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ISU Judging System

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The ISU Judging System or the International Judging System (IJS), occasionally referred to as the Code of Points (COP) system,[1] is the scoring system that has been used since 2004 to judge the figure skating disciplines of men's and ladies' singles, pair skating, ice dance, and synchronized skating. It was designed and implemented by the International Skating Union (ISU), the ruling body of the sport.

This system of scoring is used in all international competitions sanctioned by the ISU, including the Olympic Games. The ISU Judging System replaced the previous 6.0 system. It was created partially in response to the 2002 Winter Olympics figure skating scandal, in an attempt to make the scoring system more objective and less vulnerable to abuse.[2] U.S. Figure Skating has released a summary of the new judging system.[3]

Previous judging system


Figure skating was formerly judged on a 6.0 scale. This scale is sometimes called "the old scale", or "old system". Skaters were judged on "technical merit" (in the free skate), "required elements" (in the short program), and "presentation" (in both programs). The marks for each program ran from 0.0 to 6.0 and were used to determine a preference ranking, or "ordinal", separately for each judge; the judges' preferences were combined to determine placements for each skater in each program. The placements for the two programs were then combined, with the free skate weighted more heavily than the short program. The highest scoring individual (based on the sum of the weighted placements) was declared the winner.

Scandal and response


A judging controversy occurred during a pair skating event at the 2002 Winter Olympics, which used scoring based on the 6.0 system. A second award ceremony was held in which the top two teams were both awarded gold medals. In 2004, the ISU adopted the New Judging System (NJS), or Code of Points, in an effort to establish a more objective system. This became mandatory at all international competitions in 2006, including the 2006 Winter Olympics. The ISU released an explanation of the advantages of the new system over the 6.0 system.[4]

Technical details


Technical panel


Under the ISU Judging System, the base value of each element performed by the skater is identified by the Technical Panel. The purpose of this panel is to identify all of the elements performed by the skater in real time as they happen. The panel is also responsible for identifying any "technical errors" to jumps; identifying falls of the skater; and the "levels of difficulty" performed in Spins and Steps.

The Technical Panel is composed of the following three people:[5]

  1. The Technical Controller (TC), who supervises the panel, and breaks ties on technical decisions during the "review of elements" when the TS and ATS do not agree. The TC is also responsible for "rule vetting" the program. The TC can discard any elements from scoring that break the rules for that level and specific program.
  2. The Technical Specialist (TS), who verbally calls the elements as they happen.
  3. The Assistant Technical Specialist (ATS), who takes written notes on all of the elements performed and to contribute to any decisions on technical calls during the "review of elements".

The Technical Panel is assisted by two people:

  1. The Data Operator (DO) assists the Technical Panel for recording purposes, and is supervised by the TC. The DO inputs the codes of the elements and levels of difficulty into the computer system.
  2. The Replay Operator (RO) operates an instantaneous slow-motion video replay system and supports the Technical Panel in the identification of the performed elements.[5][6]

Judging panel


The role of the judges is to evaluate the quality of each element performed (Technical Score) and the quality of the performance (Presentation Score). At most international events and other large National Championships (such as the U.S. Championships), there are nine judges.[5] At smaller competitions the panel might consist of between four and seven judges. An odd number of judges was needed to break ties in the old 6.0 system, but this is no longer necessary with averaging marks in the ISU Judging System.

Technical Element Score (TES)


Each element performed has a base value (which depends on its difficulty), and the judges assign a Grade of Execution (GOE), which can increase or decrease the base value. The GOE is marked as an integer from -5 to +5 since the 2018–19 season. Before the system change, the scale went from -3 to +3. Each plus or minus step in the GOE results in increasing or decreasing the base value by 10 % in single and pair Skating and by 16 % in ice dance. The total of all element scores gives the final Technical Element Score (TES).[5]

Program Component Score (PCS)


In addition to the Technical Element Score, the judges award points on a scale from 0.25 to 10.00 with increments of 0.25 for different program components to grade the overall presentation of the performance. Since the 2022–23 season, the judging panel evaluates three components: Composition (CO), Presentation (PR) and Skating skills (SK). Before the system change, the judges evaluated five components: Skating skills (SS), Transitions (TR), Performance (PE), Composition (CO) and Interpretation (IN). The total of all components is called the Program Component Score (PCS).

  • Composition (CO): This evaluates how the program is designed in relation to the music; how are the different elements connected; how is the available space used; how does the choreography reflect musical phrase and form?
  • Presentation (PR): This evaluates how the program is performed; what does the skater express and project; what energy is created; what is the musical sensitivity and timing; for Pair, Ice Dance and Synchronized skating is the skating appropriately synchronized and showing awareness of space?
  • Skating skills (SK): This mark assesses the skater's command of the blade over the ice, including the ability to skate with power and ease. The judges look at variety and clarity of edges, balance, body control, turns, steps, flow, power and speed.[5][6]

Computation of scores


The judging panel consists of up to nine judges and one referee. The Technical Panel sends the element codes to the judges' computers for marking. For each element, all of the judges award a mark for Grade of Execution (GOE) that is an integer between –5 and +5. The GOE mark is then translated into a value using the Scale of Value (SOV) table which is published regularly by ISU Communications.[7] The GOE values from the nine judges are averaged using the "trimmed mean" procedure, where the highest and lowest values are discarded and an average is calculated from the remaining seven values.[7] This average value (which may be positive or negative) is finally added to the base value to produce the judging panel's overall score for the element.

Judges also mark the Program Components, which are: Skating Skills; Presentation; and Composition. These Components are marked on a scale of 0.25–10 with 0.25 increments and averaged using the same "trimmed mean" procedure that was used for averaging the GOE marks. Judges also have the power to input majority deductions such as Music Violations and Costume/Prop Violations. The Referee inputs other deductions such as Time Violations, Interruption in Excess and Costume Failures.

Technical elements


The number and type of technical elements included in a skating program depend on the event and on the level of competition. At the senior international level, the short program for senior singles skaters must contain seven technical elements: (a) double or triple axel, (b) triple or quad jump, (c) jump combination including triple or quad jumps (maximum one double jump), (d) flying spin, (e) camel or sit spin with only one change of foot, (f) spin combination with only one change of foot, and (g) step sequence.[8]: Rule 611  The free program for senior singles skaters must contain (a) a maximum of seven jumps, one of which must be an Axel, (b) a maximum of three spins (one a combination, one flying and one with a single position), (c) a maximum of one step sequence, and (d) maximum of one choreographic sequence.[8]: Rule 612 

The short program for senior pairs skaters for the season 2023-24 shall consist of the following required elements: (a) any hip lift take-off (hand to hip or upper part of the leg position), (b) double or triple twist lift, (c) double or triple throw jump, (d) double or triple solo jump, (e) solo spin combination with only one change of foot, (f) death spiral forward inside, and (g) step sequence.[8]: Rule 620  The free skating program for senior pairs skaters must contain: (a) maximum of three lifts, not all from the same group, (b) maximum of one twist lift, (c) maximum of two different throw jumps, (d) maximum of one solo jump, (e) maximum of one jump combination or sequence, (f) maximum of one pair spin combination, (g) maximum of one death spiral different from the death spiral of the Short Program, (h) maximum of one choreographic sequence.[8]: Rule 621 

Component factoring


The panel's points for each Program Component are multiplied by a factor depending on the event. For singles and pair skating, the factor is uniform for all components, as follows:[8]: Rule 353(m) 

Discipline Short program
Free skating
Men 1.67 3.33
Women 1.33 2.67
Pairs 1.33 2.67

The factors in ice dance are different for each Program Component and depend on the dance type.[8]: Rule 353(m) 

Protocol details


Following an event, the complete judges' scores are published in a document referred to as a protocol. This document uses specific notations as described below.

If a skater attempts more than the allowed number of a certain type of element in a program, then the element is still described and called as such by the technical controller, but receives a base value of 0 as well as a GOE of 0, regardless of how the judges have marked it. On ISU protocol sheets, elements that have been nullified by this are denoted by an asterisk (*) next to the element name. In free skating, for jumps executed twice as solo jumps, the second jump is marked as +REP and receives 70% of its base value. Jump elements performed after the halfway point of a program are marked with x and receive a 10% bonus added to their base value. If a jump has been called as having an unclear take-off edge, that jump is marked with ! and receives a –1 to –2 GOE depending on severity; if a jump has been called as having an incorrect take-off edge (for example, an inside edge on the take-off of a Lutz jump), that jump is marked with e and receives a –2 or –3 GOE depending on the severity of the edge fault. Jumps that are under-rotated are marked with < or << depending on the degree of turns completed on the ice instead of in mid-air. < indicates that a jump had less than a ½ turn but more than a ¼ turn completed on the ice, reducing the base value to 70% of its original value. << indicates a severe under-rotation (a ½ turn or more) and the jump is valued as if it had one less rotation (e.g. a triple would receive the value of a double).[9]

Jumps that are executed in combination or sequence are marked as a single element, with a base mark equal to the sum of the base marks for the individual jumps. However, a combination or sequence can be downgraded – marked with +COMBO (combinations in the short program) or +SEQ (combinations and sequences in the free skate) – in which case the sum of the base values of the jumps is reduced to 80% of its original value.

Scale of Values (SOV) and abbreviations of common elements


Every spring/summer the ISU releases rule updates which include a current Scale of Values (SOV) for different types of element. One is released for Singles/Pairs[10][11] and another for Ice Dance.[12] Click "show" below to view the abbreviations and codes for different figure skating elements.

Abbreviation Full name Full Code
A = Axel Single Axel jump 1A
Double Axel 2A
Triple Axel 3A
Quadruple Axel 4A
Lz = Lutz Single Lutz jump 1Lz
Double Lutz 2Lz
Triple Lutz 3Lz
Quadruple Lutz 4Lz
F = Flip Single Flip jump 1F
Double Flip 2F
Triple Flip 3F
Quadruple Flip 4F
Lo = Loop Single Loop jump 1Lo
Double Loop 2Lo
Triple Loop 3Lo
Quadruple Loop 4Lo
S = Salchow Single Salchow jump 1S
Double Salchow 2S
Triple Salchow 3S
Quadruple Salchow 4S
T = Toe loop Single Toe loop jump 1T
Double Toe loop 2T
Triple Toe loop 3T
Quadruple Toe loop 4T
Throw jumps
ATh Throw Axel Full code shows number of revolutions using same concept as above for solo jumps
LzTh Throw Lutz
FTh Throw Flip
LoTh Throw Loop
STh Throw Salchow
TTh Throw Toe loop
CSp Camel Spin Full code ends in nothing for No Value, or B for Base, 1 for Level 1, 2 for Level 2, 3 for Level 3, and 4 for Level 4
LSp Layback Spin
SSp Sit Spin
USp Upright Spin
CoSp Combination Spin
CCSp Change foot Camel Spin
CLSp Change foot Layback Spin
CSSp Change foot Sit Spin
CUSp Change foot Upright Spin
CCoSp Change foot Combination Spin
FCSp Flying Camel Spin
FLSp Flying Layback Spin
FSSp Flying Sit Spin
FUSp Flying Upright Spin
PSp Pair Spin
PCoSp Pair Combination Spin
Step sequences
ChSt Choreographed Step Sequence
CiSt Circular step sequence
DiSt Diagonal in hold step sequence
MiSt Midline in hold step sequence
NtMiTw Not Touching Midline Sequential Twizzles
NtMiSt Not Touching Midline Steps
SeSt Serpentine step sequence
SlSt Straight line step sequence
Choreographic Sequences
ChSq Choreographic Sequence
Spiral sequences
ChSp Choreographed Spiral
SpSq Spiral sequence of any pattern (no longer in use as of 2010)
Pair lifts
Tw Twist Lift, Preceded by number of revolutions. E.g. Double Twist is coded 2TW
1Li Group One Lift. (Hand to Armpit Hold)
2Li Group Two Lift. (Hand to Waist Hold)
3Li Group Three Lift (Hand to Hip Hold)
4Li Group Four Lift (Hand to Hand Hold) (AKA "Press Lift")
Group 5 Lifts Below all Group 5 lifts, are a pressure lift with rotation on the takeoff by the lady. The difference in code depends on the precise take off.
5ALi Axel Lasso Lift- Lady takes off Forwards edge and facing the same direction as the man. (Both skaters facing forwards.) Lady makes one full Rotation around the man on the way up.
5RLi or 5BLi Group Five Reverse/Backward Lasso Lift. Like the 5ALi, the lady makes a full revolution on the way up. This lift she and the partner may be back to back, or the lady is towards the man. Her take off from the ice is from a backwards positions.
5SLi Step Takeoff- Similar to 5ALi but direction doesn't matter and only a 1/2 revolution on the way up.
5TLi Toe Takeoff- Similar to 5SLi but the lady's toe taps upon taken. Only 1/2 revolution on the way up.
Dance lifts
CuLi Curve lift
RRoLi Reverse rotational lift
RoLi Rotational lift
SeLi Serpentine lift
StaLi Stationary lift
SlLi Straight line lift
Death spirals
BiDs Backward inside death spiral
BoDs Backward outside death spiral
FiDs Forward inside death spiral
FoDs Forward outside death spiral
Dance elements
STw Synchronized twizzles

The level of a spin or footwork sequence is denoted by the number following the element abbreviation. The number of rotations on a jump is denoted by the number preceding the element abbreviation. For example, 3A denotes a triple Axel, while SlSt4 denotes a level four straight line step sequence. ChSt and ChSq are step sequences and spiral sequences that have no level and a fixed base value.

In ice dance


Ice dance judging is similar to pairs and singles, but uses a separate set of rules and table of values. In the compulsory dance, steps are specified and "elements" are defined for each dance as subsets of the prescribed steps. For compulsory dance only, there is no program component score given for transitions and choreography. Instead there is a timing (TI) program component that is exclusive to the compulsory dance, leaving only four program components in the compulsory dance. In the original dance there are five marked technical elements. In the free dance, there are nine marked technical elements. Unlike singles and pair skating, the different program components are weighted differently in each segment of the competition. The highest factored component(s) in each segment are skating skills and timing in the compulsory dance, interpretation in the original dance, and transitions in the free dance. The calculation of these factors is described in Rule 353.[13]

Highest scores


After being trialed in 2003, the IJS replaced the old 6.0 system in the 2004–2005 figure skating season. Up to and including the 2017–2018 season, the Grade of Execution (GOE) scoring system for each program element ranged between –3 and +3. Starting with the 2018–2019 season, the GOE was expanded to range between –5 and +5. Hence, the International Skating Union (ISU) have restarted all records from the 2018–2019 season and all previous statistics have been marked as "historical".[14]

The ISU only recognizes the best scores that are set at international competitions run under the ISU's rules, and does not recognize, for example, scores that are obtained at national figure skating championships. The competitions recognized by the ISU are: Winter Olympics (including the team event), Youth Olympics (including the team event), World Championships, World Junior Championships, European Championships, Four Continents Championships, GP events, Junior GP events, Challenger Series events, and World Team Trophy.

List of highest scores in figure skating


For highest scores achieved prior to the 2018–2019 season, see List of highest historical scores in figure skating.

List of highest junior scores in figure skating


For highest junior scores prior to the 2018–2019 season, see List of highest historical junior scores in figure skating.



Like gymnastics and diving competitions, judging in figure skating is intrinsically subjective. Although there may be general consensus that one skater "looks better" than another, it is difficult to reach agreement on what causes one skater to be marked as 5.5 and another to be 5.75 for a particular program component. As judges, coaches, and skaters gain more experience with the new system, greater consensus may emerge. However, for the 2006 Olympics there were cases of 1 to 1.5 point differences in component marks from different judges.[citation needed] This range of difference implies that "observer bias" determines about 20% of the mark given by a judge.[citation needed] Averaging over many judges reduces the effect of this bias in the final score, but there will remain about a 2% spread in the average artistic marks from the randomly selected subsets of judges.[citation needed]

Aside from intra-expert subjectivity, skating is very open to misjudgement from everyday spectators who only see skating casually, e.g. every four years at the Olympics. A skater's jump may look perfect, but the general public will not be aware that the competitor landed on an incorrect edge, therefore receiving fewer points for an element, resulting in the appearance of haphazard or biased judging.



The aim of the IJS is to ensure that the judging of figure skating competitions is more consistent with the judging of sports such as diving and gymnastics. It also includes features intended to make judging more resistant to pressure by special interests. However, there is debate as to whether the new system is in fact an improvement over the old 6.0 system.[15][16] One criticism of the adoption of the IJS was in the way it alienated casual figure skating fans; whereas the 6.0 system was universally understood due to its simplicity and intuitive scale, the large cumulative scores given by the IJS are less intuitive.[16] Judging bias was also found to be about 20 percent greater in the IJS than in the 6.0 system, with judges being inclined to give higher marks to skaters from their own country.[16]

Initially under the new ISU rules, the judges' marks were anonymous, which removed any public accountability of the judges for their marks. However, problems with this system came to the forefront during the Sochi Olympics in 2014 following Russian skater Adelina Sotnikova's victory over Yuna Kim. In large part due to the judging and technical panels including four Russians, these results sparked a debate over the judges' objectivity.[17] In June 2016 the ISU Congress voted to abolish anonymous judging altogether.[18]



While the IJS has minimized the number of ties and the need for multiple tiebreaks, as there were under the old 6.0 system, ties do still occur for both overall score and also for single segments of the competition. Short/rhythm segment ties are broken based on the TES score and free segment ties on the PCS. For ties in the overall score, ties are broken based on the free segment placement.

Event Skaters Discipline Segment Score Segment Placement
2004 Skate America Canada Cynthia Phaneuf Ladies Short program 50.20 Tied third
(Identical TES and PCS)
United States Alissa Czisny
2007 World Championships Italy Carolina Kostner Total score 168.92 Nakano 5th, Kostner 6th
(Higher free skating placement)
Japan Yukari Nakano
2008 U.S. Championships United States Evan Lysacek Men 244.77 Lysacek 1st, Weir 2nd
(Higher free skating placement)
United States Johnny Weir
2009 U.S. Championships United States Katrina Hacker Ladies Short program 54.79 Hacker 5th, Nagasu 6th
(Higher TES)
United States Mirai Nagasu
United States Laney Diggs Total score 147.48 Diggs 10th, Musademba 11th
(Higher free skating placement)
United States Kristine Musademba
2009 World Championships Russia Sergei Voronov Men Short program 72.15 Voronov 9th, Abbott 10th
(Higher TES)
United States Jeremy Abbott
2009 World Team Trophy Canada Joannie Rochette Ladies 62.08 Rochette 2nd, Ando 3rd
(Higher TES)
Japan Miki Ando
2011 World Championships Italy Carolina Kostner 59.75 Leonova 5th, Kostner 6th
(Higher TES)
Russia Alena Leonova
2018 Winter Olympics International Olympic Committee Evgenia Medvedeva Free skating 156.65 Medvedeva 1st, Zagitova 2nd
(Higher PCS)
International Olympic Committee Alina Zagitova
2019 Russian Championships Russia Stanislava Konstantinova Short program 74.40 Kostornaia 3rd, Konstantinova 4th
(Higher TES)
Russia Alena Kostornaia
2020 Rostelecom Cup Russia Makar Ignatov Men Total score 260.78 Semenenko 6th, Ignatov 7th
(Higher free skating placement)
Russia Evgeni Semenenko
Estonia Eva-Lotta Kiibus Ladies Free skating 128.12 Trusova 4th, Kiibus 5th
(Higher PCS)
Russia Alexandra Trusova
2021 World Championships China Chen Hongyi Short program 58.81 Březinová 21st, Chen 22nd
(Higher TES)
Czech Republic Eliška Březinová
2021 World Team Trophy Russia Evgeni Semenenko Men Total score 255.19 Semenenko 5th, Brown 6th
(Higher free skating placement)
United States Jason Brown
2021 Lake Placid Ice Dance International Australia Holly Harris / Jason Chan Ice dance 159.87 Harris/Chan 4th, Pate/Bye 5th
(Higher free dance placement)
United States Eva Pate / Logan Bye
2021 CS Nebelhorn Trophy Latvia Anete Lāce Women Short program 54.96 Lāce 8th, Taljegård 9th
(Higher TES)
Sweden Josefin Taljegård
Hong Kong Joanna So 48.79 So 19th, Sauter 20th
(Higher TES)
Romania Julia Sauter
Germany Kai Jagoda Men Free skating 107.75 Jagoda 20th, Lewton Brain 21st
(Higher PCS)
Monaco Davide Lewton Brain
2021 CS Finlandia Trophy Canada Keegan Messing Men Short program 92.39 Messing 1st, Brown 2nd
(Higher TES)
United States Jason Brown
2023 Russian Championships Russia Petr Gumennik Total score 295.07 Semenenko 1st, Gumennik 2nd
(Higher free skating placement)
Russia Evgeni Semenenko
2024 European Championships Bulgaria Alexandra Feigin Women Short program 57.33 Feigin 12th, Taljegård 13th (Higher TES) [38]
Sweden Josefin Taljegård

Judge reduction in 2008


In 2008, the ISU ruled to reduce the number of judges from twelve to nine. The need to reduce costs was given as the prime reason for this change.[39] Since the highest and lowest extreme scores are discounted, the scores of seven judges (rather than ten) determine the outcome of competitions.


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  2. ^ "Scoring System Approved". The New York Times. 10 June 2004. Retrieved 25 July 2011.
  4. ^ "Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) on the ISU New Judging System". Retrieved 18 September 2023.
  5. ^ a b c d e "ISU Figure Skating Media Guide 2023/24". Retrieved 12 October 2023.
  6. ^ a b "THE 2023-24 OFFICIAL U.S. FIGURE SKATING RULEBOOK" (PDF). Retrieved 19 September 2023.
  7. ^ a b "ISU Constitution & Regulations". Isu.org. Retrieved 22 April 2022.
  8. ^ a b c d e f ISW (14 September 2022). "Special Regulations & Technical Rules Single & Pair Skating & Ice Dance 2022". Retrieved 28 September 2023.
  9. ^ "Communication No. 1611 – Single & Pair Skating – Scale of Values, Levels of Difficulty and Guidelines for marking Grade of Execution". International Skating Union. 4 May 2010. Archived from the original (PDF) on 13 May 2010. Retrieved 9 January 2015.
  10. ^ "Communication 2475—Scale of Values Single and Pair Skating 2022/23". 4 May 2022. Retrieved 28 September 2023.
    Per Communication 2558, ISU Communication 2475 Scale of Value Single & Pair Skating will remain valid for season 2023/24.
  11. ^ "Communication 2558—Levels of Difficulty and Guidelines for marking Grade of Execution and Program Components Season 2023/24". 9 August 2023. Retrieved 28 September 2023.
  12. ^ "Communication No. 2564—Ice Dance Scale of Values season 2023/24". 31 May 2023. Retrieved 28 September 2023.
  14. ^ "Statistics including Personal Best & Season's Best information". International Skating Union. Retrieved 22 July 2016.
  15. ^ Balding, Clare (19 February 2006). "Jury is out on skating's latest judging system". The Guardian. Retrieved 2 October 2019.
  16. ^ a b c Pilon, Mary; Longman, Jere (5 February 2014). "Despite Revamp, Figure Skating Gets Mixed Marks". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 6 February 2014. Retrieved 2 October 2019.
  17. ^ "Olympic figure skater won't defend gold medal". ESPN.com. 27 August 2017. Retrieved 18 August 2022.
  18. ^ "ISU vote to abolish anonymous judging system in figure skating to "increase transparency"". inside the games. 8 June 2016. Retrieved 25 March 2018.
  19. ^ SmartOnes Skate America: Ladies – Short Program
  20. ^ ISU World Figure Skating Championships 2007: Ladies – Results
  21. ^ Borzi, Pat (28 January 2008). "Tie Breaker Allows Lysacek to Defend Title (Published 2008)". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 22 April 2023.
  22. ^ 2009 US Nationals Ladies Short Program
  23. ^ 2009 US Nationals Ladies Final Results
  24. ^ ISU World Figure Skating Championships 2009: Men – Short Program
  25. ^ ISU World Team Trophy in Figure Skating 2009: Ladies – Short Program
  26. ^ ISU World Figure Skating Championships 2011: Ladies – Short Program
  27. ^ Olympic Winter Games PyeongChang 2018: Ladies' Single Skating – Free Skating Results
  28. ^ Rostelecom Russian Nationals 2019: Ladies – Short Program
  29. ^ ISU GP Rostelecom Cup 2020: Men – Result
  30. ^ ISU GP Rostelecom Cup 2020: Ladies – Free Skating
  31. ^ ISU World Figure Skating Championships 2021: Ladies – Short Program
  32. ^ ISU World Team Trophy in Figure Skating 2021: Team Standing
  33. ^ 2021 Lake Placid Ice Dance International: Senior Ice Dance
  34. ^ ISU CS Nebelhorn Trophy 2021 OWG Qualifying: Women – Short Program
  35. ^ ISU CS Nebelhorn Trophy 2021 OWG Qualifying: Men – Free Skating
  36. ^ ISU CS Finlandia Trophy 2021: Men – Short Program
  37. ^ Rostelecom Russian Nationals 2023: Men – Result
  38. ^ European Championships 2024: Women's short program – Results
  39. ^ Rutherford, Lynn (28 April 2008). "How many judges are there, anyway?". web.icenetwork.com. Retrieved 25 May 2018.