Screenshot of iTunes 12.7.1 on Windows 10
|Initial release||January 9, 2001|
12.9.5 / May 28, 2019
|Part of a series on|
iTunes (//) is a media player, media library, Internet radio broadcaster, and mobile device management application developed by Apple Inc. It was announced on January 9, 2001. It is used to play, download, and organize digital multimedia files, including music and video, on personal computers running the macOS and Windows operating systems. Content must be purchased through the iTunes Store, whereas iTunes is the software letting users manage their purchases.
The original and main focus of iTunes is music, with a library offering organization, collection, and storage of users' music collections. It can be used to rip songs from CDs, as well as play content with the use of dynamic, smart playlists. Options for sound optimizations exist, as well as ways to wirelessly share the iTunes library. In 2005, Apple expanded on the core features with video support, later also adding podcasts, e-books, and a section for managing mobile apps for Apple's iOS operating system, the last of which it discontinued in 2017.
The original iPhone smartphone required iTunes for activation and, until the release of iOS 5 in 2011, iTunes was required for installing software updates for the company's iOS devices. Newer iOS devices rely less on the iTunes software, though it can still be used for backup and restoration of phone contents, as well as for the transfer of files between a computer and individual iOS applications. iTunes has received significant criticism for a bloated user experience, with Apple adopting an all-encompassing feature-set in iTunes rather than sticking to its original music-based purpose.
On June 3, 2019, Apple announced that iTunes will be replaced in macOS Catalina by separate applications for Music, Podcasts, and TV. Finder will also be able to perform the device management capabilities previously contained within iTunes. This increases continuity with iOS, where they are also separate apps. This change will not affect Windows or older macOS versions.
- 1 History
- 2 Media management
- 2.1 Music
- 2.2 Video
- 2.3 Podcasts
- 2.4 Books
- 2.5 Apps
- 2.6 iTunes Store
- 2.7 Internet radio and music streaming
- 2.8 iPhone activation
- 2.9 Ping
- 3 Criticism
- 4 See also
- 5 References
- 6 External links
SoundJam MP, released by Casady & Greene in 1998, was renamed "iTunes" when Apple purchased it in 2000. The primary developers of the software moved to Apple as part of the acquisition, and simplified SoundJam's user interface, added the ability to burn CDs, and removed its recording feature and skin support. The first version of iTunes, promotionally dubbed "World’s Best and Easiest To Use Jukebox Software", was announced on January 9, 2001. Subsequent releases of iTunes often coincided with new hardware devices, and gradually included support for new features, including "smart playlists," the iTunes Store, and new audio formats.
Apple released iTunes for Windows in 2003. In May 2017, Microsoft and Apple announced that they would bring iTunes to the Microsoft Store by the end of that year in order to work on Windows 10 S devices, which are limited to software available in the Microsoft Store. However, Apple told ZDNet in December that it "[needs] a little more time to get it right", and thus won't be available in 2017. Apple released the Microsoft Store version on April 26, 2018.
Metadata and music importation
iTunes features a music library. Each track has attributes, called metadata, that can be edited by the user, including changing the name of the artist, album, and genre, year of release, artwork, among other additional settings. The software supports importing digital audio tracks that can then be transferred to iOS devices, as well as supporting ripping content from CDs. iTunes supports WAV, AIFF, Apple Lossless, AAC, and MP3 audio formats. It uses the Gracenote music database to provide track name listings for audio CDs. When users rip content from a CD, iTunes attempts to match songs to the Gracenote service. For self-published CDs, or those from obscure record labels, iTunes will normally only list tracks as numbered entries ("Track 1", "Track 2") on an unnamed album by an unknown artist, requiring manual input of data.
Introduced in 2004, "Party Shuffle" selected tracks to play randomly from the library, though users could press a button to skip the current song and go to the next in the list. The feature was later renamed "iTunes DJ", before being discontinued altogether, replaced by a simpler "Up Next" feature that notably lost some of "iTunes DJ"'s functionality.
Introduced in iTunes 8 in 2008, "Genius" can automatically generate a playlist of songs from the user's library that "go great together". "Genius" transmits information about the user's library to Apple anonymously, and evolves over time to enhance its recommendation system. It can also suggest purchases to fill out "holes" in the library. The feature was updated with iTunes 9 in 2009 to offer "Genius Mixes", which generated playlists based on specific music genres.
"Smart playlists" are a set of playlists that can be set to automatically filter the library based on a customized list of selection criteria, much like a database query. Multiple criteria can be entered to manage the smart playlist. Selection criteria examples include a genre like Christmas music, songs that haven't been played recently, or songs the user has listened to the most in a time period.
Through a "Home Sharing" feature, users can share their iTunes library wirelessly. Computer firewalls must allow network traffic, and users must specifically enable sharing in the iTunes preferences menu. iOS applications also exist that can transfer content without Internet. Additionally, users can set up a network-attached storage system, and connect to that storage system through an app.
To compensate for the "boring" design of standard CDs, iTunes can print custom-made jewel case inserts. After burning a CD from a playlist, one can select that playlist and bring up a dialog box with several print options, including different "Themes" of album artworks.
iTunes includes sound processing features, such as equalization, "sound enhancement" and crossfade. There is also a feature called Sound Check, which automatically adjusts the playback volume of all songs in the library to the same level.
In May 2005, video support was introduced to iTunes with the release of iTunes 4.8, though it was limited to bonus features part of album purchases. The following October, Apple introduced iTunes 6, enabling support for purchasing and viewing video content purchased from the iTunes Store. At launch, the store offered popular shows from the ABC network, including Desperate Housewives and Lost, along with Disney Channel series That's So Raven and The Suite Life of Zack and Cody. Then-CEO Steve Jobs told the press that "We’re doing for video what we’ve done for music — we’re making it easy and affordable to purchase and download, play on your computer, and take with you on your iPod".
In January 2010, Apple announced the iPad tablet, and along with it, a new app for it called Apple Books (previously known as iBooks). The app allowed users to purchase e-books from the iTunes Store, manage them through iTunes, and transfer the content to their iPad.
On July 10, 2008, Apple introduced native mobile apps for its iOS operating system. On iOS, a dedicated App Store application served as the storefront for browsing, purchasing and managing applications, whereas iTunes on computers had a dedicated section for apps rather than a separate app. In September 2017, Apple updated iTunes to version 12.7, removing the App Store section in the process. However, the following month, iTunes 12.6.3 was also released, retaining the App Store, with 9to5Mac noting that the secondary release was positioned by Apple as "necessary for some businesses performing internal app deployments".
On April 28, 2003, Apple introduced the iTunes Store, then-named "iTunes Music Store". It allowed users to buy and download songs, with 200,000 tracks available at launch. In its first week, customers bought more than one million songs. Music purchased was protected by FairPlay, an encryption layer referred to as digital rights management (DRM). The use of DRM, which limited devices capable of playing purchased files, sparked efforts to remove the protection mechanism. Eventually, after an open letter to the music industry by then-CEO Steve Jobs in February 2007, Apple introduced a selection of DRM-free music in the iTunes Store in April 2007, followed by its entire music catalog without DRM in January 2009.
In October 2005, Apple announced that movies and television shows would become available through its iTunes Store, employing the DRM protection.
iTunes in the Cloud and iTunes Match
In June 2011, Apple announced "iTunes in the Cloud", in which music purchases were stored on Apple's servers and made available for automatic downloading on new devices. For music the user owns, such as content ripped from CDs, the company introduced "iTunes Match", a feature that can upload content to Apple's servers, match it to its catalog, change the quality to 256kbit/s AAC format, and make it available to other devices.
Internet radio and music streaming
When iTunes was first released, it came with support for the Kerbango Internet radio tuner service. In June 2013, the company announced iTunes Radio, a free music streaming service. In June 2015, Apple announced Apple Music, its paid music streaming service, and subsequently rebranded iTunes Radio into Beats 1, a radio station accompanying Apple Music.
With the release of iTunes 10 in September 2010, Apple announced iTunes Ping, which then-CEO Steve Jobs described as "social music discovery". It had features reminiscent of Facebook, including profiles and the ability to follow other users. Ping was discontinued in September 2012.
The Telegraph reported in November 2011 that Apple had been aware of a security vulnerability since 2008 that would let unauthorized third parties install "updates" to users' iTunes software. Apple fixed the issue prior to the Telegraph's report, and told the media that "The security and privacy of our users is extremely important", though this was questioned by security researcher Brian Krebs, who told the publication that "A prominent security researcher warned Apple about this dangerous vulnerability in mid-2008, yet the company waited more than 1,200 days to fix the flaw".
iTunes has been repeatedly accused of being bloated as part of Apple's efforts to turn it from a music player to an all-encompassing multimedia platform. Former PC World editor Ed Bott accused the company of hypocrisy in its advertising attacks on Windows for similar practices.
During the announcement of macOS Catalina, Craig Federighi addressed the evolution of iTunes, and joked about the potential to include Email, Calendar, and Safari in before announcing iTunes's separation into independent apps.
- iTunes Festival
- iTunes Store
- iTunes version history
- List of audio conversion software
- Comparison of iPod managers
- Distribution Into iTunes
- Feed aggregators:
- Media players, comparison
- Music visualization
- Wells, John C. (2008), Longman Pronunciation Dictionary (3rd ed.), Longman, p. 427, ISBN 9781405881180
- Carman, Ashley (June 3, 2019). "Apple breaks up iTunes, creates separate Podcasts, TV, and Music apps for macOS". The Verge. Retrieved June 3, 2019.
- Roettgers, Janko (June 3, 2019). "Apple Is Officially Killing iTunes, Replacing It With Three Dedicated Media Apps". Variety. Retrieved June 3, 2019.
- Spangler, Todd (June 3, 2019). "Apple's iTunes Store, iTunes App for Windows Aren't Going Away". Variety. Retrieved June 3, 2019.
- Seff, Jonathan (May 1, 2001). "The Song Is Over for SoundJam". Macworld. International Data Group. Retrieved December 16, 2017.
- Cheng, Jacqui (November 23, 2012). "iTunes through the ages". Ars Technica. Condé Nast. Retrieved December 16, 2017.
- McElhearn, Kirk (January 9, 2016). "15 years of iTunes: A look at Apple's media app and its influence on an industry". Macworld. International Data Group. Retrieved December 16, 2017.
- "Apple Launches iTunes for Windows". Apple Newsroom. Apple Inc. October 16, 2003. Retrieved December 16, 2017.
- Warren, Tom (May 11, 2017). "Apple is bringing iTunes to the Windows Store". The Verge. Vox Media. Retrieved December 16, 2017.
- Fingas, Jon (May 11, 2017). "Apple is bringing iTunes to the Windows Store". Engadget. Oath Inc. Retrieved December 16, 2017.
- Foley, Mary Jo (December 15, 2017). "iTunes won't be in the Microsoft Store this year". ZDNet. CBS Interactive. Retrieved December 16, 2017.
- Warren, Tom (April 26, 2018). "iTunes is now available in the Microsoft Store for Windows 10". The Verge. Retrieved April 26, 2018.
- Elliott, Matt (April 30, 2014). "Clean up and organize your iTunes music library". CNET. CBS Interactive. Retrieved December 16, 2017.
- Miller, Dan (February 13, 2014). "How I edit track metadata in iTunes". Macworld. International Data Group. Retrieved December 16, 2017.
- Costello, Sam (October 4, 2017). "How to Import Downloaded Music to iTunes". Lifewire. Dotdash. Retrieved December 16, 2017.
- Costello, Sam (June 13, 2017). "Use iTunes to Copy CDs to Your iPhone or iPod". Lifewire. Dotdash. Retrieved December 16, 2017.
- Breen, Christopher (January 12, 2011). "How to rip CDs with iTunes". Macworld. International Data Group. Retrieved December 16, 2017.
- McElhearn, Kirk (April 14, 2016). "The complete guide to using iTunes with lossless audio". Macworld. International Data Group. Retrieved December 16, 2017.
- Costello, Sam (March 28, 2017). "What To Do When iTunes Doesn't Have CD Names for Your Music". Lifewire. Dotdash. Retrieved December 16, 2017.
- Bove, Tony. "How to browse iTunes by artist and album". For Dummies. John Wiley & Sons. Retrieved December 16, 2017.
- Bohon, Cory (August 21, 2015). "How to change iTunes playlist view". TechRadar. Future plc. Retrieved December 16, 2017.
- Snell, Jason (April 28, 2004). "iTunes 4.5: Hits and Misses". Macworld. International Data Group. Retrieved December 16, 2017.
- McElhearn, Kirk (February 5, 2007). "Doing the iTunes shuffle". Macworld. International Data Group. Retrieved December 16, 2017.
- Hahn, Jason Duaine (January 10, 2015). "Happy Birthday, iTunes: Here's How Apple's Media App Has Changed Over 14 Years". Complex. Verizon Hearst Media Partners. Retrieved December 16, 2017.
- Costello, Sam (February 9, 2017). "Using the Up Next Feature in iTunes". Lifewire. Dotdash. Retrieved December 16, 2017.
- Chartier, David (September 9, 2008). "Apple rocks out, announces new iPods, iTunes 8". Ars Technica. Condé Nast. Retrieved December 16, 2017.
- Dumas, Daniel (September 9, 2008). "Let's rock: Apple unveils new iPod, Genius playlists, HDTV, NBC". Wired. Condé Nast. Retrieved December 16, 2017.
- Cox, Tim (September 9, 2009). "Tip: Update Genius in iTunes 9 to Access Genius Mixes". Cult of Mac. Retrieved December 16, 2017.
- Sande, Steven (September 11, 2009). "iTunes 9 Genius Mixes: You don't need to be a genius to create 'em". Engadget. Oath Inc. Retrieved December 16, 2017.
- Gardiner, Bryan (September 3, 2013). "Use Smart playlists to keep your iPhone filled with your newest music". Wired. Condé Nast. Retrieved December 16, 2017.
- Trapani, Gina (February 13, 2008). "Top 10 iTunes Smart Playlists". Lifehacker. Univision Communications. Retrieved December 16, 2017.
- Rawlinson, Nik (June 13, 2012). "How to share your iTunes music library on a home network". CNET. CBS Interactive. Retrieved December 16, 2017.
- Prindle, Drew (April 4, 2013). "How to share your iTunes library". Digital Trends. Retrieved December 16, 2017.
- Whitney, Lance (February 16, 2017). "How to Share Your iTunes Library Among Multiple Devices". PC Magazine. Ziff Davis. Retrieved December 16, 2017.
- Heid, Jim (October 18, 2004). "Create CD Inserts in iTunes". Macworld. International Data Group. Retrieved December 16, 2017.
- Kessler, Topher (December 4, 2012). "How to improve sound quality in iTunes". CNET. CBS Interactive. Retrieved December 16, 2017.
- McElhearn, Kirk (June 6, 2016). "How to tweak your sound in iTunes and on iOS devices". Macworld. International Data Group. Retrieved December 16, 2017.
- "iTunes 4.8 adds video support, Yorkdale store photos, more". AppleInsider. May 9, 2005. Retrieved December 16, 2017.
- Dormehl, Luke (May 9, 2017). "Today in Apple history: iTunes experiments with video downloads". Cult of Mac. Retrieved December 16, 2017.
- Honan, Mathew (October 12, 2005). "Apple Releases iTunes 6". Macworld. International Data Group. Retrieved December 16, 2017.
- Frakes, Dan (January 22, 2008). "First Look: iTunes Digital Copy". Macworld. International Data Group. Retrieved December 16, 2017.
- "Lionsgate joins Apple's Digital Copy for iTunes program". AppleInsider. March 10, 2008. Retrieved December 16, 2017.
- Hughes, Neil (September 22, 2017). "iTunes Digital Copy redemptions from non-4K Blu-rays appear to support 4K streaming on new Apple TV". AppleInsider. Retrieved December 16, 2017.
- Naughton, Pete (June 14, 2015). "The 10 best ever podcasts". The Daily Telegraph. Telegraph Media Group. Retrieved December 16, 2017.
- Farivar, Cyrus (June 28, 2005). "iTunes 4.9 First Look: Apple takes on Podcasting". Macworld. International Data Group. Retrieved December 16, 2017.
- Schramm, Mike (February 1, 2008). "How to: Create a smart podcast playlist in iTunes". Engadget. Oath Inc. Retrieved December 16, 2017.
- Johnson, Bobbie; Arthur, Charles (January 27, 2010). "Apple iPad: the wait is over – but is it future of media or oversized phone?". The Guardian. Guardian Media Group. Retrieved February 16, 2017.
- Friedman, Lex (July 8, 2013). "The App Store turns five: A look back and forward". Macworld. International Data Group. Retrieved December 16, 2017.
- Welch, Chris (September 12, 2017). "Apple starts cutting the bloat from iTunes by removing iOS App Store". The Verge. Vox Media. Retrieved December 16, 2017.
- Smith, Jake (September 13, 2017). "Apple's iTunes removes iOS App Store from desktop version". ZDNet. CBS Interactive. Retrieved December 16, 2017.
- Mayo, Benjamin (October 9, 2017). "Apple still offers an iTunes version with App Store, Ringtones and other features removed in 'focused' iTunes 12.7". 9to5Mac. Retrieved December 16, 2017.
- Hardwick, Tim (October 9, 2017). "Apple Quietly Releases iTunes 12.6.3 With Built-In App Store". MacRumors. Retrieved December 16, 2017.
- Chen, Brian X. (April 28, 2010). "April 28, 2003: Apple opens iTunes Store". Wired. Condé Nast. Retrieved December 16, 2017.
- Dilger, Daniel Eran (February 26, 2007). "How FairPlay Works: Apple's iTunes DRM Dilemma". RoughlyDrafted. Archived from the original on September 27, 2017. Retrieved December 16, 2017.
- Hamilton, Dave (September 2, 2015). "How iTunes Movie DRM-Removal Software Keeps Me Honest". The Mac Observer. Retrieved December 16, 2017.
- Tanous, Jim (September 2, 2015). "The iTunes DRM Removal Saga: NoteBurner and a Look Back at Requiem". TekRevue. Retrieved December 16, 2017.
- Kim, Arnold (February 6, 2007). "Steve Jobs 'Thoughts on Music' - Asks for No Digital Rights Management". MacRumors. Retrieved December 16, 2017.
- Arrington, Michael (April 2, 2007). "EMI, Apple To Sell DRM-Free Music for $1.29/song". TechCrunch. Oath Inc. Retrieved December 16, 2017.
- Johnson, Bobbie (January 6, 2009). "Apple drops DRM copy protection from millions of iTunes songs". The Guardian. Guardian Media Group. Retrieved December 16, 2017.
- Cohen, Peter (May 30, 2007). "iTunes U comes to the iTunes Store". Macworld. International Data Group. Retrieved December 16, 2017.
- McNulty, Scott (May 30, 2007). "iTunes U comes to the iTunes Store". Engadget. Oath Inc. Retrieved December 16, 2017.
- Hardwick, Tim (August 21, 2017). "iTunes U Collections Will Move to Apple Podcasts From September". MacRumors. Retrieved December 16, 2017.
- Ziegler, Chris (June 6, 2011). "iTunes in the Cloud beta available today, iTunes Match lets you 'upload' the tracks you already own for $24.99 a year". The Verge. Vox Media. Retrieved December 16, 2017.
- Myers, Courtney Boyd (June 6, 2011). "iTunes Match: Apple announces its cloud based music service". The Next Web. Retrieved December 16, 2017.
- Gray, Tyler (September 18, 2013). "Why Apple's iTunes Is Still Fundamentally Flawed, Even In iOS 7". Fast Company. Mansueto Ventures. Retrieved December 16, 2017.
- Gross, Doug (June 11, 2013). "Apple arrives (late?) to music streaming with iTunes Radio". CNN. Turner Broadcasting System. Retrieved December 16, 2017.
- Popper, Ben; Singleton, Micah (June 8, 2015). "Apple announces its streaming music service, Apple Music". The Verge. Vox Media. Retrieved December 16, 2017.
- Geller, Jonathan (June 9, 2008). "iPhone 3G: the details you never wanted to know". BGR. Penske Media Corporation. Retrieved December 16, 2017.
- Albanesius, Chloe (September 1, 2010). "Apple Goes Social with 'Ping' Inside iTunes 10". PC Magazine. Ziff Davis. Retrieved December 16, 2017.
- Moscaritolo, Angela (September 13, 2012). "Apple Shutting Down iTunes Ping on Sept. 30". PC Magazine. Ziff Davis. Retrieved December 16, 2017.
- Williams, Christopher (November 24, 2011). "Apple iTunes flaw 'allowed government spying for 3 years'". The Daily Telegraph. Telegraph Media Group. Retrieved December 16, 2017.
- Wang, Amy (April 28, 2016). "iTunes is 13 years old—and it's still awful". Quartz. Atlantic Media. Retrieved December 16, 2017.
- Lovejoy, Ben (July 28, 2015). "Opinion: iTunes is now so clunky the only safe solution is to nuke it from orbit". 9to5Mac. Retrieved December 16, 2017.
- Meyer, Robinson (July 29, 2015). "iTunes Really Is That Bad". The Atlantic. Emerson Collective. Retrieved December 16, 2017.
- Gilbertson, Scott (November 5, 2008). "The top ten reasons iTunes sucks". Wired. Condé Nast. Retrieved December 16, 2017.
- Bott, Ed (October 3, 2008). "Slimming down the bloated iTunes installer". ZDNet. CBS Interactive. Retrieved December 16, 2017.
|Wikibooks has a book on the topic of: iTunes|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to ITunes.|
- iTunes – official site