IX Corps (German Empire)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
For the equivalent formation in World War II, see IX Army Corps (Wehrmacht).
IX Army Corps
IX. Armee-Korps
Stab eines Generalkommandos.svg
Flag of the Staff of a Generalkommando (1871–1918)
Active 30 October 1866 (1866-10-30)–1919 (1919)
Country  Prussia /  German Empire
Type Corps
Size Approximately 44,000 (on mobilisation in 1914)
Garrison/HQ Altona
Engagements

Franco-Prussian War

Battle of Gravelotte
Second Battle of Orléans (1870)
Battle of Le Mans

World War I

Battle of the Frontiers
Battle of Mons
First Battle of the Marne
Battle of Pozières
Battle of Amiens (1918)

The IX Army Corps / IX AK (German: IX. Armee-Korps) was a corps level command of the Prussian and German Armies before and during World War I.

IX Corps was one of three formed in the aftermath of the Austro-Prussian War (the others being X Corps and XI Corps). The Corps was formed in October 1866 with headquarters in Altona. The catchment area included the newly annexed Province of Schleswig-Holstein, the Grand Duchies of Mecklenburg-Schwerin and Mecklenburg-Strelitz and the Hanseatic cities of Lübeck, Hamburg and Bremen.[1]

During the Franco-Prussian War it was assigned to the 2nd Army.

The Corps was assigned to the III Army Inspectorate but joined the 1st Army at the start of the First World War.[2] It was still in existence at the end of the war.[3] The Corps was disbanded with the demobilisation of the German Army after World War I.

Franco-Prussian War[edit]

During the Franco-Prussian War, the corps formed part of the 2nd Army. The 17th Division was initially part of the reserve of the Prussian Army, so the 18th Division was joined by the Grand Ducal Hessian (25th) Division. The Corps participated in the battles of Gravelotte, Orléans and Le Mans.

Flags of the Line Infantry regiments[edit]

Due to the large number of Line Infantry regiments then in existence, on 18 December 1890, Kaiser Wilhelm II ordered that the flag colours were to be the same as that of the uniform epaulettes. This was to ensure that each corps attained uniformity. IX and X Corps wore white epaulettes. Notwithstanding this, the flags of the Jäger Battalions would be green.[4]

Flag of the Line Infantry regiments of the IX and X Corps (except Jägers)
Flag of the Jägers Battalion

Peacetime organisation[edit]

The 25 peacetime Corps of the German Army (Guards, I - XXI, I - III Bavarian) had a reasonably standardised organisation. Each consisted of two divisions with usually two infantry brigades, one field artillery brigade and a cavalry brigade each.[5] Each brigade normally consisted of two regiments of the appropriate type, so each Corps normally commanded 8 infantry, 4 field artillery and 4 cavalry regiments. There were exceptions to this rule:

V, VI, VII, IX and XIV Corps each had a 5th infantry brigade (so 10 infantry regiments)
II, XIII, XVIII and XXI Corps had a 9th infantry regiment
I, VI and XVI Corps had a 3rd cavalry brigade (so 6 cavalry regiments)
the Guards Corps had 11 infantry regiments (in 5 brigades) and 8 cavalry regiments (in 4 brigades).[6]

Each Corps also directly controlled a number of other units. This could include one or more

Foot Artillery Regiment
Jäger Battalion
Pioneer Battalion
Train Battalion

World War I[edit]

Organisation on mobilisation[edit]

On mobilization on 2 August 1914 the Corps was restructured. 17th and 18th Cavalry Brigades were withdrawn to form part of the 4th Cavalry Division.[8] The 16th Dragoons, formerly of the X Corps, was raised to a strength of 6 squadrons before being split into two half-regiments of 3 squadrons each. The half-regiments were assigned as divisional cavalry to 17th and 18th Divisions. 81st Infantry Brigade was transferred to 17th Reserve Division in IX Reserve Corps. Divisions received engineer companies and other support units from the Corps headquarters. In summary, IX Corps mobilised with 25 infantry battalions, 9 machine gun companies (54 machine guns), 6 cavalry squadrons, 24 field artillery batteries (144 guns), 4 heavy artillery batteries (16 guns), 3 pioneer companies and an aviation detachment.

Combat chronicle[edit]

On mobilisation, IX Corps was assigned to the 1st Army on the right wing of the forces for the Schlieffen Plan offensive in August 1914 on the Western Front. It participated in the Battle of Mons and the First Battle of the Marne which marked the end of the German advances in 1914. Later it saw action in the Battle of Pozières and Battle of Amiens (1918).

It was still in existence at the end of the war.[12]

Commanders[edit]

The IX Corps had the following commanders during its existence:[13][14][15]

From Rank Name
30 October 1866 General der Infanterie Edwin Freiherr von Manteuffel
26 January 1867 General der Infanterie Albrecht Gustav von Manstein
23 September 1873 General der Infanterie Hermann von Tresckow
2 August 1888 General der Infanterie Paul von Leszczynski
2 February 1891 General der Kavallerie Alfred Graf von Waldersee
5 April 1898 General der Kavallerie Robert von Massow
29 October 1903 Generalleutnant Friedrich von Bock und Polach
21 May 1907 General der Kavallerie Hermann Freiherr von Vietinghoff genannt Scheel
12 April 1910 General der Infanterie Karl Freiherr von Plettenberg
1 March 1913 General der Infanterie Ferdinand von Quast
24 January 1917 Generalleutnant Horst Ritter und Edler von Oetinger

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ German Administrative History Accessed: 22 May 2012
  2. ^ Cron 2002, pp. 303
  3. ^ Cron 2002, pp. 88–89
  4. ^ Lezius, Martin (1935). Fahnen und Standarten der alten preußischen Armee (in German). Stuttgart: Frankh'sche Verlagsbuchhandlung. 
  5. ^ Haythornthwaite 1996, pp. 193–194
  6. ^ They formed the Guards Cavalry Division, the only peacetime cavalry division in the German Army.
  7. ^ War Office 1918, p. 248
  8. ^ Cron 2002, p. 300
  9. ^ Cron 2002, pp. 303–304
  10. ^ With a machine gun company.
  11. ^ 4 heavy artillery batteries (16 heavy field howitzers)
  12. ^ Cron 2002, pp. 88–89
  13. ^ German Administrative History Accessed: 22 May 2012
  14. ^ German War History Accessed: 22 May 2012
  15. ^ The Prussian Machine Accessed: 22 May 2012

Bibliography[edit]

  • Cron, Hermann (2002). Imperial German Army 1914-18: Organisation, Structure, Orders-of-Battle [first published: 1937]. Helion & Co. ISBN 1-874622-70-1. 
  • Ellis, John; Cox, Michael (1993). The World War I Databook. Aurum Press Ltd. ISBN 1-85410-766-6. 
  • Haythornthwaite, Philip J. (1996). The World War One Source Book. Arms and Armour. ISBN 1-85409-351-7. 
  • Histories of Two Hundred and Fifty-One Divisions of the German Army which Participated in the War (1914-1918), compiled from records of Intelligence section of the General Staff, American Expeditionary Forces, at General Headquarters, Chaumont, France 1919. The London Stamp Exchange Ltd (1989). 1920. ISBN 0-948130-87-3. 
  • The German Forces in the Field; 7th Revision, 11th November 1918; Compiled by the General Staff, War Office. Imperial War Museum, London and The Battery Press, Inc (1995). 1918. ISBN 1-870423-95-X.