Abu Bakr Muhammad|
330 AH / 941 CE
406 AH / 1015 CE|
|Cause of death||assassinated|
|Other names||Abu Bakr Muhammad bin al-Hasan bin Furak al-Shafi'i al-Ansari al-Isbahani|
|Main interest(s)||Theology (Kalam), Philosophy, Logic, Islamic Jurisprudence|
|Notable work(s)||Tabaqat al-mutakallimin|
Ibn Furak or Ibn Faurak (Arabic: إبن فوراك; 941 - 1015 CE / 330 - 406 AH) was a Muslim Imam, a theologian of Al-Ash'ari, a specialist of Arabic language, grammar and poetry, an orator, a jurist, and a hadith scholar from the Shafi'i Madhhab in 10th century.
Abu Bakr Muhammad bin al-Hasan bin Furak al-Shafi'i al-Ansari al-Isbahani, Ash'arite theologian and traditionist, was born in around 941 CE (330 AH) in Isfahan. He studied Ash'arite kalam under Abu 'l-Hasan al-Bahili along with Al-Baqillani and al-Isfara'ini in Basra and Baghdad, and also traditions under 'Abd Allah bin Ja'far al-Isbahani. From 'Iraq he went to Rayy, then to Nishapur, where a madrasa was built for him beside the Khanqah of the Sufi al-Bushandji. He was in Nishapur before the death of the Sufi Abu 'Uthman al-Maghribi in 373/983, and probably remained there until shortly before his death.
The Karramiyya tried to have him executed by the Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni but failed after the Sultan summoned him to Ghazni and questioned him then exonerated him of the charges they had brought against him. However, the historical sources differ in determining the cause of his death. One version says that upon returning from Ghazni, he fell on the road, poisoned and died in 1015 CE (406 AH) while another version says that he was attacked from behind. He was carried back to Nishapur and buried in al-Hira.
Ibn Furak's works in "Usul al-Din" (foundation of religion), "Usul al-fiqh" (foundation of jurisprudence), and the meanings of the Quran count nearly one hundred volumes. Among them are Mujarrad Maqâlât al-Ash`arî and Kitab Mushkil al-hadith wa-bayanihi (with many variants of the title), in which he refuted both the anthropomorphist tendencies of Hanbali literalists and the over-interpretation of the Mu'tazila. Ibn Furak said that he embarked on the study of kalam because of the hadîth reported from the Prophet.
Early Islam scholars
Early Islamic scholars
- Lewis, B.; Menage, V.L.; Pellat, Ch.; Schacht, J. (1986) [1st. pub. 1971]. Encyclopaedia of Islam (New Edition). Volume III (H-Iram). Leiden, Netherlands: Brill. p. 767. ISBN 9004081186.
- A.C. Brown, Jonathan (2009). Hadith: Muhammad's Legacy in the Medieval and Modern World (Foundations of Islam). Oneworld Publications. p. 154. ISBN 978-1851686636.
- Lewis, B.; Menage, V.L.; Pellat, Ch.; Schacht, J. (1986) [1st. pub. 1971]. Encyclopaedia of Islam (New Edition). Volume III (H-Iram). Leiden, Netherlands: Brill. p. 766. ISBN 9004081186.
- Adang, Camilla; Fierro, Maribel; Schmidtke, Sabine (2012). Ibn Hazm of Cordoba: The Life and Works of a Controversial Thinker (Handbook of Oriental Studies) (Handbook of Oriental Studies: Section 1; The Near and Middle East). Volume I (A-B). Leiden, Netherlands: Brill Academic Publishers. p. 384. ISBN 978-90-04-23424-6.
- G.F. Haddad. "Ibn Furak". Retrieved August 28, 2014.
- "Furak". Retrieved August 28, 2014.
- Brown, Jonathan (2007). The Canonization of Al-Bukhari and Muslim: The Formation and Function of the Sunni Hadith Canon (reprint ed.). BRILL. p. 190. ISBN 978-9-004158399.