Iberian Romance languages
|Originally Iberia and southern France; now worldwide|
|Glottolog:||sout3183 (Shifted Iberian)
The Iberian Romance, Ibero-Romance or simply Iberian languages are the Romance languages that developed on the Iberian Peninsula, an area consisting primarily of Spain, Portugal, Gibraltar and Andorra, and in southern France.
Originating in Iberia, the most widely spoken Iberian Romance languages are Spanish, Portuguese, Catalan and Galician. These languages also have their own regional and local dialects. Based on mutual intelligibility, Dalby counts seven languages: Portuguese, Spanish, Astur-Leonese, Aragonese, Catalan, Provençal, and Gascon.
Origins and development
Like all Romance languages, the Iberian Romance languages descend from Vulgar Latin. Vulgar Latin was the nonstandard (in contrast to Classical Latin) form of the Latin language spoken by soldiers and merchants throughout the Roman Empire. With the expansion of the empire, Vulgar Latin came to be spoken by inhabitants of the various Roman-controlled territories. Latin and its descendants have been spoken in Iberia since the Punic Wars, when the Romans conquered the territory (see Roman conquest of Hispania).
The modern Iberian Romance languages were formed roughly through the following process:
- The Latinisation of the local Iberian population.
- The diversification of Latin spoken in Iberia, with slight differences depending on location.
- Development of Old Spanish, Galician-Portuguese, Astur-Leonese and Navarro-Aragonese (West Iberian) and early Catalan language from Latin between the eighth and tenth centuries. The genetic classification of early Catalan and Occitan is uncertain. Some scholars place it within Ibero-Romance (hence it would be East Iberian), others place it within Gallo-Romance.
- Further development into modern Castilian, Portuguese, Galician, Catalan, Asturian, Leonese, Mirandese, etc. (see Languages of Iberia: Languages of Spain, Languages of Portugal and Languages of Andorra) between the fifteenth and twentieth centuries.
Politically (not linguistic genetically), there are four major officially recognised Iberian Romance languages:
- Spanish, sometimes known as Castilian, (see names given to the Spanish language) is the national and official language of 21 countries, including Spain. Spanish is the second most widely spoken native language in the world, and the third most widely spoken. It has a number of dialects and varieties.
- Portuguese, official language in eight countries including Portugal. After Spanish, Portuguese is the second most widely spoken Romance language in the world with over 250 million speakers, currently ranked seventh by number of native speakers. Various Portuguese dialects exist outside of the native standard spoken in Portugal.
- Catalan is the official language in Andorra and co-official in the Spanish autonomous communities of Catalonia, Balearic Islands and Valencian Community (where it is known as Valencian), and the Italian city of Alghero. It is also spoken in the French department of Pyrénées Orientales (Northern Catalonia) without official recognition. Catalan is closely related to Occitan, with the two languages having been treated as one in studies by Occitanist linguists (such as Pierre Bec, or more recently Domergue Sumien). When not treated as one, the two languages are widely classified together as Occitano-Romance languages, a group which is itself sometimes grouped with the Gallo-Romance languages. Catalan has two main dialectal branches (Eastern and Western Catalan) and several subdialects, and is spoken by about 12 million people (ranking the seventy-fifth most spoken language in the world), mostly in five variants: Central Catalan, Northern Catalan, Northwestern Catalan, Valencian and Balearic.
- Galician, co-official in Galicia and also spoken in adjacent western parts of Asturias and Castile and León. Closely related to Portuguese, but also Spanish. It shares origins with Portuguese, from the medieval Galician-Portuguese language. Modern Galician is spoken by around 3.2 million people and is ranked 160th by number of speakers.
Additionally, the Asturian language, although not an official language, is recognised by the Spanish autonomous community of Asturias. In Portugal, Mirandese, which, like Asturian, is part of the Astur-Leonese group, has official status in the northernmost part of the country.
The Iberian Romance languages are a conventional group of Romance languages. Many authors use the term in a geographical sense, although they are not necessarily a phylogenetic group (i.e. the languages grouped as Iberian Romance may not all directly descend from a common ancestor). Phylogenetically, there is disagreement about what languages should be considered within the Iberian Romance group; for example, some authors consider that East Iberian, also called Occitano-Romance, could be more closely related to languages of northern Italy (or also Franco-Provençal, the langues d'oïl and Rhaeto-Romance). A common conventional geographical grouping is the following:
- East Iberian
- West Iberian
Daggers (†) indicate extinct languages
- Iberian Romance languages
- East Iberian (alternatively classified as Gallo-Romance languages)
- West Iberian
- Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "Shifted Iberian". Glottolog. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology.
- Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "Aragonese–Mozarabic". Glottolog. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology.
- David A. Pharies (2007). A Brief History of the Spanish Language. University of Chicago Press. p. 13. ISBN 978-0-226-66683-9.
- Ethnologue: Statistical Summaries
- David Dalby, 1999/2000, The Linguasphere register of the world's languages and speech communities. Observatoire Linguistique, Linguasphere Press. Volume 2. Oxford.
- Sarah Thomason (2001). Language Contact. Georgetown University Press. p. 263. ISBN 978-0-87840-854-2.
- Keith Brown, Sarah Ogilvie (2008). Concise Encyclopedia of Languages of the World. Elsevier Science. p. 1020. ISBN 978-0-08-087774-7.
- Ralph Penny (2002). A History of the Spanish Language. Cambridge University Press. p. 8. ISBN 978-0-521-01184-6.
- Penny, p. 16
- M. Teresa Turell (2001). Multilingualism In Spain: Sociolinguistic and Psycholinguistic Aspects of Linguistic Minority Groups. Multilingual Matters. p. 591. ISBN 978-1-85359-491-5.
- Fernando Cabo Aseguinolaza, Anxo Abuín Gonzalez, César Domínguez (2010). A Comparative History of Literatures in the Iberian Peninsula. John Benjamins Publishing Company. p. 3961. ISBN 978-90-272-3457-5.
- Rafael Lapesa (1968). Historia de la lengua española (7th ed.). Gredos. p. 124. ISBN 84-249-0072-3. ISBN 84-249-0073-1.
- Promotora Española de Lingüística – Lengua Española o Castellana. (Spanish)
- Ethnologue: Table 3. Languages with at least 3 million first-language speakers
- See Ethnologue
- Constitution of Andorra (Article 2.1)
- Pierre BEC (1973), Manuel pratique d’occitan moderne, coll. Connaissance des langues, Paris: Picard
- Domergue SUMIEN (2006), La standardisation pluricentrique de l'occitan: nouvel enjeu sociolinguistique, développement du lexique et de la morphologie, coll. Publications de l'Association Internationale d'Études Occitanes, Turnhout: Brepols
- Carol Myers-Scotton (2005). Multiple Voices: An Introduction to Bilingualism. Wiley-Blackwell. p. 57. ISBN 978-0-631-21937-8.
- Rebecca Posner (1996). The Romance Languages. Cambridge University Press. p. 57. ISBN 978-0-521-28139-3.
- See: Euromosaic report