Jump to content

Ian Plimer

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Ian Plimer
Born (1946-08-12) 12 August 1946 (age 77)
Alma materUniversity of New South Wales, Macquarie University
AwardsEureka Prize (1995, 2002), Centenary Medal (2003), Clarke Medal (2004)
Scientific career
FieldsEarth Science, Geology, Mining Engineering
InstitutionsUniversity of New England, University of Newcastle, University of Melbourne, University of Adelaide
ThesisThe pipe deposits of tungsten-molybdenum-bismuth in eastern Australia (1973)

Ian Rutherford Plimer (born 12 February 1946) is an Australian geologist and professor emeritus at the University of Melbourne.[1] He rejects the scientific consensus on climate change. He has been criticised by climate scientists for misinterpreting data and spreading misinformation.[2][3][4][5][6][7][8]

Plimer previously worked as a professor of mining geology at the University of Adelaide,[9] and the director of multiple mineral exploration and mining companies,[10] He has also been a critic of creationism.[11]

Early life and education[edit]

Ian Plimer grew up in Sydney and attended Normanhurst Boys High School.[12] He earned a BSc (Hons) in mining engineering at the University of New South Wales in 1968,[12] and a PhD in Geology at Macquarie University[13] in 1976.[14] His doctoral thesis (from 1973) was titled, The pipe deposits of tungsten-molybdenum-bismuth in eastern Australia.[14]



Plimer started as a tutor and senior tutor in earth sciences at Macquarie University from 1968 to 1973.[15][16] After finishing his PhD, he became a lecturer in geology at the W.S. and L.B. Robinson University College of the University of New South Wales at Broken Hill from 1974 to 1979.[15][16] Part of his work focused on the Broken Hill ore deposit—a large zinc-lead-silver mine in Australia.[17][18][non-primary source needed] Plimer then went to work for North Broken Hill Ltd. between 1979 and 1982, becoming chief research geologist.[12][15][16] Due to his publication of a number of academic papers, he was offered a job as senior lecturer in economic geology at the University of New England in 1982.[12][15][16] After two years, he left to become a professor and head of geology at the University of Newcastle through 1991.[10][12] Plimer later served as professor and head of geology of the School of Earth Sciences at the University of Melbourne from 1991 to 2005.[10][12] He was conferred as professor emeritus of earth sciences at the University of Melbourne in 2005,[9] and was a professor of mining geology at the University of Adelaide.[1][10][19]

Plimer is a fellow of the Australian Academy of Technological Sciences and Engineering, the Australian Institute of Geoscientists and the Australasian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy;[13] an honorary fellow of the Geological Society of London;[13][20] a member of the Geological Society of Australia, the Royal Society of South Australia, and the Royal Society of New South Wales.[13]

He co-edited the 2005 edition of Encyclopedia of Geology.[21][non-primary source needed]

Mining companies[edit]

Plimer is the former non-executive director of CBH Resources Limited from 1998 to 2010, former non-executive director of Angel Mining plc from 2003 to 2005, former director of Kimberley Metals Limited from 2008 to 2009, former director of KBL Mining Limited from 2008 to 2009 and former director of Ormil Energy Limited from 2010 to 2011.[22][10][23]

He is currently the non-executive deputy chairman of KEFI Minerals since 2006,[24] independent non-executive director of Ivanhoe Australia Limited since 2007,[25] chairman of TNT Mines Limited since 2010,[19][26] non-executive director of Niuminco Group Limited (formerly DSF International Holdings Limited) since 2011,[27][28] and non-executive director of Silver City Minerals Limited since 2011.[10][23][29][30][31] Plimer was appointed director of Roy Hill Holdings and Queensland Coal Investments in 2012.[32]

According to a columnist in The Age, Plimer earned over $400,000 (AUD) from several of these companies, and he has mining shares and options worth hundreds of thousands of Australian dollars.[33] Plimer has stated that his business interests do not affect the independence of his beliefs.[29] He has also warned that the proposed Australian carbon-trading scheme could decimate the Australian mining industry.[12][34]

Views on climate change[edit]

He is a member of the academic advisory council for climate change denialist pressure group The Global Warming Policy Foundation,[35] a member of Australians for Northern Development & Economic Vision (ANDEV),[36] and was an allied expert for the Natural Resources Stewardship Project.[37] Plimer is also a member of the Saltbush Club, a group that promotes climate change denial.[38]

Plimer rejects the scientific consensus on climate change. He accuses the environmental movement of being irrational, and claims that the vast bulk of the scientific community, including most major scientific academies, is prejudiced by the prospect of research funding. He characterised the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change as: "The IPCC process is related to environmental activism, politics and opportunism" and "the IPCC process is unrelated to science".[39] He is critical of greenhouse gas politics and says that extreme environmental changes are inevitable.[citation needed] Climatologists call his reasoning on climate change flawed, inaccurate and misleading and say he misrepresents their data.[40][2][3]

Volcanoes and CO2[edit]

Plimer has said that volcanic eruptions release more carbon dioxide (CO2) than human activity; in particular that submarine volcanoes emit large amounts of CO2 and that the influence of the gases from these volcanoes on the Earth's climate is under-represented in climate models.[41][42][43] The United States Geological Survey has calculated that human emissions of CO2 are about 130 times larger than volcanic emissions, including submarine emissions.[44][45][46] The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) stated that Plimer's claim "has no factual basis."[47] This was confirmed in a 2011 survey published in the Eos journal of the American Geophysical Union, which found that anthropogenic emissions of CO2 are 135 times larger than those from all volcanoes on Earth.[48]

Heaven and Earth[edit]

In 2009, Plimer released Heaven and Earth, a book in which he says that climate models focus too strongly on the effects of carbon dioxide, and do not give the weight he thinks is appropriate to other factors such as solar variation.[49] The aim of the book is to belittle the impact of humans on Earth by clouting all the other science like a blunt instrument, as in Plimer's words "I wanted to kill an ant with a sledgehammer."[50] Critics of the book have accused Plimer of misrepresenting sources,[51][irrelevant citation] misusing data,[52][53] and engaging in conspiracy theories.[54][55] Some critics have also described the book as unscientific,[56] and said that it contains numerous errors from which Plimer draws false conclusions.[57][58][59][60][61][62]

Copenhagen Climate Challenge[edit]

During the United Nations Climate Change Conference 2009 (COP15), Plimer spoke at a rival conference in Copenhagen for climate change deniers, called the Copenhagen Climate Challenge,[63] which was organised by the Committee for a Constructive Tomorrow.[64][65][63] According to The Australian newspaper, Plimer was a star attraction of the two-day event.[66] In closing his speech, Plimer stated that "They’ve got us outnumbered, but we’ve got them outgunned, and that’s with the truth."[63]

El Niño, earthquakes and sea levels[edit]

Plimer has stated that El Niño is caused by earthquakes and volcanic activity at the mid-ocean ridges and that the melting of polar ice has nothing to do with man-made carbon dioxide.[67] Plimer told Radio Australia that Pacific island nations are seeing changes in relative sea level not because of global warming but quite commonly due to other factors, such as "vibration consolidating the coral island sands", extraction of water, and extraction of sand for road and air strip making.[68]

Political influence[edit]

In 2009, Plimer was cited by the leader of the Liberal Party of Australia, Tony Abbott,[69] in dismissing the IPCC and its findings. But by 2011, Abbott had modified his position and stated that climate change is real and humanity makes a contribution to it.[70]

In early 2010, Plimer toured Australia with British climate change denier Christopher Monckton, giving lectures on climate change,[71] and Plimer's views came to be associated with Monckton's claim that the international left created the threat of catastrophic global warming. On this association, left-wing columnist Phillip Adams commented: "Praise the lord for Lord Monckton! For Ian Plimer! For [conservative columnist] Andrew Bolt! Not only does this evil axis of scientists tell lies [about the Greenhouse Effect] but they've also doctored the weather to frighten people with huge droughts, cyclones and tsunamis to prove what they now call 'global warming'."[72] Plimer's book Not for Greens[73] expanded his view.[74] Climate scientist Ian McHugh has refuted a number of the scientific claims in the book.[75]

Opposition to creationism[edit]

Plimer is an outspoken critic of creationism and is famous for a 1988 debate with creationist Duane Gish in which he asked his opponent to hold live electrical cables to prove that electromagnetism was 'only a theory'. Gish accused him of being theatrical, abusive and slanderous.[76]

In 1990 Plimer's anti-creationist behaviour was criticised in Creation/Evolution journal,[77] in an article titled "How Not to Argue with Creationists"[78] by skeptic and anti-creationist Jim Lippard for (among other things) including false claims and errors, and "behaving poorly" in the 1988 Gish debate.

Book: Telling Lies for God[edit]

In his book Telling Lies for God: Reason vs Creationism (1994), Plimer attacked creationists in Australia, in specific the Queensland-based Creation Science Foundation (now called Creation Ministries International or CMI), saying that claims of a biblical global flood are untenable.[79] In the book he also criticised aspects of traditional Christian belief and literal interpretations of the Bible, with chapters titled "Scientific Fraud: The Great Flood of Absurdities" and "Disinformation Doublespeak".[76]

Court case[edit]

In the late 1990s, Plimer went to court alleging misleading and deceptive advertising under the Trade Practices Act 1974 against Noah's Ark searcher Allen Roberts,[79] arising from Plimer's attacks on Roberts' claims concerning the location of Noah's Ark. Before the trial, Plimer was removed by police from public meetings at which Roberts spoke.[76] The court ruled that Roberts' claims did not constitute trade or commerce, and so were not covered by the act. It found that Roberts had indeed made false and misleading claims on two of 16 instances cited by Plimer, Plimer had failed to show the other 14, and the two were minor enough to not require remedy. Plimer lost the case,[80] and was ordered to pay his own and Roberts' legal costs estimated at over 500,000 Australian dollars.[81][82]



  • Mineral collecting localities of the Broken Hill district, Ian Plimer, Peacock Publications, Hyde Park, S.A., 1977 (ISBN 0909209065)
  • Telling lies for God – reason vs creationism, Ian Plimer, Random House, Sydney, 1994 (ISBN 0-09-182852-X)
  • Minerals and rocks of the Broken Hill, White Cliffs and Tibooburra districts : a guide to the rocks and minerals of the Broken Hill district, Ian Plimer, Peacock Publications, Norwood, S. Aust., 1994 (ISBN 0909209731)
  • A journey through stone : the Chillagoe story, the extraordinary history and geology of one of the richest mineral deposits in the world, Ian Plimer, Reed Books, Kew, Vic., 1997 (ISBN 0730104990)
  • A short history of planet Earth, Ian Plimer, ABC Books, 2001 (ISBN 0-7333-1004-4)
  • Heaven and Earth, Ian Plimer, Quartet Books (1 May 2009 hardcover ISBN 978-0-7043-7166-8) and Taylor Trade Publishing, Lanham, MD, (July 2009 Paperback ISBN 978-1-58979-472-6)
  • Not for greens: he who sups with the Devil should have a long spoon, Ian Pilmer, Connor Court Pub., Ballarat, Vic., 2014 (ISBN 9781925138191)


  1. ^ a b "Professors Emeritus". University of Melbourne. Retrieved 13 August 2022.
  2. ^ a b "Ian Plimer op-ed in The Australian again presents long list of false claims about climate". Climate Feedback. 26 November 2019. Retrieved 11 January 2020.
  3. ^ a b "Video interview of Ian Plimer at Sky News falsely claims that a new study announces an incoming ice age, partly based on an incorrect Daily Mail headline". Climate Feedback. 20 January 2021. Retrieved 20 January 2021.
  4. ^ "The Australian publishes "deeply ill-informed" opinion on climate by Ian Plimer". Climate Feedback. 9 August 2018.
  5. ^ "Commentary in The Australian by Ian Plimer relies on false claims to make its case". Climate Feedback. 20 May 2019.
  6. ^ "Ian Plimer wrongly claims that carbon dioxide emissions do not cause climate change". Climate Feedback. 11 August 2018.
  7. ^ "Ian Plimer incorrectly claims human-caused emissions are short-lived". Climate Feedback. 11 August 2018.
  8. ^ "Commentary in The Australian ignores evidence and misrepresents research while falsely claiming humans are not responsible for climate change". Climate Feedback. 26 October 2017.
  9. ^ a b "Professor Ian Plimer". University of Adelaide. Retrieved 10 July 2012.
  10. ^ a b c d e f "Executive Profile: Ian Rutherford Plimer Bsc (Hons), PhD, Fgs, Ftse, Faimm". Bloomberg BusinessWeek. Archived from the original on 18 January 2013. Retrieved 10 July 2012.
  11. ^ "News Corp columnist Ian Plimer's climate denialism called out by press council | The Weekly Beast". The Guardian. 24 July 2020. Retrieved 11 August 2021.
  12. ^ a b c d e f g "Warming up". The Mining Journal. London: Aspermont UK (Mining Communications Ltd). 27 March 2009. Archived from the original on 19 May 2012. Retrieved 13 December 2019.
  13. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n "Ian Plimer – Professor". University of Adelaide. Archived from the original on 17 July 2011. Retrieved 10 July 2012.
  14. ^ a b Plimer, Ian R. (1976). The pipe deposits of tungsten-molybdenum-bismuth in eastern Australia. OCLC 221677073.
  15. ^ a b c d "Geology Chair" (PDF). University News: Newsletter for the University of Newcastle. 10 (10). University of Newcastle: 5. 1984. Retrieved 15 June 2013.
  16. ^ a b c d "Gold Inaugural Lecturer" (PDF). University News: Newsletter for the University of Newcastle. 11 (2). University of Newcastle: 3. 1985. Retrieved 15 June 2013.
  17. ^ Plimer, Ian R. (1 December 1984). "The mineralogical history of the Broken Hill Lode, NSW". Australian Journal of Earth Sciences. 31 (4): 379–402. Bibcode:1984AuJES..31..379P. doi:10.1080/08120098408729300. ISSN 0812-0099.
  18. ^ Plimer, Ian R. (1 May 1994). "Strata-bound scheelite in meta-evaporites, Broken Hill, Australia". Economic Geology. 89 (3): 423–437. Bibcode:1994EcGeo..89..423P. doi:10.2113/gsecongeo.89.3.423. ISSN 1554-0774.
  19. ^ a b "TNT Mines Limited: Board of Directors". TNT Mines Limited. Retrieved 11 July 2012.
  20. ^ "List of Honorary Fellows". Geological Society of London. Retrieved 11 July 2012.
  21. ^ Selley, Richard C.; Cocks, L. Robin M.; Plimer, Ian R., eds. (2005). Encyclopedia of Geology. Academic Press. ISBN 9780123693969.
  22. ^ "KBL Mining - Bloomberg". www.bloomberg.com.
  23. ^ a b "Tasmanian Assets to be Spun Off and Listed as TNT Mines Limited". Marketwire. 14 December 2010. Retrieved 10 July 2012.
  24. ^ "Board of Directors". KEFI Minerals Plc. Retrieved 11 July 2012.
  25. ^ "Board of Directors". Ivanhoe Australia Limited. Retrieved 11 July 2012.
  26. ^ "Appointment of Managing Director for TNT Mines Limited". Marketwire. 18 March 2011. Retrieved 10 July 2012.
  27. ^ "Board of Directors & Management". Niuminco Group Limited. Retrieved 11 July 2012.
  28. ^ "Company Overview of DSF International Holdings Limited". Bloomberg Businessweek. Archived from the original on 18 January 2013. Retrieved 11 July 2012.
  29. ^ a b Debelle, Penelope (28 May 2009). "Why I'd put global warming on ice". The Advertiser. Retrieved 10 July 2012.
  30. ^ Swanepoel, Esmarie (24 November 2010). "Minemakers to list Tasmania tin/tungsten assets on ASX". Mining Weekly. Retrieved 10 July 2012.
  31. ^ "Directors". Silver City Minerals Limited. Retrieved 11 July 2012.
  32. ^ Burrell, Andrew (2 February 2012). "Gina brings climate sceptic on board". The Australian. Retrieved 11 July 2012.
  33. ^ Manning, Paddy (13 February 2010). "A resourceful climate sceptic". The Age. Retrieved 12 February 2010.
  34. ^ Plimer, Ian (11 November 2008). "Ian Plimer joins Lateline Business". Lateline Business (Interview). Interviewed by Fullerton, Ticky. Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 11 July 2012.
  35. ^ Ward, Bob (8 December 2009). "Ian Plimer's uncritical coverage in the hacked emails row is frustrating". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 21 January 2020.
  36. ^ "Industry Voice". Australians for Northern Development & Economic Vision. Archived from the original on 13 December 2010. Retrieved 11 July 2012.
  37. ^ "NRSP People". Natural Resources Stewardship Project. Archived from the original on 2 December 2007. Retrieved 11 July 2012.
  38. ^ https://www.crikey.com.au/2020/02/06/saltbush-club-part-one/
  39. ^ Hendrik Gout (April 2009). "Ian Plimer: A question of faith". Independentweekly.com.au. Retrieved 11 August 2009.
  40. ^ James Randerson (4 December 2009). "Climate sceptics: are they gaining any credence? | Environment". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 7 April 2011.
  41. ^ Gocher K (21 April 2010). "Volcano climate change". Rural Online. Australian Broadcasting Corporation."Professor Ian Plimer has long argued that large volcanic eruptions will release more carbon into the atmosphere than human-induced activity..."
  42. ^ Plimer, Ian (29 May 2009). "Vitriolic climate in academic hothouse | The Australian". theaustralian.com.au. Retrieved 24 May 2010. Some 85 per cent of volcanoes are unseen and unmeasured yet these heat the oceans and add monstrous amounts of CO2 to the oceans. Why have these been ignored?
  43. ^ Plimer, Ian, Heaven and Earth: Global Warming – The Missing Science, Conner Court Publishing (2009), pp. 207–225.
  44. ^ "Volcanic Gases and Their Effects". Volcano Hazards Program. U.S. Geological Survey.
  45. ^ "Ian Plimer's volcano claims vaporise under questioning on Australian TV | George Monbiot | Environment | guardian.co.uk". guardian. London. 16 December 2009. Retrieved 21 April 2010.
  46. ^ "Iceland volcano gives warming world chance to debunk climate sceptic myths | Leo Hickman | Environment | guardian.co.uk". guardian. London. 21 April 2010. Retrieved 21 April 2010.
  47. ^ "Endangerment and Cause or Contribute Findings for Greenhouse Gases Under Section 202(a) of the Clean Air Act: EPA's Response to Public Comments Volume 2: Validity of Observed and Measured Data" (PDF). epa.gov. US EPA. May 2009. Retrieved 21 July 2018.
  48. ^ Jessica Marshall (June 2011). "Humans Dwarf Volcanoes for CO2 Emissions". Discovery News. Retrieved 30 June 2011.
  49. ^ Sheehan, Paul (13 April 2009). "Beware the climate of conformity". Smh.com.au. Retrieved 14 April 2009.
  50. ^ Van Tiggelen, John (6 March 2010). "Climate of doubt", Good Weekend, Sydney Morning Herald, pp24
  51. ^ Grubel, James (8 September 2008). "Scientists say Australian carbon targets too weak". Reuters. Retrieved 30 March 2010.
  52. ^ Morton, Adam (2 May 2009). "The sceptic's shadow of doubt". The Age. Melbourne. Retrieved 20 July 2009.
  53. ^ Enting, Ian G. (10 June 2009). "Ian Plimer's 'Heaven + Earth' — Checking the Claims" (PDF). ARC Centre of Excellence for Mathematics and Statistics of Complex Systems (MASCOS). doi:10.6084/m9.figshare.9165608.v1. Retrieved 19 May 2022. {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  54. ^ Ashley, Michael (9 May 2009). "No science in Plimer's primer". The Australian. Retrieved 11 July 2009.
  55. ^ "Heaven + Earth – review by Malcolm Walter". The Science Show – ABC Radio National. 6 June 2009. Retrieved 6 June 2009.
  56. ^ "Comments on Heaven and Earth: Global Warming: The Missing Science". The Science Show – ABC Radio National. 7 June 2009. Retrieved 20 July 2009.
  57. ^ Enting, Ian (2019). "Ian Plimer's 'Heaven + Earth'—Checking the Claims". University of Melbourne. doi:10.6084/m9.figshare.9165608.v1. Retrieved 19 May 2022. {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  58. ^ Turney, Chris (27 June 2009). "Grievous heavenly harm". The Age.
  59. ^ Gerlach, Terry (30 July 2010). "Voices: Volcanic versus anthropogenic carbon dioxide: The missing science".
  60. ^ "Heaven + Earth – review by David Karoly". Australian Broadcasting Corporation. 2009. Retrieved 11 July 2009.
  61. ^ "RAPID ROUNDUP: New book by Ian Plimer doubts human-induced climate change – experts respond". Australian Science Media Centre. 21 April 2009. Archived from the original on 29 August 2009. Retrieved 20 July 2009.
  62. ^ James Randerson (14 December 2009). "How climate change sceptic Ian Plimer dodges valid criticism | Environment". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 7 April 2011.
  63. ^ a b c "Copenhagen Calling: Bolstering Barack – Giles Parkinson – News – Business Spectator". businessspectator.com.au. Retrieved 9 December 2009.
  64. ^ Gray, Louise (9 December 2009). "Copenhagen climate summit: Behind the scenes at the sceptics' conference – Telegraph". telegraph. London. Archived from the original on 12 December 2009. Retrieved 10 December 2009.
  65. ^ "Plimer addresses Copenhagen 'heretics'". smh.com.au. 9 December 2009. Retrieved 9 December 2009.
  66. ^ Taylor, Lenore (10 December 2009). "Plimer toast of sceptics meeting". The Australian. p. 4. Retrieved 10 December 2009.
  67. ^ Kirby, Simon (12 April 2007). "Mankind 'can't influence' climate". dailytelegraph.com.au. Retrieved 25 April 2010.
  68. ^ "Australia Network News:Stories:Australian scientist sceptical of climate change". australianetworknews.com. Retrieved 19 August 2009.
  69. ^ "Marian Wilkinson". smh.com.au. 2 December 2009. Retrieved 1 December 2009.
  70. ^ Williamson, Brett (7 March 2011). "Tony Abbott's climate change". ABC. Retrieved 8 April 2011.
  71. ^ "Lord Monckton on The "Conspiracy" Of Climate Change". ABC. Retrieved 8 April 2011.
  72. ^ Adams, Phillip (13 February 2010). "The great greenhouse plot". The Weekend Australian Magazine. p. 3. Retrieved 19 February 2010.
  73. ^ Plimer, Ian (2014). Not For Greens, He who sups with the Devil should have a long spoon. Redland Bay, Queensland: Connorcourt Publishinmg. ISBN 9781925138191.
  74. ^ Connor Court, The Zen Cart™ Team and. "Not for Greens – Ian Plimer – $29.95 : Connor Court Publishing, Australian Publisher". www.connorcourt.com. Retrieved 25 April 2016.
  75. ^ "Get Fact: how accurate is Ian Plimer's new book?". Crikey. 11 July 2014. Retrieved 25 April 2016.
  76. ^ a b c Thomas H. Jukes (1995). "Battling creationism down under". Journal of Molecular Evolution. 40 (6): 707–8. Bibcode:1995JMolE..40..707J. doi:10.1007/BF00160521. S2CID 41688574.
  77. ^ Lippard J (Winter 1991–1992). "How Not To Argue With Creationists" (PDF). Creation/Evolution. 11 (2): 9–21.
    Updated at TalkOrigins
  78. ^ "How Not To Argue With Creationists". discord.org. 1992. Retrieved 22 April 2010.
  79. ^ a b ""Telling Lies For God"? — One Man's Crusade". Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 27 October 2009.
  80. ^ Leigh Dayton (June 1997). "Ark verdict spells ruin for geologist". New Scientist. Retrieved 16 July 2009.
  81. ^ "Denialist ark a wobbly craft". The Australian. May 2009. Retrieved 13 July 2009.
  82. ^ Geoff Maslen. "Noah's Ark case leaves professor high and dry". Times Higher Education. Retrieved 16 July 2009.
  83. ^ "Winners & Finalists For 1995". Australian Museum. Retrieved 11 July 2012.
  84. ^ "Australian Humanists of the Year (AHOYs)". Humanist Society of New South Wale. Retrieved 15 June 2013.
  85. ^ "Search Australian Honours – Name: PLIMER, Ian Rutherford". Australian Government. Retrieved 15 June 2013.
  86. ^ "Winners & Finalists For 2002". Australian Museum. Retrieved 11 July 2012.
  87. ^ "The Clarke Medal". Royal Society of New South Wales. Archived from the original on 10 February 2015. Retrieved 15 June 2013.
  88. ^ "The 2005 AusIMM Award Winners" (PDF). Australasian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy. Retrieved 15 June 2013.
  89. ^ Elliott P, et al. (2009). "Description and crystal structure of a new mineral – plimerite, ZnFe3+4(PO4)3(OH)5 — the Zn-analogue of rockbridgeite and frondelite, from Broken Hill, New South Wales, Australia". Mineralogical Magazine. 73 (1): 131–148. Bibcode:2009MinM...73..131E. doi:10.1180/minmag.2009.073.1.131. S2CID 98829558.
  90. ^ Anthony, John W.; et al. (2011). "Plimerite, ZnFe3+4(PO4)3(OH)5" (PDF). Handbook of Mineralogy. Mineralogical Society of America. Retrieved 12 July 2012.
  91. ^ Piilonen, Paula C.; Poirier, Glenn (2010). "New Mineral Names" (PDF). American Mineralogist. 95 (10): 206–207. Bibcode:2010AmMin..95.1594P. doi:10.2138/am.2010.566. Retrieved 12 July 2012.

External links[edit]