Ibrahim Heski

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Ibrahim Heski or Ibrahim Pasha Haski Tello[1][2][3] (Kurdish: Biroyê Heskê Têlî; ? - July 25, 1931, Siah Cheshmeh, West Azarbaijan province, Iran), was a Kurdish Jalali tribesman, soldier and politician.

Life[edit]

His father's name is Hesk and mother's name is Têlî.[4] He was a member of the Hesesori tribe which is one of the blanch of Jalali tribe. Different sources mentioned him as "Ibrahim Agha", "Ibrahim Pasha", "Heskizâde Ibrahim", "Bırho", "Bro Haski Tello", "Bro Haski Talu" and so on. British author and adventurer Rosita Forbes described him as the hero of the region was a wild and gallant freebooter called Ibrahim Agha Huske Tello.[5] During World War I, he fought against Russian troops.

First Ararat Rebellion[edit]

In 1925, he participated in Sheikh Said Rebellion. And after the failure of the rebellion, he fled to Mount Ararat. In 1926, he commanded Hesenan, Jalali, Haydaran tribes and started First Ararat Rebellion (May 16 - June 17, 1926).[6] On 16 May, Kurdish forces fought against the 28th Infantry Regiment of the 9th Infantry Division of Turkish Army and a Gendarmerie regiment in Demirkapı region. Turkish troops were defeated and scattered 28th Regiment had to retreat towards Doğubeyazıt.[7] On June 16/17, Ibrahim and his forces were surrounded by 28th and 34th regiments, but they could escape through Yukarı Demirkapı to Iran.[8]

Republic of Ararat[edit]

On October 28, 1927, Xoybûn proclaimed the Independent Kurdistan.[2] Ibrahim became the President of the Republic of Ararat[9] Before that, he was appointed the governor of the Agirî Province of Kurdistan by Xoybûn.[10] His sons Ilhami, Omer, Davut and his brothers Ahmed, Eyub participated in Ararat rebellion. Ahmed was killed in action and their 100-year-old mother was shot and killed by the Turkish Army.[11] After Ararat rebellion, he had to retreat to Iran with his men.

Maku Rebellion and death[edit]

In 1931, intense fighting broke out in the vicinity of Maku between Persian troops and Kurds.[12] The 2nd Brigade of Azerbaijan Division commanded by Colonel Mohammad Ali Khan engaged and Colonel Kalb Ali Khan was sent from Tabriz and Ardabil with reinforcements.[13] On July 25, while fighting in the vicinity of Qara Aineh, Persian Colonel Kalb Ali Khan was killed in action and Kurds lost three or four important leaders, including Ibrahim and his brother.[14]

Sources[edit]

  1. ^ Gérard Chaliand, A People without a country: the Kurds and Kurdistan, Zed Books, 1993, ISBN 978-1-85649-194-5, p. 55. (in English)
  2. ^ a b Dana Adams Schmidt, Journey among brave men, Little, Brown, 1964, p. 57. (in English)
  3. ^ Erhard Franz, Kurden und Kurdentum: Zeitgeschichte eines Volkes und seiner Nationalbewegungen, Deutsches Orient-Institut, 1986, ISBN 3-89173-006-3, p. 140. (in German)
  4. ^ Rohat Alakom, Hoybûn örgütü ve Ağrı ayaklanması, Avesta, 1998, ISBN 975-7112-45-3, p. 82. (in Turkish)
  5. ^ Rosita Forbes, Conflict: Angora to Afghanistan, Cassell, 1931, p. 264. (in English)
  6. ^ Faik Bulut, Devletin Gözüyle Türkiye'de Kürt İsyanları, Yön Yayıncılık, 1991, p. 79. (in Turkish)
  7. ^ Bulut, ibid, p. 80. (in Turkish)
  8. ^ Bulut, ibid, p. 83. (in Turkish)
  9. ^ Paul J. White, Primitive rebels or revolutionary modernizers?: the Kurdish national movement in Turkey, Zed Books, 2000, ISBN 978-1-85649-822-7, p. 77. (in English)
  10. ^ Mehmet Köçer, "Ağrı İsyanı (1926-1930)", Fırat Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi, Cilt: 14, Sayı: 2, s. 385. (in Turkish)
  11. ^ Rohat Alkom, ibid, p. 84. (in Turkish)
  12. ^ Great Britain Foreign Office, British documents on foreign affairs: reports and papers from the foreign office confidential print. From the first to the second world war. Turkey, Iran, and the Middle-East, 1918-1939. The Allies take control, 1920-1921, University Publications of America, 1985, ISBN 978-0-89093-603-0, p. 180. (in English)
  13. ^ Robert Michael Burrell, Iran: political diaries, 1881-1965. 1931-1934, Archive Editions, 1997, ISBN 978-1-85207-710-5, p. 186. (in English)
  14. ^ Great Britain Foreign Office, ibid, p. 252. (in English)