|Ibn Qudamah al-Maqdasi|
|Died||7 July 1223
Imam Mawaffaq ad-Din Abdullah Ibn Ahmad Ibn Qudama al-Maqdisi (Arabic ابن قدامة Ibn Qudamah) was a noted Hanbali ascetic, jurisconsult and traditionalist theologian. He authored many treatises on jurisprudence and doctrine, including al-Mughni (the most widely known textbook of Hanbali fiqh) as well as Tahrim an-Nazar (Censure of Speculative Theology, criticism of Ibn Aqil's views.) He was a member of the school founded by Ahmad ibn Hanbal, and is considered, along with Ibn Taymiyyah, as one of the two most significant proponents of Hanbalism; in the modern era, adherents of the school often refer to the two as "the two sheikhs and Sheikh ul-Islam.
He was Muwaffaq al-Din Abu Muhammad 'Abd Allah Ibn Ahmad Ibn Muhammad Ibn Qudamah Ibn Miqdam Ibn Nasr Ibn 'Abdillaah al-Maqdisee (موفق الدين أبو محمد عبد الله بن أحمد بن قدامة بن مقدام من ذرية سالم بن عمر بن الخطاب العدوي القرشي المقدسي).
He left Palestine with his maternal cousin, 'Abd al-Ghani, for Baghdad in 561AH where he was received by the leading Hanbali of the day, the celebrated mystic Abdul-Qadir Gilani. He later received the Khirqa from him and passed it onto another Hanbali, his cousin Ibrahim ibn 'Abd al-Wahid. As a consequence of his experience with Abdul-Qadir al-Jilani, Ibn Qudama was to receive a special place in his heart for mystics and mysticism.
He studied with the following scholars of his time:
- Abdul-Qadir Gilani(Baghdad)
- Abi al-Makarim ibn Hilal (Syria)
- Abi al-Fadl at-Tusi (Iraq)
- Al-Mubarak ibn at-Tabbakh (Mecca)
In later life, Ibn Qudamah left Damascus to join Saladin in his expedition against the Franks in 1187AD / 573AH, participating particularly in Saladin's conquest of Jerusalem. He died on Saturday, the Day of Eed-ul Fitr on 7 July 1223 AD / 620 AH.
Some of the Scholars that were influenced by him are:
- Ibn Taymiyya (hanbali school, a century later)
- al-Jamal Abu Musa ibn al-Hafidh
- Ibn Khaleel
- Ibn an-Najjaar
- Ash-Shams ibn Kamal
- Zaynab bint al-Wasitee
Ibn Qudamah was considered one of the primary proponents of the Athari school of Aqidah during his time, and was famous not only for his opposition to Kalam but also his opposition to the Ash'ari school of thought. He was reported to have been greeted by Ibn Asakir with As-Salamu Alaykum and did not reply; when asked the reason why, his explanation was:
- "He believes in "kalam nafsi" (an Ash'ari belief that actions such as speech oppose Allah’s special quality of being eternal, therefore Allah is eternally speaking within Himself) so I too also reply with the salams bi nafsi (saying the salams within myself)."
His works are thought to number more than a few dozen. Amongst his printed works are:
- Lum'at-ul-'Itiqaad: translated by Saladin Publishing ISBN 978-0-9564214-0-1
- Al-Ruqqah wal-Bukaa
- Mukhtasar 'Ilal-ul-Hadith Lil-Khilaal
Appraisal from other scholars
Ibn an-Najjaar describes him as:
"The Imaam of Al-Hanabilah (Hanbalis) in Damascus Mosque, he was a trust worthy, noble figure, extremely generous, of a clean character, a cautious worshipper, follower of the Salaf in methodology, emitting light (of knowledge and piety) and respectful. One may benefit from his sighting before even hearing his speech!
Ibn Kathir said about him , "He was the Shaikh ul Islam, an Imaam, a Scholar, outstandingly proficient. there was not found in his time nor before it by a long span of time, anyone possessing more Fiqh than him."
Ibn Rajab said about his books "He generated benefit to all the Muslims on a general level, and to the scholars of the (Hanbali) Madhab on a specific level. These books spread widely and grew very popular, according to the nobility of his intention and sincerity when writing them."
- Lewis, B.; Menage, V.L.; Pellat, Ch.; Schacht, J. (1986) [1st. pub. 1971]. Encyclopaedia of Islam (New Edition). Volume III (H-Iram). Leiden, Netherlands: Brill. p. 842. ISBN 9004081186.
- Halverson, Jeffry R. (2010). Theology and Creed in Sunni Islam: The Muslim Brotherhood, Ash'arism, and Political Sunnism. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 37.
- Abu Zayd Bakr bin Abdullah, Madkhal al-mufassal ila fiqh al-Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal wa-takhrijat al-ashab. Riyadh: Dar al 'Aminah, 2007
- Lewis, B.; Menage, V.L.; Pellat, Ch.; Schacht, J. (1986) [1st. pub. 1971]. Encyclopaedia of Islam (New Edition). Volume III (H-Iram). Leiden, Netherlands: Brill. p. 843. ISBN 9004081186.
- Encyclopedia of Islam, 2nd ed., Entry 'Ibn Kudama'
- Siyar A'laam An-Nubalaa'
- al-Bidaayah wan-Nihayah’ by Ibn Katheer Volume # 13 Pages 99-101
- Ashraf Ibn 'Abdil-Maqsood, Sharh Lum'at-ul-'Itiqaad, pg. 8-10, Dar Al-Istiqaamah Printing
- Ikhtiyarat Ibn Qudamah al-Fiqhiyyah’ By Dr. `Ali ibn Sa`eed al-Ghamidi
- Sharh Lum`atul-I`tiqaad
- al-Bidaayah wan-Nihaayah
- Dhayl Tabaqaatil-Hanabilah’ Volume # 2 Page # 133
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