTOR 20770777.
  • Semiun, Agustinus (2019). "A Study on the Address and Kinship Terms in Kempo Speech of Manggarai Language in West Flores Indonesia". 4: 108–117. {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  • Verheijen, J.A.J. (1982). Dictionary of Manggarai Plant Names. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics. doi:10.15144/pl-d43. hdl:1885/144388. ISBN 978-0-85883-273-2.