Iaal

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This article is about the village in Lebanon. For the Internet slang term "IAAL", see IANAL.
Iaal
ايعال
Village
Map showing the location of Iaal within Lebanon
Map showing the location of Iaal within Lebanon
Iaal
Location within Lebanon
Coordinates: 34°22′N 35°55′E / 34.367°N 35.917°E / 34.367; 35.917Coordinates: 34°22′N 35°55′E / 34.367°N 35.917°E / 34.367; 35.917
Country  Lebanon
Governorate North Governorate
District Zgharta District
Government
 • Mayor Hatem Dib (elected May 2016)
Area
 • Total 2.89 km2 (1.12 sq mi)
Elevation 281 m (922 ft)
Population (2010)
 • Total ≈1,000
Demographics
 • Religion 100% Sunni Islam
 • Languages Overwhelmingly Arabic and English
Time zone EET (UTC+2)
 • Summer (DST) EEST (UTC+3)
Dialing code +961

Iaal (Arabic: ايعال‎‎, also spelt as Ī`āl, Iäal, Izal or I’aal) is a village in northern Lebanon.

Location[edit]

Iaal is located approximately 12 kilometres (7.5 mi) south-east of Tripoli, 85 kilometres (53 mi) from Beirut and 5 kilometres (3.1 mi) from Zgharta.[1][2] It is situated within the Zgharta District of the North Governorate of Lebanon. Iaal lies at the foot of the Mount Lebanon range and has a road that runs up into the mountains (parallel to Wadi Iaal) passing through its borders.[3] Neighbouring and nearby communities include Jdaydeh, Kfaryachit, Khaldieh, Morh Kfarsghab and Sakhra. Iaal is one of only five Sunni towns in the Zgharta District and is the southernmost entirely Sunni Muslim settlement in the whole North Governorate of Lebanon.[4]

Buildings[edit]

The most identifiable building in Iaal is the castle/fort built on the hilltop of the village centre: the Fortress of Iaal[5][6] It was built in 1816 by Mustafa Agha Barbar (the Ottoman governor of Tripoli from 1798) because the area was considered strategic thanks to its panoramic views, which extend all the way down to the Mediterranean coast. The other identifiable building in Iaal is the mosque along the road that runs up into the mountains called Masjid al-Taqwa (Arabic for Mosque of Piety), built in 1994.[7] There is a second mosque located within the confines of the castle.

History[edit]

It appears that Iaal was inhabited prior to the arrival of Barbar, as evidenced by a census conducted by the Ottomans in 1555 showing that there were 34 males in the village at that time (females were excluded from the census).[8] However, who these villagers were and where they originated from is unknown. What can be presumably safely deduced is that the modern descendants from Iaal are a product of Barbar, those serving him and those who were counted in the 1555 census. Based upon the 1555 census alone, there should be more than the few thousand people currently claiming an origin from Iaal, i.e. if the population was able to grow without the interference of many unnatural deaths (e.g. killings) and/or significant migration and subsequent loss of identity.

Agriculture[edit]

The land of Iaal is watered by Iaal Dam and its outflow of Wadi Iaal.[9] This makes it fertile, sustaining a variety of produce and grazing animals, and has resulted in making Iaal famous for its olive tree gardens.[10]

Climate[edit]

Iaal’s climate is typical of a Mediterranean plain village: with heavy rains, mild winters and hot, dry, arid summers. Its annual rainfall is 810 millimetres (32 in). Its average monthly temperatures are shown below:

Climate data for Iaal, Lebanon
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °F (°C) 61
(16)
61
(16)
66
(19)
72
(22)
77
(25)
81
(27)
84
(29)
86
(30)
84
(29)
81
(27)
72
(22)
64
(18)
73
(23)
Daily mean °F (°C) 54
(12)
54.5
(12.5)
58.1
(14.5)
63.5
(17.5)
68.9
(20.5)
73
(23)
77.9
(25.5)
79.7
(26.5)
76.1
(24.5)
72
(22)
63.5
(17.5)
57
(14)
66.6
(19.2)
Average low °F (°C) 46
(8)
48
(9)
50
(10)
55
(13)
61
(16)
66
(19)
72
(22)
73
(23)
68
(20)
63
(17)
55
(13)
50
(10)
59
(15)
Source: labans.com[11]

People[edit]

Its inhabitants are entirely Sunni Muslim and number about 1,000 people (although precise figures are unattainable).[12] In 1988 Iaal had a total population of 903, and in 1998 its population increased by almost 20% to 1,082 people. However, these figures relate to all registered citizens originating from the village, including both residents in Lebanon and those who emigrated abroad.[13] The people of Iaal are also all related to one another through common ancestors. The majority of people who trace their ancestry to the village actually live outside of Iaal. The overwhelming majority of these immigrants and their descendants live in Australia, primarily Sydney, in the local government areas of the Municipality of Kogarah (where they operate a mosque in the suburb of South Hurstville) and the City of Liverpool.[citation needed] This diaspora community also runs the Iaal Charitable Association Inc.[14] During the late 19th and early 20th century, most people from Iaal (at the time) emigrated to Latin America; however, these emigrants fully assimilated into their new environments and lost all connections with their homeland.

Some common surnames of people from Iaal include Affouf, Al-Choukairy, Al-Hage, Ardati, Ayyoub, Dennaoui, Diab, Dib, Elmir, Habib, Hadid, Halbouni, Hammoud, Hussein, Ibrahim, Issa, Jameel, Khidr, Mahrees, Merhi, Nasreddine, Nasser, Shehaddy, Subkhi and Taleb.

Notable people[edit]

Some notable people born in or descending from Iaal include:

Gallery[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Google Maps: Iaal, Lebanon". Google. Retrieved 23 May 2015. 
  2. ^ "Iaal: Geographic coordinate information". Tageo.com. Retrieved 23 May 2015. 
  3. ^ "Wādī Ī`āl". getamap.net. Retrieved 23 May 2015. 
  4. ^ Religious. caza-zgharta.com. Archived 31 August 2013 at the Wayback Machine.
  5. ^ Iaal Fortress photo. naharnet.com.[dead link]
  6. ^ "I'aal: Fortress details". Sou'al Jawab Tourism. Retrieved 23 May 2015. 
  7. ^ Photo of "Masjid al-Taqwa," built in 1994. zgharta.com.[dead link]
  8. ^ 1555 Iaal census. caza-zgharta.com. Archived 17 May 2008 at the Wayback Machine.
  9. ^ Participatory Water Saving Management and Water Cultural Heritage: Lebanon Country Report, by K. Karaa, F. Karam, N. Tarabey, pp. 190-91, in Fig, 2. Sites of the Master Plan’s main storage structures and Table 5. Ten Years Master Plan for Dams and ponds construction.
  10. ^ "Towns and Villages Neighbouring Tripoli Lebanon: I'aal". tripoli-city.org. 29 October 2009. Retrieved 23 May 2015. 
  11. ^ "Village of Kfarsghab, Lebanon: Weather Forecasts". Labans.com. Retrieved 23 May 2015. Iaal's climatic conditions can be equated with those of Morh Kfarsghab due to the close proximity of the latter to Iaal 
  12. ^ Historical. caza-zgharta.com. Archived 17 May 2014 at the Wayback Machine.
  13. ^ Demographic Study. by Paul B.M. Douaihy. caza-zgharta.com. Archived 31 August 2013 at the Wayback Machine.
  14. ^ Skulte-ouaiss, Jennifer; Tabar, Paul (2014). "Strong in Their Weakness or Weak in Their Strength? The Case of Lebanese Diaspora Engagement with Lebanon". Immigrants & Minorities. The I’aal Village Association: Routledge: 12–14, 17. doi:10.1080/02619288.2013.877347. ISSN 0261-9288. ...For the village association of I’aal in North Lebanon (known as the Charitable Association of I’aal in Australia), there is no clear line separating those who reside in the village and those who have emigrated, as there is so much circular migration and other forms of transnational interaction. The Deputy Head of the Municipality, Mr Nasser Al Dein Dieb, who has also been a migrant himself, stated that ‘there is no single family in I’aal who [does] not have at least one relative residing in Australia’. The association is active in a variety of infrastructure and education projects in the village; individual migrants are also active in private or family activities, for example, building elaborate and expensive vacation homes that get used only for a few weeks per year. In the 2009 general elections, almost 500 members of the I’aal Diaspora community in Sydney travelled to Lebanon to participate and vote. What made their participation very significant was the fact that they voted in a district (Zghartah district) where the race between the two major political forces running for this election (March 14 and March 8 alliances) was so close, making their contribution crucial for the final outcome of the elections. This village association is by no means the largest that we encountered in our research but rather is typical of many such tight-knit organizations that seek to address the needs of the homeland community that cannot or will not be met by state authorities. Migrants in Australia from I’aal (the majority of I’aal inhabitants who live abroad are found in Sydney, Australia) have contributed abundantly to the development of the village in Lebanon: they have donated profusely to improve the services of the village school and clinic, and to many families who were in need to provide expensive health care to their sick family members or to support their childrens’ education. As a result, all these activities qualify I’aal, like hundreds of other diasporan villages in Australia, Canada and the USA, to assume the role of a non-state actor...What is striking about the I’aal Village Association, as well as others like it tying the Lebanese Diaspora to villages and towns throughout Lebanon, is that they contribute significantly to the financial, social and even political sustenance of these villages and towns...However, as discussion of the cases of...I’aal Village Association, and Auxilia illustrate, the Diaspora is never completely autonomous in its activities. Rather, it is strongest when...the Diaspora restricts its activities to the local level (e.g. I’aal Village Association) but also takes the lead. 
  15. ^ Future Movement Australia: Management FMA NSW. fmansw.org. Archived 30 May 2009 at the Wayback Machine.
  16. ^ Future Movement Australia: Future Movement – Australia (Tayar Al-Mustaqbal) Official Committee Structure. fmansw.org. Archived 30 May 2009 at the Wayback Machine.
  17. ^ https://web.archive.org/web/20100918023951/http://www.moim.gov.lb/ui/moim/guidex/PhonesNorthx.html. Archived from the original on 18 September 2010. Retrieved 28 April 2010.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  18. ^ Paul Kent (24 May 2008). "Khoder Nasser: The man behind Sonny Bill Williams' anger". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 23 May 2015. 
  19. ^ Greg Bearup (27 July 2010). "Lord of the Ring". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 23 May 2015. 
  20. ^ Josh Massoud (2 August 2011). "North Queensland Cowboys NRL star Cory Paterson converts to Islam". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 23 May 2015. 
  21. ^ Phil Lutton (20 May 2011). "Rugby faces agent of change". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 23 May 2015. 
  22. ^ Tanya Nolan (21 July 2005). "Deputy Police Commissioner calls for closer cooperation with Muslim community". AM. ABC. Retrieved 23 May 2015. 

External links[edit]