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Ian Hickson

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Ian Hickson
Geneva, Switzerland
EducationPhysics at University of Bath
Organization(s)Netscape, Opera, Google
Known forHTML5, CSS 2.1, Flutter (software)

Ian "Hixie" Hickson is the author and maintainer of the Acid2 and Acid3 tests, the WHATWG HTML 5 specification,[1][2] and the Pingback specification,[3] and the early working draft of Web Applications 1.0.[4] He is known as a proponent of Web standards, and has played a crucial role in the development of specifications such as CSS. Hickson was a co-editor of the CSS 2.1 specification.[5]

Hickson was born in Geneva, Switzerland, and lived there for ten years.[6] He studied physics at the University of Bath in England. Later he was employed at Netscape and Opera Software; he worked for Google in the San Francisco Bay Area, and is the specification editor of the Web Hypertext Application Technology Working Group (WHATWG).[7] Hickson resigned from Google in late 2023.[8]


  1. ^ "HTML5: A vocabulary and associated APIs for HTML and XHTML", W3C Working Draft 22 January 2008
  2. ^ "HTML 5 Hits First Public Working Draft", Sean Michael Kerner, internetnews.com, 25 January 2008
  3. ^ Pingback Specification
  4. ^ "Web Applications 1.0". whatwg.org. Retrieved 22 April 2017.
  5. ^ Cascading Style Sheets, level 2 revision 1, W3C W3C Candidate Recommendation 25 February 2004
  6. ^ Hickson's biography on the website of the Web Standards Project
  7. ^ Ian Hickson's resume
  8. ^ "Reflecting on 18 years at Google". Retrieved 23 November 2023.

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