Ibn al‐Raqqam

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Ibn Al-Raqqam
Academic background
Academic work
Main interestsMathematics , Astronomer and Physician

Ibn Al‐Raqqam Muḥammad Ibn Ibrahim Al‐Mursi Al‐Andalusi Al‐Tunisi Al‐Awsi (Arabic: ابن الرقام الأوسي‎) also known as Ibn Al‐Raqqam was a 13th century Andalusian-Arab[1] astronomer, mathematician and physician; but also a Sunni Muslim theologian and jurist.[2][3]


Abu Abdullah Ibn Al-Raqam was born in Murcia in 1250, in an family with the nisba al-Awsi, probably from the Banu Aws tribe,[1] and grew up and learned there until the city was annexed by Castile in 1266. He left Murcia for the city of Bejaia, in present-day Algeria, and lived there until he went to Tunisia and spent time there writing some of his books.[3] Later in his life, he settled in Granada, the capital of the Emirate of Granada, after accepting an invitation from Muhammad II of Granada.[3]

Although several works have been attributed to him by Ibn Al-Khatib, only three ones have survived in an extant form. Two of this works are astronomical tables that are similar in both subject and content. However, differences in the latitudes do exist, since the tables were created to adapt the coordinates of two different cities, Béjaïa and Tunis. The third work, "Risāla fiʿilm Al‐Zilal", is an important treatise on sundials,[4] and the only complete one of its kind to have survived from Al-Andalus.[5]



  • Alphonse Eluric
  • Risāla fī ʿilm al‐ẓilāl: There is a copy of it in the first Escorial No. (7/913) and the second number (12/918).
  • Al‐Zīj al‐qawīm fī funūn al‐taʿdīl wa‐ʾl‐taqwīm: There is a copy of it in the public library in Rabat, number (260).
  • Taedil munakh al'ahlat.
  • Al‐Zīj Al-Mustawfi.


  • The Great Book
  • The Book of Animals and Properties (Kitāb al‐Ḥayawān wa‐ʾl‐khawāṣṣ)
  • A summary of competence (or abbreviation) in the knowledge of powers and properties.
  • Treating diseases.
  • Authorship in Medicine: It consists of two parts. There is a copy of it in the public treasury in Rabat, number (2667).


  • Abkār al‐afkār fī al‐uṣūl.
  • Talkhis almubahath.


  • Al-Tanabih waltabsir fi qawaeid altksi: There is a copy of it in the Hassaniya Treasury in Rabat, No. (4749)


See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b Sarton, George (1967). Introduction to the History of Science ...: From Homer to Omar Khayyam. Carnegie Institution of Washington. ISBN 9780598254276.
  2. ^ Samsó, Julio (1 January 2008). "Ibn al‐Raqqām". Encyclopaedia of the History of Science, Technology, and Medicine in Non-Western Cultures. Springer Netherlands. p. 1097. doi:10.1007/978-1-4020-4425-0_9254. ISBN 978-1-4020-4559-2.
  3. ^ a b c "ابن_الرقام in Marefa.org/".
  4. ^ Gerli, E. Michael; Armistead, Samuel G. (2003). Medieval Iberia. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 9780415939188.
  5. ^ "Ibn al-Raqqam". islamsci.mcgill.ca.

This article is taken entirely or in part from the translation of the article https://www.marefa.org/ابن_الرقام