Recording began on June 16, 1969 in New York City and ceased on June 26. For the album, Joplin recruited guitarist Sam Andrew of the Holding Company to take part in developement, along with the Kozmic Blues band. Joplin installed a brass and horn section into the tracks, a feature her previous band would not allow. It was a total contrast to Joplin's previous psychedelic rock as the compositions chosen were more soul and blues driven. All but two tracks were cover versions that producer Gabriel Mekler and Joplin chose. The other two tracks, "One Good Man" and "Kozmic Blues", were written by Joplin herself. Overall, the album was a more polished work, but with the lack prominent accompanists like the Holding Company, the album was not as successful as Cheap Thrills.
The LP was released on September 11, 1969 and reached gold record status within two months of its release. It was issued by Columbia under #KCS 9913. The first pressing was titled only on the spine and disc labels. Later, the title of the album was added as a sticker designed by R. Crumb and stuck to the shrink wrap. The album was re-released by Columbia as WKPC 9913 and again as PC 9913 both on vinyl. The re-issued album did not have the same title sticker, instead the re-issues had the title printed on the cover and the Sony's "Nice Price" sticker on the shrink wrap. Some of the newer PC 9913 have a bar code. A 180 Gram Limited Edition classic LP high-definition Virgin Heavy Vinyl pressing was also released in 2010. Technically, this album was reissued on vinyl a total of six times. Many collectors are mistaken in thinking the issue that included the R. Crumb sticker was the original issue; it was not. The hard-to-find original sealed issue is KCS 9913, which had no R. Crumb sticker, and the title was only on the spine of the cover. Columbia Records released as a single Kozmic Blues b/w Little Girl Blue 4-45023. The single peaked at #41 on the US Billboard charts.
I Got Dem Ol' Kozmic Blues Again Mama! also contains the hits "Try (Just A Little Bit Harder)", "Kozmic Blues" and "To Love Somebody". The CD reissue of the album includes the outtake cover of Bob Dylan's "Dear Landlord", with new lyrics and arrangements provided by Joplin, and versions of "Summertime" and "Piece of My Heart" recorded live at Woodstock as bonus tracks.
John Burks of Rolling Stone wrote in a November 1, 1969 interview praising Joplin's vocal performance. However, he notes that her vocals are hindered by her backup band's instrumental role in the album. Overall, Burks was satisfied with Joplin's change in musical direction, but recommends "reaching the point where you are able to shut out the band".
Richie Unterberger, the album was poorly reviewed on its initial release, due in part to its shift towards soul/R&B and away from the hard rock/psychedelic sound that brought her to fame with Big Brother and the Holding Company. Over the decades, Unterberger notes that opinions of the album have warmed somewhat and that taken on its own merits the album has its strengths, but he nonetheless describes it as a "flawed" effort due in part to the backing musicians sounding "a little stiff".