Penrhyn language

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Penrhyn
Mangarongaro, Penrhynese, Tongareva
tongareva
Native toCook Islands
RegionPenrhyn Island, Northern Cook Islands
Native speakers
200 (2011 census)[1]
Language codes
ISO 639-3pnh
Glottologpenr1237
ELPPenrhyn

The Penrhyn language is a Cook Islands Maori dialectal variant[2] belonging to the Polynesian language family spoken by about 200 people on Penrhyn Island and other islands in Northern Cook Islands.[3] It is considered to be an endangered language as many of its users are shifting to Cook Islands Māori and English.

Phonology[edit]

Alphabet[edit]

A, E, H, I, K, M, N, Ng, O, P, R, T, U, V[4]

Long vowels are written with a macron.

Consonants[edit]

Labial Alveolar Velar Glottal
nasal m n ŋ<ng>
stop p t k
fricative (f) v s h
Approximant l<r>

Tongareva is one of the few Cook Islands languages without a glottal stop [ʔ]. There is allophonic voicing of stops present. [f] is present in loanwords from languages like Rakahanga-Manihiki language.[5]

Grammar[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Penrhyn at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  2. ^ "Te Reo Maori Act" (2003)
  3. ^ "Penrhyn". Ethnologue. Retrieved 7 March 2013. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  4. ^ [1]
  5. ^ "Penrhyn (Tongareva)". Dictionary of Cook Islands Languages. Suva: The University of the South Pacific. 2016.