Ice Bucket Challenge
The Ice Bucket Challenge, sometimes called the ALS Ice Bucket Challenge, is an activity involving the dumping of a bucket of ice and water over a person's head, either by another person or self-administered, to promote awareness of the disease amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS, also known as motor neuron disease and in the US as Lou Gehrig's disease) and encourage donations to research. It went viral on social media during July–August 2014. In the US, many people participated for the ALS Association, and in the UK, many people participated for the Motor Neurone Disease Association, although some individuals opted to donate their money from the Ice Bucket Challenge to other organizations.
The challenge encourages nominated participants to be filmed having a bucket of ice water poured on their heads and then nominating others to do the same. A common stipulation is that nominated participants have 24 hours to comply or forfeit by way of a charitable financial donation.
On August 1, 2015, a group of ALS organizations in the United States, including the ALS Association, Les Turner ALS Foundation, and ALS Therapy Development Institute, re-introduced the Ice Bucket Challenge for 2015 to raise further funds with the intention of establishing it as an annual occurrence. Accordingly, people performed the challenge again in the summers of 2016, 2017 and 2018.
- 1 History
- 2 Rules
- 3 Impact
- 4 Criticism
- 5 See also
- 6 References
- 7 External links
The origins of the idea of dumping cold water on one's head to raise money for charity are unclear and have been attributed to multiple sources. The most commonly accepted origin credits Pete Frates, a Boston College alumnus who was diagnosed with ALS in March 2012. Pat Quinn, a friend of Frates who was diagnosed with ALS in 2013, is also credited with creating the challenge. Another friend of Frates, Corey Griffin, has been credited as a "co-founder" of the challenge.
From mid-2013 to early 2014, a challenge of unknown origin often called the "Cold Water Challenge" became popular on social media in areas of the Northern United States. The task usually involved the option of either donating money to cancer research or having to jump into cold water. According to the Wall Street Journal, the Ice Bucket Challenge was begun by professional golfers as means to support various pet charities.
One version of the challenge, which took place in Salem, Indiana, as early as May 15, 2014, involved dousing participants with cold water and then donating to a charity, for example a local child diagnosed with an inoperable brain tumor. In another version, the Auckland Division of the Cancer Society of New Zealand was the beneficiary. As with similar challenges, it was usually filmed so footage can be shared online.
The National Fallen Firefighters Foundation popularized the "Cold Water Challenge" in early 2014 to raise funds as an unsanctioned spin-off of the polar plunge most widely used by Special Olympics as a fundraiser.
On May 20, 2014, the Washington Township, New Jersey, fire department posted a video on YouTube participating in the "Cold Water Challenge" with fire hoses. Participating members of the department were subsequently punished for using fire department equipment without permission.
Shifting focus to ALS
The challenge first received increased media attention in the United States on June 30, 2014, when personalities of the Golf Channel program Morning Drive televised the social-media phenomenon, and performed a live, on-air Ice Bucket Challenge.
Soon after, the challenge was brought to mainstream audiences when television anchor Matt Lauer did the Ice Bucket Challenge on July 15, 2014, on NBC's The Today Show at Greg Norman's challenge.
On the same day, golfer Chris Kennedy did the challenge, then challenged his cousin Jeanette Senerchia of Pelham, New York, whose husband, Anthony, had ALS for 11 years. Kennedy's challenge was the first documented instance of the challenge being connected with ALS. At this time, the challenge was not connected directly with ALS. Participants would donate to a charity of their choice.
Pat Quinn, who was friends on Facebook with the Senerchias, encouraged his friends to take the challenge, and soon after, Pete Frates began posting about the challenge on Twitter. Frates was awarded the Stephen Heywood Patients Today Award in 2012 for his fundraising and advocacy work. Frates' Boston College and sporting connections became an initial focus of the challenge and strengthened its focus on ALS. Both Quinn and Frates did the challenge in support of the ALS Therapy Development Institute. After its initial start with Peter Frates, the movement went viral in the Boston area which showed a much higher number of posts than any other area of the United States.
The President of the United States, Barack Obama, was challenged by Ethel Kennedy but declined, opting to contribute to the campaign with a donation of $100. Justin Bieber (who was criticized for not properly doing the challenge), LeBron James, and "Weird Al" Yankovic also challenged President Obama after completing the Ice Bucket Challenge. Former President George W. Bush completed the challenge and nominated fellow former President Bill Clinton. The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, David Cameron, was challenged by both Alex Salmond and Russell Brand, but also declined in favor of a donation.
The Challenge's success
The Ice Bucket Challenge was a successful campaign. Its combination of competitiveness, social media pressure, online narcissism, and low barriers to entry led to more than 2.4 million tagged videos circulating Facebook. Even though 40–50% of the new donors were likely to make one-time gifts only, the Challenge instigated large numbers of people, videos, and donations. The challenge also benefited from a unique balance of mass interest and individual identification. In using social media as its platform, it accessed many people worldwide; in having its participants individually identify potential candidates – calling them out by "tagging" them – it felt personal. Furthermore, the videos were often entertaining. The average participants kept their videos under a minute, requiring limited commitment from any viewers. Another concept the Challenge benefited from was its ripple effect, inspiring features for articles, such as The Guardian's "10 More of the Best Celebrity Takes on the Ice Bucket Challenge." Despite its marketing success, critics suggested that the ease of repeating the challenge's spiel do not increase awareness of what the disease actually does and who it is so harmful to.
The success of the challenge prompted the Muscular Dystrophy Association, which also raises funds to combat ALS, to discontinue its long-running annual telethon, the MDA Show of Strength, after the 2014 edition, stating that the Ice Bucket Challenge prompted the MDA to reevaluate how it can connect with the public.
In 2017, Frates published a book about the Ice Bucket Challenge detailing his own experience with ALS as well as his involvement in the social movement. Half of the proceeds will go to the Frates family.
On August 1, 2015, a group of ALS organizations in the United States, including the ALS Association, relaunched the Ice Bucket Challenge for 2015. The group said they intended to rerun the campaign "this August, and every August, until there's a cure (for ALS)." "We have to finish what started last summer: every August until there's a cure," said Barb Newhouse, President and CEO of the ALS Association.
The 2015 campaign received the support of Major League Baseball, with each club due to organise its own branch of the Challenge and then nominate another franchise, along with two other local organizations or personalities, to participate in the Challenge. "We are so thrilled and grateful to have every Major League Baseball team supporting us this year," commented Frates.
Celebrity participants in the 2015 challenge included Massachusetts governor Charlie Baker who took the challenge while wearing a "Free Brady" T-shirt (calling for the lifting of the suspension given to Tom Brady of the New England Patriots over Deflategate), Bieber once again, actor Hugh Jackman (belatedly in early September 2015) and actress Renee Zellweger who, in response to criticisms of the challenge for wasting water in drought conditions, used water from a drinking trough in a horse stables while standing in the trough to ensure every last drop was recycled back into its original source. President Barack Obama also received another nomination, this time by former New Orleans Saints player Steve Gleason (himself diagnosed with ALS). Republican presidential candidate Donald Trump, despite having done the challenge in 2014, emphatically turned down his 2015 nomination from Boston mayor Marty Walsh, labelling Walsh "a clown" and suggesting that Boston "get a new mayor."
In the UK, the MND Association declined to revive the challenge. "We felt we raised a significant amount of money and awareness last summer. While people might be keen to do it again, we wouldn't say please do it again," said Chris James, the Association's director of external affairs. Instead, the Association ran a "Last Summer" campaign commemorating the efforts of the public with the challenge, including the testimonies of ALS sufferers. Despite the reluctance of the MND Association, the cast of soap opera Hollyoaks nonetheless performed the challenge, nominating the cast of another soap, Casualty. Eddie Redmayne, having been nominated by Zellweger, also accepted the challenge for a second year, filming his video in London and nominating Charlie Cox, who did his 2015 challenge in New York. An attempt at the world record for the largest number of people simultaneously performing the challenge took place 6 September 2015 in Tewkesbury as part of a fundraiser for child bereavement charity Winton's Wish. In the event, the world record of 428 remained untouched but a new UK record of 248 people was set. TV presenter Eamonn Holmes performed the challenge in early October on This Morning after announcing he would do so while hosting the Pride of Britain Awards a few days earlier.
By early October, it was reported that the 2015 challenge had raised $500,000 as compared with the $115 million raised by the 2014 challenge. The final figure was reported by the ALS Association in mid-October as being $1,000,000, with a survey by health analysts Treato showing that only 14% of donors from 2014 donated again in 2015.
Australian Deputy Prime Minister Barnaby Joyce performed the challenge in 2016, nominating his colleague Michael McCormack, the Minister for Small Business. Fellow Australian MP Adam Marshall also performed the challenge. A new variant on the challenge this year, the "What's In Your Bucket?" challenge, featured the replacement of the ice cubes with other substances, including tomato ketchup, spaghetti, pickles, beer, baby powder, coffee, and sand. A further attempt on the world record for the largest mass Ice Bucket Challenge in Buffalo, New York drew 650 participants, 71 short of the existing record of 721.
Charlie Baker, governor of Massachusetts, formalized the annual challenge by signing a bill declaring the first week of August each year to be Ice Bucket Challenge Week. MND South Australia held an Ice Bucket Challenge campaign in February (during the Southern hemispheric summer) Pete Frates' family joined with the Beverly Police Department to hold an Ice Bucket Challenge event on 27 August in which family members and officers took part.
In June 2018 in Seoul, South Korea the Challenge raised funds to build Korea's first dedicated hospital for ALS patients. The Empire City Casino in Yonkers announced it would hold a Challenge event for the fifth year running. Political participants this year included US State Senator Joan Lovely.
Within 24 hours of being challenged, participants have to record a video of themselves in continuous footage. First, they are to announce their acceptance of the challenge, followed by pouring ice into a bucket of water. Then, the bucket is to be lifted and poured over the participant's head. Then the participant can nominate a minimum of three other people to participate in the challenge.
In one version of the challenge, the participant was expected to donate $10 if they poured the ice water over their head or donate $100 if they did not. In a UK version, people who performed the challenge donated £3 and those who did not perform it paid £10. In another version, dumping the ice water over the participant's head was done in lieu of any donation, which led to some criticisms of the challenge being a form of "slacktivism". Many participants donated $100 in addition to doing the challenge.
In mid-2014, the Ice Bucket Challenge went viral on social media, particularly in the United States, with people, celebrities, politicians and athletes posting videos of themselves online and on TV participating in the event. According to The New York Times, people shared more than 1.2 million videos on Facebook between June 1 and August 13 and mentioned the phenomenon more than 2.2 million times on Twitter between July 29 and August 17. At its peak, the challenge generated more than 70,000 tweets per day with hashtags such as #IceBucketChallenge, #ALSIceBucketChallenge, and #StrikeOutALS. Mashable called the phenomenon "the Harlem Shake of the summer".
Prior to the challenge, public awareness of the disease amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) was relatively limited; the ALS Association stated that prior to the challenge going viral only half of Americans had heard of the disease, often referred to as "Lou Gehrig's disease", after the famous baseball player Lou Gehrig, who publicly revealed his diagnosis in 1939. After the Ice Bucket Challenge went viral on social media, public awareness and charitable donations to ALS charities soared. Hits to the English Wikipedia's article on amyotrophic lateral sclerosis grew from an average of 163,300 views per month to 2.89 million views in August 2014, and similar increases occurred in the Spanish and German Wikipedias.
Within weeks of the challenge going viral, The New York Times reported that the ALS Association had received $41.8 million in donations from more than 739,000 new donors from July 29 until August 21, more than double the $19.4 million the association received during the year that ended January 31, 2013. On August 29, the ALS Association announced that their total donations since July 29 had exceeded $100 million. The ALS Association is just one of several ALS-related charities that have benefited from the challenge:
|Organization||Additional funding |
|ALS Society of Canada|
|Motor Neurone Disease Association|
|ALS Therapy Development Institute|
|ALS Foundation Netherlands|
While the Ice Bucket Challenge raised much in donations, studies show that the majority of participants did not actually donate. In the UK, one in every six people participated, but only ten percent of the participants donated, according to the Charities Aid Foundation. The percentage was higher in the US, but the majority still did not donate.
In July 2015, the Huffington Post reported on the ALS Association's summary of how the funds raised through the Ice Bucket Challenge were distributed. By percentage, 67% of all funds (about $77 million) went to research, 20% to patient and community services, 9% to public and professional education, 2% to additional fundraising, and 2% to external processing fees.
On July 25, 2016, the ALS Association announced that, thanks in part to donations from the Ice Bucket Challenge, the University of Massachusetts Medical School has identified a third gene that is a cause for the disease. Project MinE, a global gene sequencing effort to identify genetic drivers of ALS, received $1 million from the challenge, allowing them to broaden the scope of their research to include new sources in new parts of the world. Having identified the link between the gene, NEK1, and ALS will allow for a new targeted gene for therapy development, as well as focused drug development.
Several other challenges have been created and publicised as a result of the publicity of the Ice Bucket Challenge. The My Tree Challenge is an activity launched in Kerala which consists of planting a tree sapling and challenging others to do so. The My Tree Challenge was preceded by a Book List Challenge, started by Facebook users, where users post a list of books that they have read and liked the most. The Rice Bucket Challenge, that started in India in late August 2014 and later spread to other South Asian nations, was also partly a response to the Ice Bucket Challenge's wastefulness of water. The "Pie In The Eye Challenge" challenges the nominated person to receive a pie in the face. One particular occurrence of this, the late 2016 Waitress Pie Challenge, was initiated by the cast of the musical Waitress to raise awareness of breast cancer. The Milk Bucket Challenge in which milk is poured over the nominated person, was organised in August 2015 by English dairy farmers to raise awareness of their financial plight. The Rubble Bucket Challenge, started by Jordanian comedian Mohammed Darwaza, involves dumping a bucket of sand and rocks over one's head. This challenge was further popularized by Palestinian journalist Aymal al Aloul, and aims to increase awareness of Gazans who have lost their homes in the ongoing conflict with Israel. The Love Bucket Challenge, started by Kerala newspaper Malayala Manorama encourages people to fill a bucket with items to donate to orphanages. The Kaapi Challenge uses coffee, and is a challenge done primarily by the Chennai Super Kings to commemorate the 375th anniversary of the city of Chennai.
A number of criticisms arose relating to the campaign, accusing it of being self-congratulatory, focusing primarily on fun rather than donating money to charity, and substituting a trivial activity for more genuine involvement in charitable activities. Writing in The Daily Telegraph, Willard Foxton described the challenge as "a middle-class wet T-shirt contest for armchair clicktivists", and the Evening Standard Magazine said that "it has become less about raising funds and all about showing off your star-pulling power".
On August 28, 2014, it was reported that the ALS Association had filed an application to trademark the term "ice bucket challenge", but the application was retracted amid criticism a day later.
Importance of the cause
William MacAskill, Vice-President of Giving What We Can, an organization that advocates for people to engage in more effective altruism, was critical of the Ice Bucket Challenge, citing two chief objections. First, he claimed that the Ice Bucket Challenge resulted in "funding cannibalism": "for every $1 we raise, 50¢ would have been donated anyway". Relatedly, MacAskill claimed that the challenge encouraged moral licensing, whereby people who engage in one act they consider good may feel more licensed to engage in bad behavior. MacAskill's piece met with considerable critical push-back, and he published a follow-up a few days later suggesting an Ice Bucket Challenge for causes he considered more important and cost-effective to support. Citing research from GiveWell, MacAskill gave the example of donating to the Against Malaria Foundation to end malaria. MacAskill's pieces were cited in Forbes, Nonprofit Quarterly, and Boston Review.
Julia Belluz at Vox.com wrote a piece with similar criticisms, linking to MacAskill's piece. Belluz noted that funding for diseases was often not proportional to the number of deaths caused by the diseases. She also noted that donating to developing world health causes could provide much greater healthcare value than donating for the treatment of rare diseases, an observation that is common in the effective altruism movement.
In the BBC's More or Less podcast, economist Tim Harford discussed the Ice Bucket Challenge and how to select the best charities, referencing work by GiveWell. He himself participated in the Ice Bucket Challenge, donating to the Schistosomiasis Control Initiative. Ben Carter and Keith Moore wrote an article for the BBC News drawing on the arguments made in the podcast.
Use of donated funds
Retired professional wrestler Lance Storm declined the challenge despite being nominated twice, and posted a note on his official website stating that most of the money that is donated goes towards promotional and advertising of the ALS Association while the remaining amount (at most 25% of what is donated) "is going into the pockets of Big Pharma", which is already doing ALS research and is therefore inflating their already-high profits. Storm went on to comment that it would be better to actually help someone with ALS and donate money directly to ALS patients. The ALS Association responded to similar criticisms by saying that 79% of their annual budget went toward programs in the past year.
Members of the pro-life movement, such as Lila Rose of Live Action, criticised donations to the ALS Association, because it uses embryonic stem cells in its ALS research. Related organisations such as the Family Research Council suggested that people participating in the Ice Bucket Challenge instead donate money to Midwest Stem Cell Therapy Center, Mayo Clinic, and the John Paul II Medical Research Institute, all three of which run clinical trials with adult stem cells, rather than embryonic ones. The Archdiocese of Cincinnati, with its 113 schools also recommended individuals participating in the Ice Bucket Challenge to donate to such groups, but not to the ALS Association "saying the group's funding of embryonic stem cell research is 'in direct conflict with Catholic teaching'."
PETA criticized the ALS Association's Ice Bucket Challenge, saying that money raised through the fundraiser would be used to fund "archaic and painful tests on animals." Russell Simmons, Pamela Anderson, and Grimes, among other celebrities, also criticized the ALS Association's fundraiser for its support of animal testing. Anderson wrote on her Facebook page, "Trying to cure human diseases by relying on outdated and ineffective animal experiments isn't only cruel – it's a grave disservice to people who desperately need cures."
Focus on the stunt rather than donations
American stunt performer and TV personality Steve-O questioned the campaign, suggesting that celebrities' videos generally forgot to share donation information for ALS charities, and that the initial $15 million in funds was insignificant, given the star power of the celebrities participating. He noted that, of the videos he viewed, only Charlie Sheen and Bill Gates mentioned that the point is to donate money. A similar criticism was made by Jacob Davidson in Time Magazine and by Arielle Pardes in Vice. More and more charities seem to be competing with one another to see which charity receives the most donations. This becomes a problem as competitive fundraising destroys value for the social sector as a whole.
On August 22, 2014, Dr. Brian O'Neill, a physician at the Detroit Medical Center, warned that the challenge may have adverse health effects on participants, including potentially inducing a vagal response which might, for example, lead to unconsciousness in people taking blood pressure medications. A number of participants have sustained injuries, and at least one death has been indirectly linked to the challenge, as a result of injuries sustained unrelated to the dumping of ice water, with another death thought to be caused by a variation on the challenge, jumping feet first into ice water.
"Michael's Story" poster
"Michael's Story" was a campaign poster from the UK MND Association's summer 2015 "Last Summer" first anniversary campaign which featured Michael Smith. He had not taken part in the Ice Bucket Challenge and was subsequently diagnosed with motor neurone disease. This caused controversy, with some critics saying that the poster was implying that Smith had deserved his illness for his previous non-participation. The claims were strongly refuted by the Association and by Smith himself.
Waste of water
Meteorologist Jason Samenow estimated that during the peak of the movement's popularity in 2014, the equivalent of 5,000,000 gallons of water would have been used for the challenge. This calculation assumes that the average of one 4-gallon bucket of water was used per video for the 1.2 million challenge videos which were posted during that time.
In January 2014, Governor Jerry Brown (CA) declared California to be in a drought state of emergency. This state of emergency was still in place as the Ice Bucket Challenge became most popular, and many local news stations in California took to criticizing the Challenge's unnecessary waste of water. Also at the time in China, various regions (including the important crop-producing Henan province) experienced months of extreme drought during the summer of 2014. On August 22, 2014, citizens of Henan stood together to protest the challenge, with signs that said "Henan, please say 'NO' to Ice Bucket Challenge."
To prevent wasting water by using drinkable water, many performed the ALS Ice Bucket Challenge by using natural water sources. Carole King performed the challenge using creek water that was immediately returned to the creek, and the Killer Clown, a YouTube personality, performed the challenge using rainwater. In response to the criticisms in California, some Californians performed the challenge by using dirt instead of water.
Some ALS organizations, such as the ALS Therapy Development Institute, has published guidelines for the Ice Bucket Challenge to minimize water usage by alternatives, like "filling the bucket with socks."
- Lost Coast of New Zealand (2014-07-09). "Charities benefit from viral ice challenge". TVNZ. TVNZ. Archived from the original on 2014-07-09. Retrieved 2018-08-02.
- "News". Cancer Society Auckland. Archived from the original on 2014-08-19. Retrieved 2018-08-02.
- Sample, Ian; Woolf, Nicky (2016-07-27). "How the ice bucket challenge led to an ALS research breakthrough". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 2017-11-07.
- Jordan, Erin (27 August 2014). "Catholic organizations encourage ice bucket donations to Iowa City-area research institute". KCRG-TV. Archived from the original on 29 August 2014. Retrieved 28 August 2014.
An Iowa City-area research institute has received donations from around the world as Catholic organizations encourage members to route their Ice Bucket Challenge gifts to an organization that doesn't do research on embryonic stem cells. The John Paul II Medical Research Institute, founded in 2008 by Dr. Alan Moy, an Iowa City pulmonologist, has gotten "hundreds of thousands" of dollars in donations from people who want to support research on Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS), but don't want the research done with human embryos, said CEO Jay Kamath.
- Arco, Matt (August 13, 2014). "Governor Chris Christie gets in on 'Ice Bucket Challenge', dares Cory Booker". Nj.com. Retrieved August 13, 2014.
- "Buffalo Welcomes Return of Ice Bucket Challenge at ALS Walk". TWC News. 1 August 2015. Retrieved 6 October 2015.
- Bedford, Matt (11 August 2016). "Barnaby's icy blast". Retrieved 4 January 2018.
- "Deputy PM nominates census minister for ice bucketing". 11 August 2016. Retrieved 4 January 2018.
- "What's in your bucket?". 28 July 2016. Retrieved 4 January 2018.
- "An Inspired Attempt to Break the ALS Ice Bucket Challenge Record". 1 August 2016. Retrieved 4 January 2018.
- "Charlie Baker signs bill to establish 'Ice Bucket Challenge Week'". 1 August 2017. Retrieved 4 January 2018.
- EndPlay (26 August 2017). "Police plan Ice Bucket Challenge with Frates family". Retrieved 4 January 2018.
- "Watch: Apink's Jung Eun Ji And IU Participate In 2018 Ice Bucket Challenge | Soompi". www.soompi.com. Retrieved 2018-06-06.
- Martin, Graham (26 August 2014). "Cold war: charity defends itself against ice-bucket challenge criticism". Third Force News. Retrieved 30 September 2014.
- Goldberg, Eleanor (15 August 2014). "Meet The Guy Who Made ALS 'Ice Bucket Challenge' Go Viral". Huffington Post. Retrieved 14 September 2014.
- Gallo, Carmine (5 September 2014). "How Pete Frates Found His Calling And Launched The Ice Bucket Challenge". Forbes. Retrieved 14 September 2014.
- Levin, Josh (August 22, 2014). "Who Invented the Ice Bucket Challenge?: A search for the fundraising phenomenon's cold, soaked patient zero". Slate.
- Cary, Billy (16 August 2014). "Reaction overwhelms Ice Bucket Challenge creator". USA Today. Retrieved 30 September 2014.
- Marquard, Bryan (20 August 2014). "Corey Griffin, 27; left his mark in everything from friendship to philanthropy – The Boston Globe". Boston Globe. Retrieved 2015-08-14.
- Perez, Iris (2014-06-25). "DNR: Don't rise 'Cold Water Challenge'". MyFox Twin Cities. Fox Television Stations. Archived from the original on 2014-08-19. Retrieved 2014-08-17.
- Reddy, Sumathi (14 August 2014). "How the Ice-Bucket Challenge Got Its Start". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 30 September 2014.
- Reddy, Sumathi (18 August 2014). "Ice-bucket challenge a social media hit with even Zuckerberg joining in". The Australian Business Journal (The Wall Street Journal). Retrieved 30 September 2014.
- MacDonald, Janelle (May 15, 2014). "People take the plunge to support 7-year-old with brain tumor". Retrieved August 24, 2014.
- "The Ice Water Challenge". Cancersocietyauckland.org.nz. Retrieved 2014-08-18.
- "Gobal Ice Bucket Challenge helps change lives" (Press release). Scoop- New Zealand News. Motor Neuron Disease Association NZ. 28 August 2014. Retrieved 2014-09-30.
- "Ice Bucket Challenge". Everydayhero.co.nz. Auckland Northland Cancer Society. 2014. Retrieved 30 September 2014.
- "'Ice bucket challenge' charity fundraiser gains momentum". Dispatch.com. Retrieved 2014-08-18.
- "'Cold water challenge' video lands Washington Township firefighters in hot water after video posted online". nj.com. Retrieved 2014-08-18.
- "Gary Williams Takes Ice Bucket Challenge". Golfchannel.com. NBC Sports Group. Retrieved 2014-08-18.
- Kelly, Samantha Murphy (August 16, 2014). "Ice Bucket Challenge Wasn't Originally About ALS". Mashable. Retrieved August 21, 2014.
- Herbert, Geoff (August 18, 2014). "Who started the Ice Bucket Challenge? ALS Association's viral fundraiser has NY roots". The Post-Standard. Retrieved August 21, 2014.
- Sifferlin, Alexandra (18 August 2014). "Here's How the ALS Ice Bucket Challenge Actually Started". Time Magazine. Time Inc. Retrieved 24 September 2014.
- Kaufman, Gil (August 15, 2014). "Who Invented The Ice Bucket Challenge?". mtv.com. Retrieved August 17, 2014.
- ALSTDI (November 19, 2012). "Peter Frates (2012 Stephen Heywood Patients Today Honoree)". Retrieved August 22, 2014.
- English, Bella (August 15, 2014). "Stricken with ALS, Pete Frates shows the will to live". Boston Globe. Retrieved August 22, 2014.
- Robinson, Meyer. "Why Did the Ice Bucket Challenge Go Big? Boston". The Atlantic. The Atlantic. Retrieved 23 September 2017.
- Linshi, Jack (28 August 2014). "Watch Stephen Hawking Do the Ice Bucket Challenge". Time. Retrieved 19 February 2015.
- "Obama Rejects ALS Ice Bucket Challenge, Will Donate to Charity Instead". CBS DC. August 13, 2014. Retrieved August 13, 2014.
- "Justin Bieber Ice Bucket Challenge ALS – Justin Bieber Nominates Obama, Ellen & Chris D'Elia". Youtube.com.
- "Ice Bucket Challenge Done Wrong by Justin Bieber". Guardian Liberty Voice. August 19, 2014. Retrieved August 30, 2014.
- "King vs. president? LeBron takes Ice Bucket Challenge, tags Obama". Fox Sports. August 17, 2014.
- "Weird Al" Yankovic. "Ice Bucket Challenge". Youtube.com.
- George W. Bush. "George W. Bush's Ice Bucket Challenge video on Facebook". Facebook.com.
- "Salmond and Sturgeon complete ice bucket challenge". bbc.co.uk. BBC News. August 24, 2014. Retrieved August 24, 2014.
- "ITV News – Russell Brand nominates PM to do Ice Bucket Challenge". itv.co.uk. August 22, 2014. Retrieved August 24, 2014.
- "Salmond and Sturgeon complete ice bucket challenge". BBC News. 24 August 2014. Retrieved 2 September 2014.
- Adeyeri, Eb (August 27, 2014). "Ice bucket challenge: what are the lessons for marketers?". The Guardian.
- "How to Create an Ice Bucket-type Challenge for Your Nonprofit: A Formula for Success - Clairification". Clairification. 2014-08-20. Retrieved 2018-08-27.
- Stenovec, Timothy (August 19, 2014). "The Reasons The Ice Bucket Challenge Went Viral". The Huffington Post.
- Cresci, Elena (August 21, 2014). "10 more of the best celebrity takes on the ice bucket challenge". The Guardian.
- "MDA Telethon Ends Historic Run, Urgent Fight for Families Continues," Archived 2015-05-03 at the Wayback Machine. press release from Muscular Dystrophy Association (5/1/2015)
- "New Book Published Pete Frates and The Ice Bucket Challenge".
- The ALS Association (30 July 2015). "The ALS Ice Bucket Challenge Is Back This August". prnewswire.com. Retrieved 6 October 2015.
- Katie Richcreek. "Massachusetts Gov. Wears 'Free Brady' Shirt While Doing ALS Ice Bucket Challenge". Bleacher Report. Retrieved 6 October 2015.
- "Justin Bieber ALS Ice Bucket Challenge Round #2 – 2015 [VIDEO]". justinbieberzone.com. Retrieved 6 October 2015.
- "Hugh Jackman kicks off the 2015 ALS Ice Bucket Challenge in new video – Daily Mail Online". Mail Online. Retrieved 6 October 2015.
- "Renee Zellweger Films ALS Ice Bucket Challenge Video : People.com". PEOPLE.com. Retrieved 6 October 2015.
- Fox Sports. "Steve Gleason has challenged President Barack Obama to the Ice Bucket Challenge". FOX Sports. Retrieved 6 October 2015.
- "Donald Trump's response to Marty Walsh's Ice Bucket challenge: 'He's a clown'". Boston.com. Retrieved 6 October 2015.
- "Ice bucket challenge: What's happened since?". BBC News. Retrieved 6 October 2015.
- Kunal Dutta (1 June 2015). "Motor neurone disease charity's poster criticised for its 'threatening". The Independent. Retrieved 6 October 2015.
- "As Hollyoaks tackle MND plot the cast take on the ice bucket challenge – Metro News". Metro. Retrieved 6 October 2015.
- [dead link]
- "Watch: Charlie Cox's Ice Bucket Challenge; Nominates Punisher & Coulson". Cosmic Book News. Retrieved 6 October 2015.
- "People needed for ice bucket challenge world record attempt in Tewkesbury". Gloucestershire Echo. Retrieved 6 October 2015.
- "£20k raised in Tewkesbury as soap stars take to bikes – and Ice Bucket Challenge record broken". Gloucestershire Echo. Retrieved 6 October 2015.
- Pietras, Emma (2015-10-02). "Eamonn Holmes completes Ice Bucket Challenge promise with Sir Ian McKellen's help - Mirror Online". Mirror.co.uk. Retrieved 2016-03-11.
- Pietras, Emma. "Eamonn Holmes vows to do Ice Bucket Challenge after being inspired by Pride of Britain winner - Mirror Online". Mirror.co.uk. Retrieved 2016-03-11.
- "Catching Up: ALS challenge this year was only 'drop in the bucket' | Just Ask Us". Host.madison.com. 2015-09-28. Retrieved 2016-03-11.
- Edwards, Joseph (2015-10-16). "Donations drop for 2015 ALS Ice Bucket Challenge - WREX.com – Rockford's News Leader". Wrex.com. Retrieved 2016-03-11.
- "Analyzing the Effect of the ALS Ice Bucket Challenge on Health Consumers' Conversations". Treato.com. 2015-07-16. Retrieved 2016-03-11.
- "Barnaby Joyce completes the ice bucket challenge". 11 August 2016. Retrieved 4 January 2018.
- "Klick Dumps Buckets of Beer, Ketchup, and Pickles in Fun, New Twist to ALS Ice Bucket Challenge - Business Wire". www.businesswire.com. Retrieved 4 January 2018.
- "Klick puts a different spin on the ALS Ice Bucket Challenge". www.marketingmag.ca. Retrieved 4 January 2018.
- "Help We'll freeze for MND make a difference". ibc2017.everydayhero.com. Retrieved 4 January 2018.
- "2017 Ice Bucket Challenge". everydayhero.com.au. Retrieved 4 January 2018.
- Six years and counting - Frates keeps up the battle - Salem News 2018
- Donguines, Arvin (28 August 2014). "Ice Bucket Challenge Rules Explained: How Challenge Helps ALS, Lou Gehrig's Disease Charities?". Christian Post. Retrieved 14 September 2014.
- Shuttlesworth, Chris (2 September 2014). "ALS ice bucket challenge continues to pour". The Columbia Chronicle. Retrieved 14 September 2014.
- Steel, Emily (August 17, 2014). "'Ice Bucket Challenge' Has Raised Millions for ALS Association". The New York Times. Retrieved August 21, 2014.
- Hongo, Jun (11 September 2014). "Sony's Hirai Takes Ice-Bucket Challenge, Doesn't Nominate Others". Wall Street Journal. New York City. Retrieved 14 September 2014.
- "Health: Local ALS Researchers Take Ice Bucket Challenge". CBS Philadelphia. August 12, 2014. Retrieved August 17, 2014.
- "Ice bucket craze is raising millions for charity and giving celebs splash of PR – Daily Mail Online". Mail Online. Retrieved 3 August 2015.
- "#IceBucketChallenge: Why You're Not Really Helping". The Huffington Post. August 7, 2014. Retrieved August 17, 2014.
- Steel, Emily. "'Ice Bucket Challenge' Has Raised Millions for ALS Association". The New York Times.
- "Facebook: 1.2 million #IceBucketChallenge videos posted - The Boston Globe". BostonGlobe.com. Retrieved 2017-11-02.
- "What is ALS?". ALS Association.
- McCarthy, Niall. "Ice Bucket Challenge: ALS Wikipedia Page Views Increase 18-Fold". Forbes. Retrieved 18 September 2014.
- Steel, Emily (August 21, 2014). "'Ice Bucket Challenge' Donations for A.L.S. Research Top $41 Million". The New York Times. Retrieved August 22, 2014.
- "The ALS Association Expresses Sincere Gratitude to Over Three Million Donors". The ALS Association. August 29, 2014. Retrieved September 1, 2014.
- "ALS SOCIETIES ACROSS CANADA COMMIT $10 MILLION TO ALS RESEARCH AND ANNOUNCE NEW PARTNERSHIP WITH BRAIN CANADA FOR MATCHING RESEARCH FUNDING". als.ca. Archived from the original on 14 April 2015. Retrieved 3 August 2015.
- "Page not found". MND Association. Retrieved 4 January 2018.
- "News: Putting the Ice Bucket Challenge Funding to Work Quickly to End ALS – ALS Therapy Development Institute". ALS Therapy Development Institute. Retrieved 19 September 2014.
- "Door magische grens van € 1.000.000" [Passed the magical € 1.000.000 threshold] (in Dutch). Stichting ALS Nederland. 29 August 2014. Retrieved 30 August 2014.
- "Project ALS". Twitter.
- Steel, Emily (17 August 2014). "'Ice Bucket Challenge' Has Raised Millions for ALS Association". The New York Times. New York City. Retrieved 15 September 2014.
- Townsend, Lucy (2 September 2014). "How much has the ice bucket challenge achieved?". BBC News Magazine. London. Retrieved 15 September 2014.
- Baton, Callum (12 September 2014). "Ice bucket challenge: One in six Britons took part – but only 10% donated". The Independent. Independent Print Limited. Retrieved 15 September 2014.
- Shi, Winston (3 September 2014). "Why the ALS ice bucket challenge is in decline – and why it's here to stay". The Stanford Daily. Stanford, CA. Retrieved 15 September 2014.
- "ALS Ice Bucket Challenge Commitments". ALS Association. Retrieved July 18, 2015.
- Erbentraut, Joseph (July 16, 2015). "Here's The Actual Impact All Those Buckets Of Ice Had On ALS Research". Huffington Post. Retrieved July 18, 2015.
- "Putting your dollars to work". ALSA. The ALSA Association. Retrieved 26 August 2016.
- Fawzy, Farida (2016). "Ice Bucket Challenge's 2nd anniversary celebrates its gene discovery". CNN. Retrieved 1 August 2016.
- "ALS Ice Bucket Challenge Donations Lead to Significant Gene Discovery". ALS Association. 2016. Retrieved 1 August 2016.
- Prakash, Asha. "Mammootty takes up Fahadh's Tree challenge, challenges Shah RuKh, Vijay and Suriya". Times of India. Times of India. Retrieved 31 August 2014.
- Shorewal, Aditi (31 August 2014). "The Book List Challenge on Facebook: Which Are Your Top 10?". NDTV. Retrieved 27 September 2014.
- Madhok, Diksha (August 25, 2014). "The story behind India's rice bucket challenge". Quartz. Retrieved September 13, 2014.
- Rao, Mallika (August 26, 2014). "'Rice Bucket Challenge' Reminds World How Scarce Clean Water Is In India". Huffington Post. Retrieved September 13, 2014.
- Jolly, Lynn (September 9, 2014). "MSP Hugh is hap-pie to help charity's challenge". Daily Record.
- Reynolds, Jason (August 31, 2014). "New fundraiser: Here's pie in your eye". Shelbyville Times-Gazette.
- "Sara Bareilles Accepts 'Waitress' Pie Challenge, Gets Pie'd In The Face For Breast Cancer Awareness". 5 October 2016. Retrieved 4 January 2018.
- "Farmers take part in 'Milk Bucket Challenge' amid dairy crisis". ITV News. Retrieved 6 October 2015.
- Gander, Kashmira (25 August 2014). "Rubble Bucket Challenge: Ice Bucket Challenge adapted in solidarity with Gazans whose homes have been destroyed in conflict". Retrieved 24 September 2014.
- "New Ice Bucket Challenge? Gazans Launch 'Rubble Bucket Challenge'". NBC News. Retrieved 24 September 2014.
- "Radhika Kumaraswamy to play titular role in period flick 'Damayanti'". The News Minute. 2018-08-27. Retrieved 2018-08-27.
- कुमार सिन्हा, संदीप (21 September 2014). "आपने चेन्नई सुपर किंग्स का KAAPI चैलेंज लिया क्या?" [Chennai super kings has come up with its kaapi challenge]. Aajtak Today (in Hindi). Tamil Nadu. Retrieved 27 September 2014.
- "Must Watch: CSK players' superb dance moves". ABP News Bureau. New Delhi. 26 September 2014. Retrieved 27 September 2014.
- Hogan, Michael (August 14, 2014). "The celebrity ice-bucket challenge leaves me cold". The Telegraph. Retrieved August 20, 2014.
- Pardes, Arielle (August 13, 2014). "Dumping a bucket of ice on your head does not make you a philanthropist". VICE. Vice.
- Foxton, Willard. "The Ice Bucket Challenge – a middle-class wet-T-shirt contest for armchair clicktivists". Blogs.telegraph.co.uk. Retrieved August 23, 2014.
- "Get Over It". Evening Standard Magazine. 29 August 2014: 3.
- "ALS Association looks to trademark the term 'ice bucket challenge'". Fortune. Retrieved 19 September 2014.
- Vizard, Sarah (August 29, 2014). "ALS Association tries to trademark 'ice bucket challenge'". Marketing Week
- "Not so fast: ALS Association pulls trademark application for term "ice bucket challenge"". Fortune. Retrieved 19 September 2014.
- MacAskill, William (August 15, 2014). "Comment: The cold, hard truth about the ice bucket challenge". Quartz. Retrieved September 7, 2014.
- MacAskill, William (August 18, 2014). "Comment: The cold, hard truth about the ice bucket challenge". Sbs.com.au. Retrieved 2014-08-20.
- MacAskill, William (August 18, 2014). "This week, let's dump a few ice buckets to wipe out malaria too". Quartz. Retrieved September 7, 2014.
- Diamond, Dan (August 18, 2014). "OK, The ALS Ice Bucket Challenge Worked. Now Where Will The Dollars Go?". Retrieved September 7, 2014.
- Cohen, Rick (August 19, 2014). "Throwing Cold Water on Ice Bucket Philanthropy". Nonprofit Quarterly. Retrieved September 7, 2014.
- Mayersohn, Andrew (September 4, 2014). "Empathy vs. Rationality: The Ice Bucket Challenge". Boston Review. Retrieved September 7, 2014.
- Belluz, Julia (August 20, 2014). "The truth about the Ice Bucket Challenge: Viral memes shouldn't dictate our charitable giving". Vox.com. Retrieved September 6, 2014.
- Harford, Tim (September 5, 2014). "To ice or not to ice?". British Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved September 7, 2014.
- Harford, Tim (September 5, 2014). "In which I take the ice-bucket challenge the nerdy way…". Retrieved September 7, 2014.
- Carter, Ben; Moore, Keith (September 6, 2014). "Icy logic: Choosing a charity with your head and your heart". British Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved September 12, 2014.
- "ALSA Ice Bucket Challenge". Retrieved 19 September 2014.
- "Lance Storm Shares His Thoughts On The ALS Ice Bucket Challenge". Retrieved 19 September 2014.
- "The ALS Association Debunks Fake News Article that Went Viral". August 30, 2014.
- Crandell, Courtney. "Critics throw cold water on the Ice Bucket Challenge". worldmag.com.
- Harkness, Kelsey (23 August 2014). "Why Some Pro-Lifers Go Cold on ALS Ice Bucket Challenge". The Daily Signal. Retrieved 25 August 2014.
- Prentice, David (21 August 2014). "Send Your Ice Bucket Challenge Donation to Ethical, Successful Adult Stem Cell Research". Family Research Council. Retrieved 25 August 2014.
- Myers, Amanda Lee (21 August 2014). "Ohio diocese discourages ALS ice bucket challenge". News Observer. Cincinnati. Archived from the original on 25 August 2014. Retrieved 25 August 2014.
- Bedard, Paul (29 August 2014). "PETA challenges ALS 'ice bucket challenge' over animal testing". Washington Examiner. Retrieved 29 January 2015.
- Nudd, Tim (22 August 2014). "Pamela Anderson Declines Ice Bucket Challenge, Citing ALS Animal Testing". People. Retrieved 29 January 2015.
- Rettig, James (24 August 2014). "Grimes Rejects Ice Bucket Challenge Because ALS Association Tests On Animals". Stereogum. Archived from the original on 29 January 2015. Retrieved 29 January 2015.
- Peters, Mitchell (24 August 2014). "Grimes Declines Ice Bucket Challenge Over ALS Association's Animal Testing Policy". Billboard. Retrieved 29 January 2015.
- "Steve-O takes aim at stars over ice bucket challenge". MSN. Microsoft. August 19, 2014. Archived from the original on 2014-08-20. Retrieved August 19, 2014.
- Davidson, Jacob (August 13, 2014). "We Need To Do Better Than the Ice Bucket Challenge". Time Magazine. Retrieved September 7, 2014.
- "Doctor Explains Potential Dangers of ALS "Ice Bucket Challenge"". CBS Detroit. August 23, 2014. Retrieved August 23, 2014.
- Jernigan, Joy. "Ouch! Ice Bucket Challenge leaves some bruised and battered – or worse – Health". TODAY.com. Retrieved August 23, 2014.
- Bittenbender, Steve (20 September 2014). "Kentucky firefighter dies after ice bucket challenge accident". Reuters. Retrieved 20 September 2014.
- Philipson, Alice (25 Aug 2014). "Teenager dies 'after taking ice bucket challenge'". The Telegraph. Retrieved 25 August 2014.
- Steel, Emily (2014-08-17). "'Ice Bucket Challenge' Has Raised Millions for ALS Association". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2017-11-26.
- https://www.facebook.com/profile.php?id=1526386. "How much water has been used in the Ice Bucket Challenge?". Washington Post. Retrieved 2017-11-26.
- Governor, Office of the. "Office of Governor Edmund G. Brown Jr. - Newsroom". www.gov.ca.gov. Retrieved 2017-09-23.
- "A Drop In the Ice Bucket: Good for the Cause, Bad for the Drought". Long Beach Post. Retrieved 2017-09-23.
- Li, Shirley. "The California Drought Versus the Ice Bucket Challenge". The Atlantic. Retrieved 2017-09-23.
- Stevens, Matt (2014-08-20). "Ice Bucket Challenge stirs controversy in drought-plagued California". Los Angeles Times. ISSN 0458-3035. Retrieved 2017-09-23.
- Jingya, Zhang. "Henan province faces worst drought in 63 years - CCTV News - CCTV.com English". english.cntv.cn. Retrieved 2017-10-17.
- "LOOK: Residents in drought-stricken Henan protest Ice Bucket Challenge, dub it 'wasteful'". Shanghaiist. Retrieved 2017-10-17.
- "组图：河南久旱地区民众抗议冰桶挑战_新闻_腾讯网". news.qq.com (in Chinese). Retrieved 2017-10-17.
- TheCaroleKing (2014-08-18), Carole King Takes the ALS Ice Bucket Challenge, retrieved 2017-10-18
- DM Pranks' Killer Clowns (2014-08-23), Killer Clown ALS Ice Bucket Challenge! #IceBucketChallenge #strikeoutals, retrieved 2017-10-18
- C Dub (2014-08-20), Dirt Bucket Challenge!!!, retrieved 2017-10-18
- "ALS Therapy Development Institute". ALS Therapy Development Institute.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Ice Bucket Challenge.|