|Islamic Scholar, Muhaddith, Muslim Jurist
Ibn Qudamah al-Maqdasi
|Notable work(s)||al-'Umdah al-Fiqh|
Imam Mawaffaq ad-Din Abdullah Ibn Ahmad Ibn Qudama al-Maqdisi (Arabic ابن قدامة Ibn Qudamah) (Born 1147 - Died 7 July 1223) was a noted Hanbali ascetic, jurisconsult and traditionalist theologian. He authored many treatises on jurisprudence and doctrine, including al-Mughni (the most widely known textbook of Hanbali fiqh) as well as Tahrim an-Nazar (Censure of Speculative Theology, criticism of Ibn Aqil's views.) He was a member of the school founded by Ahmad ibn Hanbal, he is considered as one of the greatest Hanbali scholar and also called Sheikh al-Islam.
He was Muwaffaq al-Din Abu Muhammad 'Abd Allah Ibn Ahmad Ibn Muhammad Ibn Qudamah Ibn Miqdam Ibn Nasr Ibn 'Abdillaah al-Maqdisee (موفق الدين أبو محمد عبد الله بن أحمد بن قدامة بن مقدام من ذرية سالم بن عمر بن الخطاب العدوي القرشي المقدسي).
He left Palestine with his maternal cousin, 'Abd al-Ghani, for Baghdad in 561AH where he was received by the leading Hanbali of the day, the celebrated mystic Abdul-Qadir Gilani. He later received the Khirqa from him and passed it onto another Hanbali, his cousin Ibrahim ibn 'Abd al-Wahid. As a consequence of his experience with Abdul-Qadir al-Jilani, Ibn Qudama was to receive a special place in his heart for mystics and mysticism.
He studied with the following scholars of his time:
- Abdul-Qadir Gilani(Baghdad)
- Abi al-Makarim ibn Hilal (Syria)
- Abi al-Fadl at-Tusi (Iraq)
- Al-Mubarak ibn at-Tabbakh (Mecca)
In later life, Ibn Qudamah left Damascus to join Saladin in his expedition against the Franks in 1187AD / 573AH, participating particularly in Saladin's conquest of Jerusalem. He died on Saturday, the Day of Eed-ul Fitr on 7 July 1223 AD / 620 AH.
Some of the Scholars that were influenced by him are:
- Ibn Taymiyya (hanbali school, a century later)
- al-Jamal Abu Musa ibn al-Hafidh
- Ibn Khaleel
- Ibn an-Najjaar
- Ash-Shams ibn Kamal
- Zaynab bint al-Wasitee
Ibn Qudamah was considered one of the primary proponents of the Athari school of Aqidah. In line with this school he held the view that the Divine attributes should be believed in simply as they are without applying much reason to expand upon them. He said:
- "For we have no need to know the meaning which Allah intended by His attributes; no course of action is intended by them, nor is there any obligation attached to them except to believe in them. It is possible to believe in them without the knowledge of their intended sense."
- "He believes in "kalam nafsi" (an Ash'ari belief that actions such as speech oppose Allah’s special quality of being eternal, therefore Allah is eternally speaking within Himself) so I too also reply with the salams bi nafsi (saying the salams within myself)."
His works are thought to number more than a few dozen. Amongst his printed works are:
- Lum'at-ul-'Itiqaad: translated by Saladin Publishing ISBN 978-0-9564214-0-1
- Al-Ruqqah wal-Bukaa
- Mukhtasar 'Ilal-ul-Hadith Lil-Khilaal
- Lewis, B.; Menage, V.L.; Pellat, Ch.; Schacht, J. (1986) [1st. pub. 1971]. Encyclopaedia of Islam (New Edition). Volume III (H-Iram). Leiden, Netherlands: Brill. p. 842. ISBN 9004081186.
- Halverson, Jeffry R. (2010). Theology and Creed in Sunni Islam: The Muslim Brotherhood, Ash'arism, and Political Sunnism. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 37.
- Calder, Norman; Mojaddedi, Jawid; Rippin, Andrew (24 Oct 2012). Classical Islam: A Sourcebook of Religious Literature. Routledge. p. 185. ISBN 190688417X.
- Lewis, B.; Menage, V.L.; Pellat, Ch.; Schacht, J. (1986) [1st. pub. 1971]. Encyclopaedia of Islam (New Edition). Volume III (H-Iram). Leiden, Netherlands: Brill. p. 843. ISBN 9004081186.
- Encyclopedia of Islam, 2nd ed., Entry 'Ibn Kudama'
- Siyar A'laam An-Nubalaa'
- al-Bidaayah wan-Nihayah’ by Ibn Katheer Volume # 13 Pages 99-101
- Waines, David (2003). An Introduction to Islam. Cambridge University Press. p. 122. ISBN 0521539064.
- Ashraf Ibn 'Abdil-Maqsood, Sharh Lum'at-ul-'Itiqaad, pg. 8-10, Dar Al-Istiqaamah Printing
- Ikhtiyarat Ibn Qudamah al-Fiqhiyyah’ By Dr. `Ali ibn Sa`eed al-Ghamidi
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