ISO 639 macrolanguage

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A macrolanguage is a book-keeping mechanism for the ISO 639 international standard for language codes. Macrolanguages are established to assist mapping between different sets of ISO language codes. Specifically, there may be a many-to-one correspondence between ISO 639-3, intended to identify all the thousands of languages of the world, and either of two other sets, ISO 639-1, established to identify languages in computer systems, and ISO 639-2, which encodes a few hundred languages for library cataloguing and bibliographic purposes. When such many-to-one ISO 639-2 codes are included in an ISO 639-3 context, they are called "macrolanguages" to distinguish them from the corresponding individual languages of ISO 639-3.[1] According to the ISO,

Some existing code elements in ISO 639-2, and the corresponding code elements in ISO 639-1, are designated in those parts of ISO 639 as individual language code elements, yet are in a one-to-many relationship with individual language code elements in [ISO 639-3]. For purposes of [ISO 639-3], they are considered to be macrolanguage code elements.

— ISO 639-3: Relationship between ISO 639-3 and the other parts of ISO 639[2]

ISO 639-3 is curated by SIL International, ISO 639-2 is curated by the Library of Congress (USA).

The mapping often has the implication that it covers borderline cases where two language varieties may be considered strongly divergent dialects of the same language or very closely related languages (dialect continuums); it may also encompass situations when there are language varieties that are considered to be varieties of the same language on the grounds of ethnic, cultural, and political considerations, rather than linguistic reasons. However, this is not its primary function and the classification is not evenly applied.

For example, Chinese is a macrolanguage encompassing many languages that are not mutually intelligible, but the languages "Standard German", "Bavarian German", and other closely related languages do not form a macrolanguage, despite being more mutually intelligible. Other examples include Tajiki not being part of the Persian macrolanguage despite sharing much lexicon, and Urdu and Hindi not forming a macrolanguage despite forming a mutually intelligible dialect continuum. Even all dialects of Hindi are considered as separate languages. Basically, ISO 639-2 and ISO 639-3 use different criteria for dividing language varieties into languages, 639-2 uses shared writing systems and literature more whereas 639-3 focuses on mutual intelligibility and shared lexicon. The macrolanguages exist within the ISO 639-3 code set to make mapping between the two sets easier.

As of 25 January 2019, there are fifty-eight language codes in ISO 639-2 that are considered to be macrolanguages in ISO 639-3.[3] The use of this category of macrolanguage was applied in Ethnologue, starting in the 16th edition.[4]

Some of the macrolanguages had no individual language (as defined by 639-3) in ISO 639-2, e.g. "ara" (Arabic), but ISO 639-3 recognizes different varieties of Arabic as separate languages under some circumstances. Others, like "nor" (Norwegian) had their two individual parts (nno Nynorsk, nob Bokmål) already in 639-2. That means some languages (e.g. "arb" Standard Arabic) that were considered by ISO 639-2 to be dialects of one language ("ara") are now in ISO 639-3 in certain contexts considered to be individual languages themselves. This is an attempt to deal with varieties that may be linguistically distinct from each other, but are treated by their speakers as forms of the same language, e.g. in cases of diglossia. For example,

  • Generic Arabic, 639-2[5]
  • Standard Arabic, 639-3[6]

ISO 639-2 also includes codes for collections of languages; these are not the same as macrolanguages. These collections of languages are excluded from ISO 639-3, because they never refer to individual languages. Most such codes are included in ISO 639-5.

Types of macrolanguages[edit]

  • elements that have no ISO 639-2 code: 4 (bnc, hbs, kln, luy)
  • elements that have no ISO 639-1 code: 29
  • elements that do have ISO 639-1 codes: 33
  • elements whose individual languages have ISO 639-1 codes: 4
    • aka – tw
    • hbs – bs, hr, sr
    • msa – id
    • nor – nb, nn

List of macrolanguages[edit]

This list only includes official data from http://www.sil.org/iso639-3.

ISO 639-1 ISO 639-2 ISO 639-3 Number of individual languages Name of macrolanguage
ak aka aka 2 Akan language
ar ara ara 30 Arabic language
ay aym aym 2 Aymara language
az aze aze 2 Azerbaijani language
(-) bal bal 3 Baluchi language
(-) bik bik 8 + retired 1 Bikol language
(-) (-) bnc 5 Bontok language
(-) bua bua 3 Buriat language
(-) chm chm 2 Mari language (Russia)
cr cre cre 6 Cree language
(-) del del 2 Delaware language
(-) den den 2 Slavey language (Athapascan)
(-) din din 5 Dinka language
(-) doi doi 2 Dogri language
et est est 2 Estonian language
fa fas/per fas 2 Persian language
ff ful ful 9 Fulah language
(-) gba gba 6 + retired 1 Gbaya language (Central African Republic)
(-) gon gon 3 + retired 1 Gondi language
(-) grb grb 5 Grebo language
gn grn grn 5 Guaraní language
(-) hai hai 2 Haida language
(-)[7] (-) hbs 4 Serbo-Croatian
(-) hmn hmn 25 + retired 1 Hmong language
iu iku iku 2 Inuktitut language
ik ipk ipk 2 Inupiaq language
(-) jrb jrb 5 Judeo-Arabic languages
kr kau kau 3 Kanuri language
(-) (-) kln 9 Kalenjin languages
(-) kok kok 2 Konkani language
kv kom kom 2 Komi language
kg kon kon 3 Kongo language
(-) kpe kpe 2 Kpelle language
ku kur kur 3 Kurdish language
(-) lah lah 7 + retired 1 Lahnda language
lv lav lav 2 Latvian language
(-) (-) luy 14 Luyia language
(-) man man 6 + retired 1 Manding languages
mg mlg mlg 11 + retired 1 Malagasy language
mn mon mon 2 Mongolian language
ms msa/may msa 36 + retired 1 Malay language
(-) mwr mwr 6 Marwari language
ne nep nep 2 Nepali language
no nor nor 2 Norwegian language
oj oji oji 7 Ojibwa language
or ori ori 2 Oriya language
om orm orm 4 Oromo language
ps pus pus 3 Pashto language
qu que que 43 + retired 1 Quechua language
(-) raj raj 6 Rajasthani language
(-) rom rom 7 Romany language
sq sqi/alb sqi 4 Albanian language
sc srd srd 4 Sardinian language
sw swa swa 2 Swahili language
(-) syr syr 2 Syriac language
(-) tmh tmh 4 Tuareg languages
uz uzb uzb 2 Uzbek language
yi yid yid 2 Yiddish language
(-) zap zap 57 + retired 1 Zapotec language
za zha zha 16 + retired 2 Zhuang languages
zh zho/chi zho 14 Chinese language
(-) zza zza 2 Zaza language
33 58 62 439 + retired 12 total codes
ISO 639-1 ISO 639-2 ISO 639-3 Number of individual languages Name of macrolanguage

List of macrolanguages and the individual languages[edit]

This is a complete list of the individual language codes that comprise the macrolanguages in the ISO 639-3 code tables as of 25 January 2019.[8]

aaa–ezz[edit]

aka[edit]

aka is the ISO 639-3 language code for Akan. Its ISO 639-1 code is ak. There are two individual language codes assigned:

  1. fatFante
  2. twiTwi

ara[edit]

ara is the ISO 639-3 language code for Arabic language. Its ISO 639-1 code is ar. There are thirty individual language codes assigned:

  1. aaoAlgerian Saharan Arabic
  2. abhTajiki Arabic
  3. abvBaharna Arabic
  4. acmMesopotamian Arabic
  5. acqTa'izzi-Adeni Arabic
  6. acwHijazi Arabic
  7. acxOmani Arabic
  8. acyCypriot Arabic
  9. adfDhofari Arabic
  10. aebTunisian Arabic
  11. aecSaidi Arabic
  12. afbGulf Arabic
  13. ajpSouth Levantine Arabic
  14. apcNorth Levantine Arabic
  15. apdSudanese Arabic
  16. arbStandard Arabic
  17. arqAlgerian Arabic
  18. arsNajdi Arabic
  19. aryMoroccan Arabic
  20. arzEgyptian Arabic
  21. auzUzbeki Arabic
  22. avlEastern Egyptian Bedawi Arabic
  23. ayhHadrami Arabic
  24. aylLibyan Arabic
  25. aynSanaani Arabic
  26. aypNorth Mesopotamian Arabic
  27. bbzBabalia Creole Arabic
  28. pgaSudanese Creole Arabic
  29. shuChadian Arabic
  30. sshShihhi Arabic

aym[edit]

aym is the ISO 639-3 language code for Aymara. Its ISO 639-1 code is ay. There are two individual language codes assigned:

  1. ayrCentral Aymara
  2. aycSouthern Aymara

aze[edit]

aze is the ISO 639-3 language code for Azerbaijani. Its ISO 639-1 code is az. There are two individual language codes assigned:

  1. azjNorth Azerbaijani
  2. azbSouth Azerbaijani

bal[edit]

bal is the ISO 639-3 language code for Baluchi. There are three individual language codes assigned:

  1. bgpEastern Balochi
  2. bccSouthern Balochi
  3. bgnWestern Balochi

bik[edit]

bik is the ISO 639-3 language code for Bikol. There are eight individual language codes assigned:

  1. bclCentral Bikol
  2. btoRinconada Bikol
  3. ctsNorthern Catanduanes Bikol
  4. blnSouthern Catanduanes Bikol
  5. fblWest Albay Bikol
  6. lblLibon Bikol
  7. rblMiraya Bikol
  8. ublBuhi'non Bikol

The following code was previously part of bik:

  1. bhkAlbay Bicolano (Split into Buhi'non Bikol [ubl], Libon Bikol [lbl], Miraya Bikol [rbl], and West Albay Bikol [fbl] on 18 January 2010)


bnc[edit]

bnc is the ISO 639-3 language code for Bontok. There are five individual language codes assigned:

  1. ebkEastern Bontok
  2. lbkCentral Bontok
  3. obkSouthern Bontok
  4. rbkNorthern Bontok
  5. vbkSouthwestern Bontok

bua[edit]

bua is the ISO 639-3 language code for Buriat. There are three individual language codes assigned:

  1. bxuChina Buriat
  2. bxmMongolia Buriat
  3. bxrRussia Buriat

chm[edit]

chm is the ISO 639-3 language code for Mari, a language located in Russia. There are two individual language codes assigned:

  1. mhrEastern Mari
  2. mrjWestern Mari

cre[edit]

cre is the ISO 639-3 language code for Cree. Its ISO 639-1 code is cr. There are six individual language codes assigned:

  1. crmMoose Cree
  2. crlNorthern East Cree
  3. crkPlains Cree
  4. crjSouthern East Cree
  5. cswSwampy Cree
  6. cwdWoods Cree

In addition, there are six closely associated individual codes:

  1. nskNaskapi (part of the Cree language group but not included under the cre macrolanguage designation)
  2. moeMontagnais (part of the Cree language group but not included under the cre macrolanguage designation)
  3. atjAtikamekw (part of the Cree language group but not included under the cre macrolanguage designation)
  4. crgMichif language (Cree-French mixed language with strong influences from Ojibwe language group and not included under the cre macrolanguage designation)
  5. ojsOjibwa, Severn (Ojibwa, Northern) (part of the Ojibwa language group with strong influences from the Cree language group and not included under the cre macrolanguage designation)
  6. ojwOjibwa, Western (part of the Ojibwa language group with strong influences from the Cree language group and not included under the cre macrolanguage designation)

In addition, there is one other language without individual codes closely associated, but not part of, this macrolanguage code:

  1. Bungee language (mixed language of Cree, Ojibwa, French, English, Assiniboine and Scottish Gaelic)

del[edit]

del is the ISO 639-3 language code for Delaware. There are two individual language codes assigned:

  1. umuMunsee
  2. unmUnami

den[edit]

den is the ISO 639-3 language code for Slave. There are two individual language codes assigned:

  1. scsNorth Slavey
  2. xslSouth Slavey

din[edit]

din is the ISO 639-3 language code for Dinka. There are five individual language codes assigned:

  1. dipNortheastern Dinka
  2. diwNorthwestern Dinka
  3. dibSouth Central Dinka
  4. dksSoutheastern Dinka
  5. dikSouthwestern Dinka

doi[edit]

doi is the ISO 639-3 language code for Dogri. There are two individual language codes assigned:

  1. dgoDogri (individual language)
  2. xnrKangri

est[edit]

est is the ISO 639-3 language code for Estonian. Its ISO 639-1 code is et. There are two individual language codes assigned:

  1. ekkEstonian (Standard Estonian)
  2. vroVõro

faa–jzz[edit]

fas[edit]

fas is the ISO 639-3 language code for Persian. Its ISO 639-1 code is fa. There are two individual language codes assigned:

  1. prsDari Persian
  2. pesWestern Persian

ful[edit]

ful is the ISO 639-2 and ISO 639-3 language code for Fulah (also spelled Fula). Its ISO 639-1 code is ff. There are nine individual language codes assigned for varieties of Fulah:

  1. fubAdamawa Fulfulde
  2. fuiBagirmi Fulfulde
  3. fueBorgu Fulfulde
  4. fuqCentral-Eastern Niger Fulfulde
  5. ffmMaasina Fulfulde
  6. fuvNigerian Fulfulde
  7. fucPulaar
  8. fufPular
  9. fuhWestern Niger Fulfulde

gba[edit]

gba is the ISO 639-3 language code for Gbaya located in the Central African Republic. There are six individual language codes assigned:

  1. bdtBokoto
  2. gbpGbaya-Bossangoa
  3. gbqGbaya-Bozoum
  4. gmmGbaya-Mbodomo
  5. gyaNorthwest Gbaya
  6. gsoSouthwest Gbaya

The following code was previously part of gba:

  1. mdo – Southwest Gbaya (Split into Southwest Gbaya [gso] (new identifier) and Gbaya-Mbodomo [gmm] on 14 January 2008)

gon[edit]

gon is the ISO 639-3 language code for Gondi. There are three individual language codes assigned:

  1. esgAheri Gondi
  2. gnoNorthern Gondi
  3. wsgAdilabad Gondi

The following code was previously part of gon:

  1. ggo – Southern Gondi (Split into [esg] Aheri Gondi and [wsg] Adilabad Gondi on 15 January 2016)

grb[edit]

grb is the ISO 639-3 language code for Grebo. There are five individual language codes assigned:

  1. gryBarclayville Grebo
  2. grvCentral Grebo
  3. gecGboloo Grebo
  4. gboNorthern Grebo
  5. grjSouthern Grebo

grn[edit]

grn is the ISO 639-3 language code for Guarani. Its ISO 639-1 code is gn. There are five individual language codes assigned:

  1. nhdChiripá
  2. guiEastern Bolivian Guaraní
  3. gunMbyá Guaraní
  4. gugParaguayan Guaraní
  5. gnwWestern Bolivian Guaraní

hai[edit]

hai is the ISO 639-3 language code for Haida. There are two individual language codes assigned:

  1. hdnNorthern Haida
  2. haxSouthern Haida

hbs[edit]

hbs is the ISO 639-3 language code for Serbo-Croatian. There are four individual language codes assigned:

  1. bosBosnian
  2. hrvCroatian
  3. cnrMontenegrin
  4. srpSerbian

hmn[edit]

hmn is the ISO 639-3 language code for Hmong. There are twenty-five individual language codes assigned:

  1. hmcCentral Huishui Hmong
  2. hmmCentral Mashan Hmong
  3. cqdChuanqiandian Cluster Miao
  4. hmeEastern Huishui Hmong
  5. hmqEastern Qiandong Miao
  6. muqEastern Xiangxi Miao
  7. hmjGe
  8. mwwHmong Daw
  9. hnjHmong Njua
  10. hrmHorned Miao
  11. hmdLarge Flowery Miao
  12. hmlLuopohe Hmong
  13. hujNorthern Guiyang Hmong
  14. hmiNorthern Huishui Hmong
  15. hmpNorthern Mashan Hmong
  16. heaNorthern Qiandong Miao
  17. sfmSmall Flowery Miao
  18. hmySouthern Guiyang Hmong
  19. hmaSouthern Mashan Hmong
  20. hmsSouthern Qiandong Miao
  21. hmgSouthwestern Guiyang Hmong
  22. hmhSouthwestern Huishui Hmong
  23. hmwWestern Mashan Hmong
  24. hmzHmong Shua
  25. mmrWestern Xiangxi Miao

The following code was previously part of hmn:

  1. blu – Hmong Njua (Split into Hmong Njua [hnj] (new identifier), Chuanqiandian Cluster Miao [cqd], Horned Miao [hrm], and Small Flowery Miao [sfm] on 14 January 2008)

iku[edit]

iku is the ISO 639-3 language code for Inuktitut. Its ISO 639-1 code is iu. There are two individual language codes assigned:

  1. ikeEastern Canadian Inuktitut
  2. iktInuinnaqtun

ipk[edit]

ipk is the ISO 639-3 language code for Inupiaq. Its ISO 639-1 code is ik. There are two individual language codes assigned:

  1. esiNorth Alaskan Inupiatun
  2. eskNorthwest Alaska Inupiatun

jrb[edit]

jrb is the ISO 639-3 language code for Judeo-Arabic. There are five individual language codes assigned:

  1. yhdJudeo-Iraqi Arabic
  2. ajuJudeo-Moroccan Arabic
  3. yudJudeo-Tripolitanian Arabic
  4. ajtJudeo-Tunisian Arabic
  5. jyeJudeo-Yemeni Arabic

kaa–ozz[edit]

kau[edit]

kau is the ISO 639-2 and ISO 639-3 language code for the Kanuri. Its ISO 639-1 code is kr. There are three individual language codes assigned in ISO 639-3 for varieties of Kanuri:

  1. kncCentral Kanuri
  2. kbyManga Kanuri
  3. krtTumari Kanuri

There are two other related languages that are not considered part of the macrolanguage under ISO 639:

  1. bmsBilma Kanuri
  2. kblKanembu

kln[edit]

kln is the ISO 639-3 language code for Kalenjin. There are nine individual language codes assigned:

  1. eyoKeiyo
  2. sgcKipsigis
  3. enbMarkweeta
  4. niqNandi
  5. okiOkiek
  6. pkoPökoot
  7. spySabaot
  8. tecTerik
  9. tuyTugen

kok[edit]

kok is the ISO 639-3 language code for Konkani (macrolanguage). There are two individual language codes assigned:

  1. gomGoan Konkani
  2. knnKonkani (individual language)

Both languages are referred to as Konkani by their respective speakers.

kom[edit]

kom is the ISO 639-3 language code for Komi. Its ISO 639-1 code is kv. There are two individual language codes assigned:

  1. koiKomi-Permyak
  2. kpvKomi-Zyrian

kon[edit]

kon is the ISO 639-3 language code for Kongo. Its ISO 639-1 code is kg. There are three individual language codes assigned:

  1. kngKoongo
  2. ldiLaari
  3. kwySan Salvador Kongo

kpe[edit]

kpe is the ISO 639-3 language code for Kpelle. There are two individual language codes assigned:

  1. gkpGuinea Kpelle
  2. xpeLiberia Kpelle

kur[edit]

kur is the ISO 639-3 language code for Kurdish. Its ISO 639-1 code is ku. There are three individual language codes assigned:

  1. ckbCentral Kurdish
  2. kmrNorthern Kurdish
  3. sdhSouthern Kurdish

lah[edit]

lah is the ISO 639-3 language code for Lahnda. There are seven individual language codes assigned.

  1. jatJakati
  2. xheKhetrani
  3. hnoNorthern Hindko
  4. phrPahari-Potwari
  5. skrSaraiki
  6. hndSouthern Hindko
  7. pnb – Western Panjabi

Note that lah does not include Panjabi/Punjabi (pan).

The following code was previously part of lah:

  1. pmuMirpur Panjabi (Moved to code "phr" on 12 January 2015)

lav[edit]

lav is the ISO 639-3 language code for Latvian. Its ISO 639-1 code is lv. There are two individual language codes assigned:

  1. ltgLatgalian
  2. lvsStandard Latvian

luy[edit]

luy is the ISO 639-3 language code for Luyia. There are fourteen individual language codes assigned:

  1. bxkBukusu
  2. nleEast Nyala
  3. idaIdakho-Isukha-Tiriki
  4. lkbKabras
  5. lkoKhayo
  6. lksKisa
  7. ragLogooli
  8. lriMarachi
  9. lrmMarama
  10. nydNyore
  11. lsmSaamia
  12. ltsTachoni
  13. ltoTsotso
  14. lwgWanga

man[edit]

man is the ISO 639-3 language code for Mandingo. There are six individual language codes assigned:

  1. emkEastern Maninkakan
  2. mwkKita Maninkakan
  3. mkuKonyanka Maninka
  4. mnkMandinka
  5. mscSankaran Maninka
  6. mlqWestern Maninkakan

The following codes were previously part of man:

  1. myqForest Maninka (Non-existent; Code retired 23 January 2013)

mlg[edit]

mlg is the ISO 639-3 language code for Malagasy. Its ISO 639-1 code is mg. There are eleven individual language codes assigned:

  1. xmvAntankarana Malagasy
  2. bhrBara Malagasy
  3. mshMasikoro Malagasy
  4. bmmNorthern Betsimisaraka Malagasy
  5. pltPlateau Malagasy
  6. skgSakalava Malagasy
  7. bzcSouthern Betsimisaraka Malagasy
  8. tkgTesaka Malagasy
  9. tdxTandroy-Mahafaly Malagasy
  10. txyTanosy Malagasy
  11. xmwTsimihety Malagasy

The following codes were previously part of mlg:

  1. bjqSouthern Betsimisaraka Malagasy (Split into Southern Betsimisaraka [bzc] and Tesaka Malagasy [tkg] on 18 May 2011)

mon[edit]

mon is the ISO 639-3 language code for Mongolian. Its ISO 639-1 code is mn. There are two individual language codes assigned:

  1. khkHalh Mongolian
  2. mvfPeripheral Mongolian

msa[edit]

msa is the ISO 639-3 language code for Malay (macrolanguage). Its ISO 639-1 code is ms. There are thirty-six individual language codes assigned:

  1. btjBacanese Malay
  2. mfbBangka
  3. bjnBanjar
  4. bveBerau Malay
  5. kxdBrunei
  6. bvuBukit Malay
  7. pseCentral Malay
  8. coaCocos Islands Malay
  9. liwCol
  10. dupDuano
  11. hjiHaji
  12. indIndonesian
  13. jakJakun
  14. jaxJambi Malay
  15. vkkKaur
  16. meoKedah Malay
  17. kvrKerinci
  18. mqgKota Bangun Kutai Malay
  19. kvbKubu
  20. lceLoncong
  21. lcfLubu
  22. zlmMalay (individual language)
  23. xmmManado Malay
  24. minMinangkabau
  25. muiMusi
  26. zmiNegeri Sembilan Malay
  27. maxNorth Moluccan Malay
  28. ornOrang Kanaq
  29. orsOrang Seletar
  30. mfaPattani Malay
  31. pelPekal
  32. msiSabah Malay
  33. zsmStandard Malay
  34. tmwTemuan
  35. vktTenggarong Kutai Malay
  36. urkUrak Lawoi'

The following code was previously part of msa:

  1. mly – Malay (individual language) (Split into Standard Malay [zsm], Haji [hji], Papuan Malay [pmy], and Malay [zlm] on 18 February 2008)

mwr[edit]

mwr is the ISO 639-3 language code for Marwari. There are six individual language codes assigned:

  1. dhdDhundari
  2. rwrMarwari (India)
  3. mveMarwari (Pakistan)
  4. wryMerwari
  5. mtrMewari
  6. swvShekhawati

nep[edit]

nep is the ISO 639-3 language code for Nepali (macrolanguage). Its ISO 639-1 code is ne. There are two individual language codes assigned:

  1. dtyDotyali
  2. npiNepali (individual language)

nor[edit]

nor is the ISO 639-3 language code for Norwegian. Its ISO 639-1 code is no. There are two individual language codes assigned:

  1. nobNorwegian Bokmål
  2. nnoNorwegian Nynorsk

oji[edit]

oji is the ISO 639-3 language code for Ojibwa. Its ISO 639-1 code is oj. There are seven individual language codes assigned:

  1. ciwChippewa
  2. ojbNorthwestern Ojibwa
  3. ojcCentral Ojibwa
  4. ojgEastern Ojibwa
  5. ojsSevern Ojibwa
  6. ojwWestern Ojibwa
  7. otwOttawa

In addition, there are three closely associated individual codes:

  1. alqAlgonquin language (part of the Ojibwe language group but not included under the oji macrolanguage designation)
  2. potPotawatomi language (formerly part of the Ojibwe language group and not included under the oji macrolanguage designation)
  3. crgMichif language (Cree-French mixed language with strong influences from Ojibwe language group and not included under the oji macrolanguage designation)

In addition, there are two other languages without individual codes closely associated, but not part of, this macrolanguage code:

  1. Broken Ojibwa (pidgin language used until the end of the 19th century)
  2. Bungee language (mixed language of Cree, Ojibwa, French, English, Assiniboine and Scottish Gaelic)

ori[edit]

ori is the ISO 639-3 language code for Oriya (macrolanguage). Its ISO 639-1 code is or. There are two individual language codes assigned:

  1. oryOdia
  2. spvSambalpuri

orm[edit]

orm is the ISO 639-3 language code for Oromo. Its ISO 639-1 code is om. There are four individual language codes assigned:

  1. gaxBorana-Arsi-Guji Oromo
  2. haeEastern Oromo
  3. orcOrma
  4. gazWest Central Oromo

paa–zzz[edit]

pus[edit]

pus is the ISO 639-3 language code for Pushto. Its ISO 639-1 code is ps. There are three individual language codes assigned:

  1. pstCentral Pashto
  2. pbuNorthern Pashto
  3. pbtSouthern Pashto

que[edit]

que is the ISO 639-3 language code for Quechua. Its ISO 639-1 code is qu. There are forty-three individual language codes assigned:

  1. qvaAmbo-Pasco Quechua
  2. qxuArequipa-La Unión Quechua
  3. quyAyacucho Quechua
  4. qvcCajamarca Quechua
  5. qvlCajatambo North Lima Quechua
  6. qudCalderón Highland Quichua
  7. qxrCañar Highland Quichua
  8. qukChachapoyas Quechua
  9. qugChimborazo Highland Quichua
  10. qxcChincha Quechua
  11. qxaChiquián Ancash Quechua
  12. qwcClassical Quechua
  13. qwaCorongo Ancash Quechua
  14. quzCusco Quechua
  15. qveEastern Apurímac Quechua
  16. qubHuallaga Huánuco Quechua
  17. qvhHuamalíes-Dos de Mayo Huánuco Quechua
  18. qwhHuaylas Ancash Quechua
  19. qvwHuaylla Wanca Quechua
  20. qviImbabura Highland Quichua
  21. qxwJauja Wanca Quechua
  22. qufLambayeque Quechua
  23. qvjLoja Highland Quichua
  24. qvmMargos-Yarowilca-Lauricocha Quechua
  25. qvoNapo Lowland Quechua
  26. qulNorth Bolivian Quechua
  27. qvnNorth Junín Quechua
  28. qxnNorthern Conchucos Ancash Quechua
  29. qvzNorthern Pastaza Quichua
  30. qvpPacaraos Quechua
  31. qxhPanao Huánuco Quechua
  32. qxpPuno Quechua
  33. qxlSalasaca Highland Quichua
  34. qvsSan Martín Quechua
  35. qxtSanta Ana de Tusi Pasco Quechua
  36. qusSantiago del Estero Quichua
  37. qwsSihuas Ancash Quechua
  38. quhSouth Bolivian Quechua
  39. qxoSouthern Conchucos Ancash Quechua
  40. qupSouthern Pastaza Quechua
  41. quwTena Lowland Quichua
  42. qurYanahuanca Pasco Quechua
  43. quxYauyos Quechua

The following code was previously part of que:

  1. cquChilean Quechua (Moved to code "quh" on 15 January 2016)

raj[edit]

raj is the ISO 639-3 language code for Rajasthani. There are six individual language codes assigned:

  1. bgqBagri
  2. gdaGade Lohar
  3. gjuGujari
  4. hojHadothi
  5. mupMalvi
  6. wbrWagdi

rom[edit]

rom is the ISO 639-3 language code for Romany. There are seven individual language codes assigned:

  1. rmnBalkan Romani
  2. rmlBaltic Romani
  3. rmcCarpathian Romani
  4. rmfKalo Finnish Romani
  5. rmoSinte Romani
  6. rmyVlax Romani
  7. rmwWelsh Romani

In addition, there are eight individual codes not part of this macrolanguage but they are categorized as mixed languages:

  1. rgeRomano-Greek
  2. rmdTraveller Danish
  3. rmeAngloromani
  4. rmgTraveller Norwegian
  5. rmiLomavren
  6. rmrCaló
  7. rmuTavringer Romani
  8. rsbRomano-Serbian

In addition, there is a language without an individual code assigned, which it is not part of this macrolanguage:

  1. Erromintxela (Basque-Romani mix)

sqi[edit]

sqi is the ISO 639-3 language code for Albanian. Its ISO 639-1 code is sq. There are four individual language codes assigned:

  1. aaeArbëreshë Albanian
  2. aatArvanitika Albanian
  3. alnGheg Albanian
  4. alsTosk Albanian

srd[edit]

srd is the ISO 639-3 language code for Sardinian. Its ISO 639-1 code is sc. There are four individual language codes assigned:

  1. sroCampidanese Sardinian
  2. sdnGallurese Sardinian
  3. srcLogudorese Sardinian
  4. sdcSassarese Sardinian

swa[edit]

swa is the ISO 639-3 language code for Swahili (macrolanguage). Its ISO 639-1 code is sw. There are two individual language codes assigned:

  1. swcCongo Swahili
  2. swhSwahili (individual language)

syr[edit]

syr is the ISO 639-3 language code for Syriac. There are two individual language codes assigned:

  1. aiiAssyrian Neo-Aramaic
  2. cldChaldean Neo-Aramaic

tmh[edit]

tmh is the ISO 639-3 language code for Tamashek. There are four individual language codes assigned:

  1. thvTahaggart Tamahaq
  2. taqTamasheq
  3. ttqTawallammat Tamajaq
  4. thzTayart Tamajeq

uzb[edit]

uzb is the ISO 639-3 language code for Uzbek. Its ISO 639-1 code is uz. There are two individual language codes assigned:

  1. uznNorthern Uzbek
  2. uzsSouthern Uzbek

yid[edit]

yid is the ISO 639-3 language code for Yiddish. Its ISO 639-1 code is yi. There are two individual language codes assigned:

  1. yddEastern Yiddish
  2. yihWestern Yiddish

zap[edit]

zap is the ISO 639-3 language code for Zapotec. There are fifty-seven individual language codes assigned.

  1. zaqAloápam Zapotec
  2. zpoAmatlán Zapotec
  3. zooAsunción Mixtepec Zapotec
  4. zafAyoquesco Zapotec
  5. zadCajonos Zapotec
  6. zpvChichicapan Zapotec
  7. zpcChoapan Zapotec
  8. zcaCoatecas Altas Zapotec
  9. zpsCoatlán Zapotec
  10. zppEl Alto Zapotec
  11. zteElotepec Zapotec
  12. zpgGuevea De Humboldt Zapotec
  13. ztuGüilá Zapotec
  14. zaiIsthmus Zapotec
  15. zpaLachiguiri Zapotec
  16. zplLachixío Zapotec
  17. ztlLapaguía-Guivini Zapotec
  18. ztpLoxicha Zapotec
  19. zpyMazaltepec Zapotec
  20. zamMiahuatlán Zapotec
  21. zawMitla Zapotec
  22. zpmMixtepec Zapotec
  23. zacOcotlán Zapotec
  24. zaoOzolotepec Zapotec
  25. zpePetapa Zapotec
  26. zpjQuiavicuzas Zapotec
  27. ztqQuioquitani-Quierí Zapotec
  28. zarRincón Zapotec
  29. ztmSan Agustín Mixtepec Zapotec
  30. zpxSan Baltazar Loxicha Zapotec
  31. zabWestern Tlacolula Valley Zapotec
  32. zpfSan Pedro Quiatoni Zapotec
  33. zptSan Vicente Coatlán Zapotec
  34. ztnSanta Catarina Albarradas Zapotec
  35. zpnSanta Inés Yatzechi Zapotec
  36. zpiSanta María Quiegolani Zapotec
  37. zprSantiago Xanica Zapotec
  38. zasSanto Domingo Albarradas Zapotec
  39. zaaSierra de Juárez Zapotec
  40. zpdSoutheastern Ixtlán Zapotec
  41. zsrSouthern Rincon Zapotec
  42. zatTabaa Zapotec
  43. zttTejalapan Zapotec
  44. zpzTexmelucan Zapotec
  45. ztsTilquiapan Zapotec
  46. zpkTlacolulita Zapotec
  47. zphTotomachapan Zapotec
  48. zaxXadani Zapotec
  49. ztgXanaguía Zapotec
  50. zpuYalálag Zapotec
  51. zaeYareni Zapotec
  52. ztyYatee Zapotec
  53. zavYatzachi Zapotec
  54. zpbYautepec Zapotec
  55. ztxZaachila Zapotec
  56. zpwZaniza Zapotec
  57. zpqZoogocho Zapotec

The following codes were previously part of zap:

  1. ztc – Lachirioag Zapotec (Moved to Yatee Zapotec [zty] on 18 July 2007)

In addition, there is an individual code not part of this macrolanguage because it is categorized as a historical language:

  1. xzpAncient Zapotec

zha[edit]

zha is the ISO 639-3 language code for Zhuang. Its ISO 639-1 code is za. There are sixteen individual language codes assigned:

  1. zchCentral Hongshuihe Zhuang
  2. zhdDai Zhuang
  3. zehEastern Hongshuihe Zhuang
  4. zgbGuibei Zhuang
  5. zgnGuibian Zhuang
  6. zlnLianshan Zhuang
  7. zljLiujiang Zhuang
  8. zlqLiuqian Zhuang
  9. zgmMinz Zhuang
  10. zhnNong Zhuang
  11. zqeQiubei Zhuang
  12. zygYang Zhuang
  13. zybYongbei Zhuang
  14. zynYongnan Zhuang
  15. zyjYoujiang Zhuang
  16. zzjZuojiang Zhuang

The following codes were previously part of zha:

  1. ccx – Northern Zhuang (Split into Guibian Zh [zgn], Liujiang Zh [zlj], Qiubei Zh [zqe], Guibei Zh [zgb], Youjiang Zh [zyj], Central Hongshuihe Zh [zch], Eastern Hongshuihe Zh [zeh], Liuqian Zh [zlq], Yongbei Zh [zyb], and Lianshan Zh [zln]. on 14 January 2008)
  2. ccy – Southern Zhuang (Split into Nong Zhuang [zhn], Yang Zhuang [zyg], Yongnan Zhuang [zyn], Zuojiang Zhuang [zzj], and Dai Zhuang [zhd] on 18 July 2007)

zho[edit]

zho is the ISO 639-3 language code for Chinese. Its ISO 639-1 code is zh. There are fourteen individual language codes assigned, some with their own dialects:

  1. cdoMin Dong Chinese
  2. cjyJinyu Chinese
  3. cmnMandarin Chinese
  4. cpxPu-Xian Chinese
  5. czhHuizhou Chinese
  6. czoMin Zhong Chinese
  7. ganGan Chinese
  8. hakHakka Chinese
  9. hsnXiang Chinese
  10. lzhLiterary Chinese
  11. mnpMin Bei Chinese
  12. nanMin Nan Chinese
  13. wuuWu Chinese
  14. yueYue Chinese

Although the Dungan language (dng) is considered most closely related to Mandarin, it is not listed under Chinese in ISO 639-3 due to separate historical and cultural development.[9]

ISO 639 also lists codes for Old Chinese (och) and Late Middle Chinese (ltc)). They are not listed under Chinese in ISO 639-3 because they are categorized as ancient and historical languages, respectively.

zza[edit]

zza is the ISO 639-3 language code for Zaza. There are two individual language codes assigned:

  1. diqDimli (individual language)
  2. kiuKirmanjki (individual language)

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ ISO 639-3: Scope of denotation for language identifiers: Macrolanguages
  2. ^ https://iso639-3.sil.org/about/relationships
  3. ^ "Scope of denotation for language identifiers". SIL International.
  4. ^ Lewis, M. Paul, ed. (2009). Ethnologue. Dallas: SIL International.
  5. ^ "Documentation for ISO 639 identifier: ara". SIL International.
  6. ^ "Documentation for ISO 639 identifier: arb". SIL International.
  7. ^
    ISO 639-2/RA Change Notice
    ISO
    639-1
    Code
    ISO
    639-2
    Code
    English
    name of
    Language
    French
    name of
    Language
    Date
    Added or
    Changed
    Category
    of Change
    Notes
    [-sh] (none) Serbo-Croatian serbo-croate 2000-02-18 Dep This code was deprecated in 2000 because there were separate language codes for each individual language represented (Serbian, Croatian, and then Bosnian was added). It was published in a revision of ISO 639-1, but was never included in ISO 639-2. It is considered a macrolanguage (general name for a cluster of closely related individual languages) in ISO 639-3. Its deprecated status was reaffirmed by the ISO 639 JAC in 2005.
    sr srp [scc] Serbian serbe 2008-06-28 CC ISO 639-2/B code deprecated in favor of ISO 639-2/T code
    hr hrv [scr] Croatian croate 2008-06-28 CC ISO 639-2/B code deprecated in favor of ISO 639-2/T code
  8. ^ "ISO 639-3 Code Tables". SIL International. 2019-01-25.
  9. ^ Rimsky-Korsakoff, Svetlana (1967). "Soviet Dungan: The Chinese language of Central Asia. Alphabet, phonology, morphology". Monumenta Serica. 26: 352–421.

External links[edit]