Ibn al-Zubayr's revolt

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Abd Allah ibn al-Zubayr's revolt was directed against Yazid I following the Battle of Karbala.

Ibn al-Zubayr was not active in politics during the reign of Muawiyah I, but upon the ascension of Yazid I, he refused to swear allegiance to the new caliph.

Husayn left Medina with his sisters, daughters, sons, brothers, and the sons of Hasan.

While in Mecca Abd Allah ibn al-Zubayr, Abdullah ibn Umar and Abdullah ibn Abbas advised Husayn bin Ali to make Mecca his base and fight against Yazid from Mecca. Husayn bin Ali had a lot of support in Mecca. Abd Allah ibn al-Zubayr advised Husayn bin Ali not to go to Kufa. Abd Allah ibn al-Zubayr was the grandson of Abu Bakr and the cousin of Qasim ibn Muhammad ibn Abu Bakr. Both Abd Allah ibn al-Zubayr and Qasim ibn Muhammad ibn Abu Bakr were Aisha nephews. Qasim ibn Muhammad ibn Abu Bakr was also the grandfather of Imam Jafar al-Sadiq. Husayns father Ali also had a lot of trouble with the people of Kufa and the Kharijites while he was in Kufa.

After the death of Husayn ibn Ali at the Battle of Karbala on the 10th of Muharram, 61 AH (October 10, 680), Ibn al-Zubayr returned to Mecca where he declared himself the righteous caliph, and he began building support.

Eventually he consolidated his power by sending a governor to Kufa. Soon, Ibn al-Zubayr established his power in Iraq, southern Arabia and in the greater part of Syria, and parts of Egypt. All Tihamah and Hejaz proclaimed 'Abdullah.[1] Ibn Zubayr benefitted greatly from widespread dissatisfaction among the populace with Umayyad rule. Yazid tried to end Ibn Zubayr's rebellion by invading Hejaz and Tihamah, but his sudden death ended the campaign and threw the Umayyads into disarray with civil war eventually breaking out.

This essentially split the Islamic empire into two spheres with two different caliphs, but it did not last for long. The Second Fitna was soon settled, and Ibn al-Zubayr lost Egypt and whatever he had left of Syria to Marwan ibn al-Hakam. This coupled together with the successful Kharijite rebellions in Iraq reduced Ibn al-Zubayr's rule down to only Mecca.

Ibn al-Zubayr finally was decisively defeated by Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan, who sent Hajjaj ibn Yusuf to reunite the Islamic empire under the Umayyad rule. Hajjaj defeated and killed Ibn al-Zubayr on battlefield in 692, reestablishing Umayyad control over the Islamic Empire.

The earliest history books on Islam, like Fatuhusham by al-Imam al-Waqidi from Madina, also pay great tribute to Asmā' bint Abu Bakr for her bravery in the early battles like the Battle of Yarmouk, regarded as one of the most decisive battles in military history where the Muslims were hugely out numbered by the Romans but with the help of the women like Asma, drove the Roman Empire out of Syria.[2][3] Like al-Baladhuri it illustrate the hugely important role early Muslim women played in society. They show how the Early Muslim women including Hind bint Utbah [4][5][5][6][7][8] and Asma bint Abi Bakr [9] were instrumental in the Battle of Yarmouk. Hugely out numbered, every time the men ran away the women fought fearing that if they lost, the Romans would enslave them. They also achieved some rights under Islam they did not have before. The men would then return. Al-Waqidi wrote that the Quraysh women fought harder than the men. al-Waqidi wrote "As for Asma bint Abi Bakr, she tied he horses reins to the reins of her husband, az-Zubayr bin Awwam whenever he struck she would equaled him.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Abū Ḥanīfa Dīnawarī, al-akhbâr al-tiwâl, vol. 1, p. 264
  2. ^ Walton, Mark W (2003), Islam at war, Greenwood Publishing Group, ISBN 0-275-98101-0, p. 30
  3. ^ Walton, Mark W (2003), Islam at war, Greenwood Publishing Group, ISBN 0-275-98101-0 page 6
  4. ^ Islamic Conquest of Syria A translation of Fatuhusham by al-Imam al-Waqidi Translated by Mawlana Sulayman al-Kindi Page 325 "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2013-10-12. Retrieved 2013-09-24. 
  5. ^ a b al-Baladhuri 892 [19] "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2013-10-11. Retrieved 2016-02-07. 
  6. ^ Islamic Conquest of Syria A translation of Fatuhusham by al-Imam al-Waqidi Translated by Mawlana Sulayman al-Kindi Page 331 to 334 "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2013-10-12. Retrieved 2013-09-24. 
  7. ^ Islamic Conquest of Syria A translation of Fatuhusham by al-Imam al-Waqidi Translated by Mawlana Sulayman al-Kindi Page 343-344 "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2013-10-12. Retrieved 2013-09-24. 
  8. ^ al-Baladhuri 892 [20] from The Origins of the Islamic State, being a translation from the Arabic of the Kitab Futuh al-Buldha of Ahmad ibn-Jabir al-Baladhuri, trans. by P. K. Hitti and F. C. Murgotten, Studies in History, Economics and Public Law, LXVIII (New York, Columbia University Press,1916 and 1924), I, 207-211
  9. ^ Islamic Conquest of Syria A translation of Fatuhusham by al-Imam al-Waqidi Translated by Mawlana Sulayman al-Kindi Page 352-353 "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2013-10-12. Retrieved 2013-09-24.