Iberia (airline)

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Logotipo de Iberia.svg
IATA ICAO Callsign
Founded 28 June 1927; 89 years ago (1927-06-28)
Hubs Adolfo Suárez Madrid–Barajas Airport
Frequent-flyer program Iberia Plus/Avios
Alliance Oneworld
Fleet size 79 (excluding subsidiaries)
Destinations 89 (excluding subsidiaries)
Company slogan ¿Y mañana, te imaginas?
(And tomorrow, can you imagine?)
Parent company International Airlines Group
Headquarters Ciudad Lineal, Madrid, Spain[1]
Key people
Website iberia.com

Iberia (/ˈbɪəriə/ EYE-BEER-ee-ə), legally incorporated as Iberia, Líneas Aéreas de España, S.A. Operadora, Sociedad Unipersonal, is the flag carrier airline of Spain founded in 1927. Based in Madrid, it operates an international network of services from its main base of Madrid-Barajas Airport.[3] Iberia, with Iberia Regional (operated by an independent carrier Air Nostrum) and with Iberia Express, is a part of Iberia Group. In addition to transporting passengers and freight, Iberia Group carries out related activities, such as aircraft maintenance, handling in airports, IT systems and in-flight catering. Iberia Group airlines fly to over 109 destinations in 39 countries, and a further 90 destinations through code-sharing agreements with other airlines.[3]

On 8 April 2010, it was confirmed that British Airways and Iberia had signed an agreement to merge,[4] making the combined operation the third largest commercial airline in the world by revenue.[5] Shareholders of both carriers approved the deal on 29 November 2010.[6] The newly merged company, known as International Airlines Group (IAG), was established in January 2011, although both airlines will continue to operate under their current brands.[7]


King Alfonso XIII of Spain disembarks from the Rohrbach Ro.VIII Roland used for the inaugural flight of Iberia from Madrid to Barcelona in 1927.
King Alfonso XIII inspects one of the airline's Junkers G 24s
Crew of the inaugural Iberia service to Buenos Aires in 1946 with the Douglas DC-4 used for the flight
Iberia Douglas DC-8-52 at Stockholm in 1969
Iberia Sud Aviation Caravelle at London - Gatwick in 1973
Boeing 727-200 on approach to land at London - Heathrow in 1978
Boeing 747-300 about to touch down at Miami in 1985

Early years[edit]

Iberia, Compañía Aérea de Transportes was incorporated on 28 June 1927 with a capital investment by the financier Horacio Echevarrieta and Deutsche Luft Hansa of 1.1 million pesetas. Flight operations started on 14 December 1927. Within a year, the company was sponsored by the Spanish government to provide postal transport between Madrid and Barcelona. During the dictatorship of Miguel Primo de Rivera, the aviation companies in Spain were combined and became state-controlled as a general interest public utility, coming into effect in early 1928. As a consequence, Iberia was merged into Compañía de Líneas Aéreas Subvencionadas S.A. (CLASSA) and ceased activities as an independent airline on 29 May 1929.[8] The name "Iberia" continued to be registered by Director-General Daniel de Araoz y Aréjula. As the name "Iberia" was still registered, it was used when operations began in nationalist-held territory towards the end of the Spanish Civil War. Following the Civil War, Iberia became a purely domestic airline.[citation needed] At the end of the 1930s, the airline served the SevilleLaracheCabo JubyLas Palmas, BarcelonaSaragosaBurgosSalamanca–Seville–Tetuan and Palma–Barcelona–Vitoria runs using Junkers Ju-52 aircraft.[9]

The airline was nationalised on 30 September 1944 and became part of Instituto Nacional de Industria. In 1946, Iberia was the first airline to fly between Europe and South America after World War II, using a Douglas DC-4 to operate flights between Madrid and Buenos Aires.[3] By the Pact of Madrid in 1953, visa requirements were eliminated for US visitors to Spain. This stimulated the start of transatlantic flights between Spain and United States the following year. In addition, the amendments made in Montreal to the Convention on International Civil Aviation on 14 June 1954 were liberal to Spain, allowing mass tourism using charter aircraft. The airline phased in the first of three Super Constellations in June 1954. The aircraft was named Santa María to commemorate Columbus' first voyage.[10]

From 1961 Iberia had a fleet of Douglas DC-8 four-engined long range jet airliners. The busiest route was Madrid to Buenos Aires. By 1965 a joint board of Iberia and Aviaco was set up to coordinate policies so that services did not conflict. In the early 1970s the company bought Douglas DC-9s, Boeing 727s, Douglas DC-10s and Boeing 747s as it expanded routes to Central America.

In the late 1980s/early 1990s Iberia planned a fleet renewal with the McDonnell Douglas MD-87, Airbus A320 and Airbus A340 replacing the Douglas DC-9, Boeing 727 and McDonnell Douglas DC-10 respectively. In June 1990, the carrier bought 16 Boeing 757s for US$1 billion, including spares and training; twelve more aircraft of the type were taken on option as a part of the deal.[11]

In 1987 Iberia, together with Lufthansa, Air France and SAS Group, founded Amadeus, an IT company (also known as a Global Distribution System) that would enable travel agencies to sell the founders' and other airlines' products from a single system.

At the end of the '80s Iberia began to build up interests in other Spanish airlines - Aviaco, Viva Air, Binter Canarias and Binter Mediterráneo - and Latin American airlines Aerolíneas Argentinas, Viasa and Ladeco.

Development since the 1990s[edit]

In June 1990 the company led a consortium to buy an 85% stake in Aerolíneas Argentinas for an agreed $2billion and the following year bought a 45% stake in Viasa for $145million. In 1991 Iberia set up Europe's first international airline frequent-flyer programme, Iberia Plus, and, in 1996, the airline launched its website.

The company ordered 76 aircraft from Airbus in February 1998, which at the time was the largest single Airbus order. The following year it bought Aviaco and inherited that airline's fleet.

During 2001 Iberia was privatised and shares were listed on stock exchanges. By 2002, when Iberia celebrated its 75th anniversary, it had carried nearly 500 million people in its history.[12] In July 2004, Iberia announced it had decided to move its Latin American hub from Miami, Florida to San Pedro Sula, Honduras.

On 5 February 2006, Terminal 4 at Madrid - Barajas Airport was turned over to Iberia and fellow Oneworld alliance members. This provided much-needed expansion capabilities for Iberia. Iberia represents around 60% of the airport's traffic. In 2005 the airline and its regional branch Air Nostrum transported 21,619,041 passengers via Madrid - Barajas Airport.

Iberia partially owns a low-cost carrier called Clickair, launched in November 2006.

On November 12, 2009, Iberia confirmed that it had reached a preliminary agreement to merge with British Airways. The merger between the two carriers would create the world's third-largest airline in terms of revenue. On April 25, 2010, it was confirmed that British Airways and Iberia had agreed to a merger, forming the International Airlines Group, although each airline would continue to operate under its current brand.

In November 2012 Iberia announced plans to reduce the number of employees by 4,500 and its fleet by five long-haul and 20 short-haul aircraft.[13]

In 2012 Iberia established its own low-cost airline Iberia Express , which operates short- and medium-haul routes from its parent airline's Madrid hub, providing feeder flights onto Iberia's long-haul network. The airline began operating on 25 March 2012 and shares its head office with Iberia in Chamartín, Madrid.

Corporate affairs[edit]

Head office[edit]

The company head office is in the MV49 Business Park in Madrid.[14][15][16]


On 3 April 2001, Iberia was privatised and included in the IBEX-35 stock index of the Madrid stock exchange. The core shareholders were: Caja Madrid– 23.45%, British Airways 13.2%, SEPI– 5.20%, El Corte Inglés– 2.90%.[17] British Airways raised its stake in Iberia by purchasing American Airlines' remaining shares, reportedly paying £13m for the small shareholding. This increased BA's total stake in Iberia to around 10% and preserved its two seats on the Iberia board.[18]

In July 2008 British Airways and Iberia announced plans to merge, wherein each airline would retain its original brand.[19] The agreement was confirmed in April 2010,[20] and in July the European Commission and United States Department of Transportation permitted the merger and the two airlines began to co-ordinate transatlantic routes with American Airlines.[21][22] On 6 October 2010 the alliance between British Airways, American Airlines and Iberia formally began operations. At the time it was estimated the alliance would generate an estimated £230 million in annual cost-saving for BA, in addition to the £330 million which would be saved by the merger with Iberia.[23][24] The merger was finalised on 21 January 2011, resulting in the International Airlines Group (IAG), the world's third-largest airline in terms of annual revenue and the second-largest airline group in Europe.[20][25]

Prior to merging, British Airways owned a 13.5% stake in Iberia, and thus received ownership of 55% of the combined International Airlines Group; Iberia's other shareholders received the remaining 45%.[26]

The merger has been controversial. British Airways operates two funded principal defined benefit pension schemes in the UK. British Airways admits that one of the most serious financial risks it suffers is the challenging pension schemes' combined deficit. The last actuarial valuation was 3.7bn pounds, a value even greater than IAG's capitalisation.[citation needed] In addition and according to the "Pensions Act" for the year 2004, should it be necessary, the United Kingdom's Pension Regulator could force Iberia or IAG to give additional financial support to British Airways' retirement pension schemes. In its "Annual Report and Accounts Year ended 31 December 2011" BA declared that "negative movements in pension asset values and financial returns from these assets may increase the size of the pension deficit".[citation needed]

As of December 2013, the airline had over 18,000 employees.[27]

Subsidiaries and alliances[edit]

Iberia has a 9.49% stake in low-cost carrier Vueling which is based near Barcelona, with parent company IAG owning the remaining 90.51%. This was done to ensure that IAG does not have 100% of the shares in Vueling, but that the shares are split between its divisions. Iberia also has a 0.95% share in Royal Air Maroc.[3]

Iberia is allied with American Airlines, Qantas, Avianca, British Airways, and Grupo TACA, and on 1 September 1999, the company joined the Oneworld alliance.[citation needed]

Iberia formerly owned Aviaco, which operated most domestic routes. It was founded on 18 February 1948 and operated until 1 September 1999. Iberia also owned Binter Canarias, until the Spanish government began the privatisation of the subsidiary. Hesperia Inversiones Aéreas bought the airline from Iberia in July 2002. A second airline using the Binter name, Binter Mediterraneo, was formed as a subsidiary of Iberia in 1988 with routes from Melilla to Málaga, Almeria, Valencia and in its last year, with Madrid. The airline was acquired by Air Nostrum in 1998 and merged into its operations.

Iberia was a founding partner in the computerised air ticket reservation system, Amadeus, with an 18.28% stake – this was sold in 2005.[citation needed] Iberia is also active as a tour operator through its Viva Tours and Tiempo Libre units, and with Cacesa, it supplies parcel shipment services.[citation needed]

In addition, Iberia is an aircraft maintenance company, servicing its fleet and those of another 48 companies, including some leading European airlines. Iberia is a supplier of aircraft handling services at all Spanish airports; its airline clients number more than 200.[citation needed]


Former Iberia logo used from 1977 to 2013

Codeshare agreements[edit]

Iberia codeshares with the following airlines:[28]


Current fleet[edit]

Iberia Airbus A330 fly with Patrulla Águila in the 75th anniversary of the Spanish Air Force
Iberia Airbus A340-600 with the old livery
Iberia Airbus A319 with retro livery
Former Iberia Boeing 747-400
Former Iberia Boeing 757-200

Iberia operates an all-Airbus fleet. As of January 2017 the airline's fleet consists of the following aircraft:[29][30]

Iberia fleet
Aircraft In Service Orders Passengers Notes
P Y Total
Airbus A319-100 16 14 102 116 To be replaced by A320 and A320neo[citation needed]
34 84 118
Airbus A320-200 14 7 18 144 162
Airbus A320neo 17 TBA
Airbus A321-200 13 50 124 174
Airbus A321neo 3 TBA
Airbus A330-200 12 1[citation needed] 19 269 288
Airbus A330-300 8 36 242 278
Airbus A340-600 17 46 300 346 Older aircraft are to be replaced by Airbus A330 and A350[31]
Airbus A350-900 XWB 16 TBA Deliveries from 2018[32]
Total 80 44

Fleet development[edit]

Over the years, Iberia operated the following aircraft types:[33][34]

Aircraft Introduced Retired
Airbus A300 1981 2002
Airbus A340-300 1996 2016[35]
Boeing 727-200 1972 2001
Boeing 737-300 1988 1990
Boeing 737-400 1998 2001
Boeing 747-100 1970 1981
Boeing 747-200 1972 2005
Boeing 747-300 2000 2005
Boeing 747-400 2004 2006
Boeing 757-200 1993 2008
Boeing 767-300 1998 2001
Bristol 170 Freighter Mk.31 1953 1963
Convair 440 1957 1972
de Havilland DH.89 Dragon Rapide 1934 1953
Dornier Do J Wal 1935 1936
Douglas DC-1 1938 1940
Douglas DC-2 1935 1946
Douglas DC-3 1944 1973
Douglas DC-4 1946 1968
Douglas DC-8 1961 1983
Douglas DC-9 1967 2001
Fokker F28 Fellowship 1970 1975
Ford Trimotor 1930 1946
Junkers G 24 1929 1936
Junkers Ju 52/3m 1937 1957
Lockheed L-1011 TriStar 1997 1998
Lockheed L-1049 Super Constellation 1954 1966
McDonnell Douglas DC-10 1973 2000
McDonnell Douglas MD-87 1990 2008
McDonnell Douglas MD-88 1999 2008
Rohrbach Ro-VIII Roland 1927 1929
SNCASE SE.161 Languedoc 1952 1960
Sud Caravelle 1962 1987

Aircraft cabins[edit]

Iberia Business Plus class on board an Airbus A330-300
Iberia Economy class on board an Airbus A319

All of aircraft in the fleet are configured in a two class layout with Business and Economy cabins. Iberia currently markets three distinct business class variations, depending on flight length. In March 2009 Iberia announced that during the course of 2009–2011 it would renovate its economy class on all its planes as well as designing a new business class for its long haul planes.[citation needed] Iberia was one of the last remaining major airlines to equip all of its intercontinental routes with personal entertainment screens. As of 2016, the Airbus A330-200 and -300, and A340-600 fleets are equipped with personal IFE. In-flight catering is provided by Gate Gourmet.

Business Class

Business Class is available on Spanish domestic and inter-European flights. Seats are exactly the same as in the economy cabin, but with the middle (B and E) seats blocked off. Business Class tickets also include improved ground service (priority check-in, security, boarding, baggage handling, and lounge access.)[36]

Business Club

Business Club is a mid-haul product available on flights to select destinations in Equatorial Guinea, Israel and Russia. Unlike on short-haul service, Business Club seats are located in a dedicated cabin, are physically wider, have a greater seat pitch, and are equipped with leg-rests and in-seat video on demand.[37]

Business Plus

Business Plus is offered on long-haul flights to the Americas and Southern Africa. Business Plus offers lie-flat seating and international business class amenities.[38]


Iberia has moved more to an American, or "a-la carte" model for domestic and European flights, offering a buy on board service called "Tu Menú" in economy for meals, snacks and beverages.[39] Mid-haul flights to Athens, Cairo, Dakar, Istanbul, Malabo, Moscow, and Tel Aviv as well as long-haul intercontinental flights are fully catered in Economy with the exception of alcohol.[38][40]

Accidents and incidents[edit]

As of January 2016, a total of 37 aircraft operated by or for Iberia have been written off in accidents and a shoot-down since 1939. Several Iberia aircraft have also been hijacked. These incidents and accidents include the following:[41]

  • During 1939 Iberia lost two trimotor Junkers Ju 52s. On March 16 one crashed due to bad weather in Cabezavellosa on the regular flight from Salamanca to Seville.[42] On December 18 another was mistakenly shot down by British anti-aircraft fire as it passed over Gibraltar on its flight from Tetuán to Seville, when it was mistaken for a German aircraft (the German military used large numbers of Ju-52s in World War II). Three crew and seven passengers were killed.[43]
  • On December 23, 1948 a Douglas DC-3 crashed in bad weather near Gandesa killing all 27 occupants.
  • On October 28, 1957, an engine fire caused a Douglas DC-3 to crash near Getafe killing all 21 occupants.[44]
  • On April 29, 1959 a Douglas DC-3 crashed onto Sierra de Valdemeca, Cuenca after being diverted due to bad weather with the loss of all 28 occupants.[45]
  • On March 31, 1965 a Convair 440-62, crashed into the sea on approach to Tangiers killing 50 of the 53 occupants. The aircraft stalled at low altitude.[46]
  • On May 5, 1965, Flight 401, a Lockheed Constellation, crashed at Los Rodeos Airport at Tenerife after hitting a scraper and tractor during a go-around in foggy conditions. Of forty-nine occupants, thirty passengers and six crew members were killed.
  • On November 4, 1967 – Flight 062 a Sud Aviation Caravelle crashed at Black Down Hill Sussex, United Kingdom killing all 37 passengers and crew on board.
  • On January 7, 1972 Flight 602 crashed into Sa Talia hill in San Jose on approach to Ibiza Airport killing all 104 on board.[47]
  • On March 5, 1973, sixty-eight people were killed in a mid-air collision above the French city of Nantes involving an Iberia Douglas DC-9 flying from Palma to London as Flight 504; and a Convair 990 Coronado aircraft, operating as Spantax Flight 400. The Spantax Convair 990 was able to make a successful emergency landing whilst the Iberia DC-9 crashed killing everyone on board. The accident occurred during a French air traffic controllers' strike.[48]
  • On December 17, 1973, an Iberia McDonnell Douglas DC-10 registered EC-CBN overran the runway upon landing at Boston Logan after a flight from Madrid Airport. There were no fatalities amongst the 168 people on board, however the aircraft was written off.[49]
  • On December 7, 1983, Iberia Flight 350, a Boeing 727 (EC-CFJ), crashed while taking off in dense fog when it collided with Aviaco Flight 134, a Douglas DC-9 (EC-CGS) that had mistakenly taxied onto the runway at Madrid Airport. All on the Aviaco flight perished, and 51 (50 passengers, 1 crew member) of the 93 on board the Iberia flight were killed. Among the casualties was the famous Mexican actress Fanny Cano.[citation needed]
  • On February 19, 1985, Iberia Flight 610, a Boeing 727-200, crashed after hitting a television antenna installed on the summit of Monte Oiz while landing in Bilbao, killing 148 people.[50]
  • On July 26, 1996 Iberia Flight 6621, a McDonnell-Douglas DC-10-30 flying from Madrid to Havana was hijacked mid-flight. The hijacker, a Lebanese national named Ibrahim Saada demanded the flight be diverted to Miami International Airport. No one was hurt and the aircraft later landed at Jose Marti International Airport some hours later. Saada was later apprehended and faced up to 20 years in prison.
  • On November 9, 2007 an Iberia Airbus A340-600, registration EC-JOH, was badly damaged at Quito, Ecuador after sliding off the runway at Old Mariscal Sucre International Airport. No injuries were reported. According to Airbus, the aircraft was written-off.[51]

See also[edit]



  1. ^ "Airline Membership". IATA. 
  2. ^ "Iberia Express CEO Takes Charge Of Parent". Aviation Week. 28 March 2013. Retrieved 1 February 2014. 
  3. ^ a b c d "Directory: World Airlines". Flight International. 2007-04-03. pp. 91–92. 
  4. ^ "British Airways and Iberia sign merger agreement". BBC News. 2010-04-08. Retrieved 8 April 2010. 
  5. ^ "BA seals long-awaited Iberia deal". Reuters UK. 2010-04-08. Retrieved 8 April 2010. 
  6. ^ "BA Iberia merger gets approval from shareholders". BBC News. BBC News. 29 November 2010. Retrieved 1 February 2014. 
  7. ^ "IAG shares begin trading, replacing BA and Iberia". BBC News Online. 24 January 2011. Retrieved 2 January 2012. 
  8. ^ "Compañía de Líneas Aéreas Subvencionadas S.A. (C.L.A.S.S.A.)". 9 December 2004. Archived from the original on 9 December 2004. Retrieved 16 August 2016. 
  9. ^ "Airline companies of the World Iberia Airline". Flight. 1583 (XXXV): 428. 27 April 1939. 
  10. ^ "Super Connies for Spain". Flight. 66 (2372): 59. 9 July 1954. 
  11. ^ "News in brief—Iberia buys 757s". Flight International. 137 (4221): 9. 20–26 June 1990. ISSN 0015-3710. 
  12. ^ "GrupIberia : Más de 75 años volando". Iberia. Retrieved 1 February 2017. 
  13. ^ "Iberia to cut 4,500 staff and reduce fleet by 25 aircraft". Flightglobal.com. Retrieved 2013-04-03. 
  14. ^ "Iberia se muda de sede por un "importante ahorro de costes"" (Archive). Preferente. 8 January 2013. Retrieved on August 13, 2014.
  15. ^ "Legal information." Iberia. Retrieved on August 13, 2014. "IBERIA LAE SA Operadora Unipersonal, with official address at C/ Martínez Villergas, 49 28027 Madrid"
  16. ^ "Google Maps". Google Maps. Retrieved 2016-04-19. 
  17. ^ "Inicio - Iberia". Grupo.iberia.es. Retrieved 2013-04-03. 
  18. ^ Airliner World January 2007
  19. ^ Brothers, Caroline (30 July 2008). "British Airways in Merger Talks". The New York Times. Retrieved 30 July 2008. 
  20. ^ a b "British Airways and Iberia sign merger agreement". BBC News. 8 April 2010. Retrieved 23 October 2011. 
  21. ^ Rowley, Emma (15 July 2010). "EC approves BA alliance with American Airlines and Iberia". The Telegraph. London. Retrieved 15 July 2010. 
  22. ^ Kamal Ahmed (14 February 2010). "British Airways given approval for tie up with American Airlines and Iberia". The Telegraph. Retrieved 15 July 2013. 
  23. ^ Wilson, Elliot (14 July 2010). "British Airways' three-way alliance cleared for takeoff". Daily Mail. London. Retrieved 16 July 2010. 
  24. ^ "Airlines unveil 'new deal for transatlantic flyers'". The Independent. London. 8 October 2010. Retrieved 8 October 2010. 
  25. ^ "Iberia expects to complete merger with British Airways in January". Daily Nation. 27 October 2010. Retrieved 18 November 2010. 
  26. ^ "BA and Iberia agree merger deal". BBC News. 12 November 2009. Retrieved 23 October 2011. 
  27. ^ Moores, Victoria (24 July 2014). "Iberia pilots and ground staff agree to job cuts". Air Transport World. Archived from the original on 24 July 2014. 
  28. ^ "Profile on Iberia". CAPA. Centre for Aviation. Archived from the original on 2016-10-31. Retrieved 2016-10-31. 
  29. ^ "Iberia Fleet Details and History". Planespotters. 12 January 2017. Retrieved 19 January 2017. [unreliable source?]
  30. ^ Airbus Orders and Deliveries (XLS), accessed via "Orders & Deliveries". Airbus. 31 December 2016. Retrieved 19 January 2017. 
  31. ^ Delpiano, Ricardo J. (1 August 2014). "Iberia reemplazará todos sus A340 con nuevos A330 y A350 a partir de 2015" [Iberia will replace all its A340s with new A330s and A350s from 2015]. desdescl.com (in Spanish). Retrieved 21 January 2017. [self-published source]
  32. ^ Apesteguía, Esther (19 February 2015). "Airbus presenta a Iberia su nuevo A350 XWB" [Airbus presents Iberia with its new aircraft, the A350 XWB]. fly-news.es (in Spanish). Fly News. Retrieved 21 January 2017. 
  33. ^ "Iberia fleet development listing". Airfleets.net. Retrieved 2013-04-20. 
  34. ^ Customer Summary Through March 2013. Boeing.com.
  35. ^ ch-aviation.com - Iberia ends A340-300 operations 23 November 2016
  36. ^ "Business Class - Iberia". www.iberia.com. Retrieved 2016-04-17. 
  37. ^ "Business Club - Iberia". www.iberia.com. Retrieved 2016-04-17. 
  38. ^ a b "Business Plus - Iberia". www.iberia.com. Retrieved 2016-04-17. 
  39. ^ "Tu Menú." Iberia Airlines. Accessed October 11, 2008.
  40. ^ "Economy." Iberia. Retrieved on 13 December 2011.
  41. ^ "Iberia occurrences". Aviation Safety Network. Flight Safety Foundation. Retrieved 26 January 2016. 
  42. ^ Accident description for Junkers Ju-52/3mge registration M-CABD at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on 26 January 2016.
  43. ^ Accident description for Junkers Ju-52/3m registration M-CABA at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on 26 January 2016.
  44. ^ "Technical Report 1957". Aviation Safety Network. 1957. 
  45. ^ "Technical Report 1959". Aviation Safety Network. 1959. 
  46. ^ Accident description for Convair CV-440-62 registration EC-ATH at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on 26 January 2016.
  47. ^ "Technical Report 1972". Aviation Safety Network. 1972. 
  48. ^ "Mid-air collision kills 68". BBC news. 1973-03-05. 
  49. ^ "Technical Report 1973". Aviation Safety Network. 1973. 
  50. ^ "Technical Report A-009/1985". Aviation Safety Network. 1985. 
  51. ^ Iberia A340-600 badly damaged after sliding off Quito runway

Further reading[edit]

  • Javier Vidal Olivares (2003a). "Estado, regulación de los mercados y estrategia empresarial en América Latina: Iberia, Líneas Aéreas de España, en Argentina y Uruguay, 1966-1975". Historia económica & Historia de empresas (in Spanish). VI (1). 1219-3314, 121-150. 
  • ——— (2003b). El fracaso de la expansión internacional de la aerolínea Iberia en América Latina: los casos de Panamá y República Dominicana,1966-1973. TST. Transportes, Servicios y Telecomunicaciones (in Spanish). 6. 1578-5777, 23-39. 
  • ——— (2006). "De la internacionalización a la multinacionalización: Iberia, Líneas Aéreas de España en América Latina (1966-2000)". In M. Cerutti. Empresas y grupos empresariales en América Latina, España y Portugal (1870-2000) (in Spanish). Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León and Universidad de Alicante. ISBN 970-694-224-6. 
  • ——— (2008a). "Las alianzas empresariales en la aviación comercial: Iberia, LAE (1950-1978)". Cátedra Corona (in Spanish). 13 (13). 1657-477X, 1-66. 
  • ——— (2008b). Las alas de España: Iberia, líneas aéreas: de aerolínea de bandera a transportista mundial (1940-2005). Publicacions de la Universitat de València (in Spanish). 13 (first ed.). Valencia. ISBN 978-84-370-7084-1. 

External links[edit]

Media related to Iberia at Wikimedia Commons