Ice cream cone

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Ice cream cone
Strawberry ice cream cone (5076899310).jpg
A wafer-style ice cream cone with strawberry ice cream.
Serving temperatureDry and cold
Main ingredientsFlour, sugar
Variationswaffle cone, cake cone (wafer cone), pretzel cone, sugar cone, chocolate-coated cone, double cone, vanilla cone
Food energy
(per serving)
23 kcal (96 kJ)

An ice cream cone, poke (Ireland and Scotland) or cornet is a brittle, cone-shaped pastry, usually made of a wafer similar in texture to a waffle, made so ice cream can be carried and eaten without a bowl or spoon. Types of ice cream cones include wafer cones (or cake cones), waffle cones, and sugar cones.

Many styles of cones are made, including pretzel cones and chocolate-coated cones (coated on the inside).

There are two techniques for making cones: One is by baking them flat then quickly rolling them into shape (before they harden), the other is by baking them inside a cone-shaped mold.[1]


Waffle cones are brown, brittle and sugary. They are baked flat and rolled up, which leaves the opening teardrop-shaped and rough-looking. A waffle bowl is a treat made from the same batter but shaped to have a broad, flat bottom.

Sugar cones are sturdier and,despite the name, they have less sugar than waffle cones.[citation needed] They are baked flat in a shape that, when rolled into a cone, keeps the opening round and neat.

Wafer cones (or cake cones) are crisp and flaky. They are baked in a mold, so their shapes are sometimes more creative than the classic cone. Some are made with a flat bottom so they can be set down, often branded as "ice cream cups" or "cake cups".


A sugar cone, with chocolate ice cream.

Edible cones were mentioned in French cooking books as early as 1825, when Julien Archambault described how one could roll a cone from "little waffles".[2] Another printed reference to an edible cone is in Mrs A. B. Marshall's Cookery Book, written in 1888 by Agnes B. Marshall (1855–1905) of England. Her recipe for "Cornet with Cream" said that "the cornets were made with almonds and baked in the oven, not pressed between irons".[3][4]

In the United States, edible vessels for ice cream took off at the start of the 1900s. Molds for edible ice cream cups entered the scene in 1902 and 1903, with two Italian inventors and ice cream merchants. Antonio Valvona, from Manchester, patented a novel apparatus resembling a cup-shaped waffle iron, made "for baking biscuit-cups for ice-cream" over a gas range.[5]The following year, Italo Marchiony, from New York City, patented an improved design with a break-apart bottom so that more unusual cup shapes could be created out of the delicate waffle batter.[6]

At the St. Louis World's Fair in 1904, a Syrian/Lebanese concessionaire named Arnold Fornachou was running an ice cream booth. When he ran short on paper cups, he noticed he was next to a waffle vendor by the name of Ernest Hamwi, who sold Fornachou some of his waffles. Fornachou rolled the waffles into cones to hold the ice cream. This is believed by some (although there is much dispute) to be the moment where ice-cream cones became mainstream.[7]

Abe Doumar and the Doumar family can also claim credit for the ice cream cone.[8] At the age of 16, Doumar began to sell paperweights and other items. One night, he bought a waffle from another vendor, Leonidas Kestekidès, who was transplanted from Ghent in Belgium to Norfolk, Virginia. Doumar proceeded to roll up the waffle and place a scoop of ice cream on top. He then began selling the cones at the St. Louis Exposition. His "cones" were such a success that he designed a four-iron baking machine and had a foundry make it for him. At the Jamestown Exposition in 1907, he and his brothers sold nearly twenty-three thousand cones. After that, Abe bought a semiautomatic 36-iron machine, which produced 20 cones per minute and opened Doumar's Cone's and BBQ in Norfolk, Virginia, which still operates at the same location over 100 years later.[9][10]

In 2008, the ice cream cone became the official state dessert of Missouri.[11]


Page 1 of a September 1917 article in Western Confectioner, describing the creation of inventor-entrepreneur Frederick Bruckman's "Real Cake Ice Cream Cone Machine"
Page 2 of article above

By 1912, an inventor by the name of Frederick Bruckman, from Portland, Oregon, perfected a complex machine for molding, baking, and trimming ice cream cones with incredible speed.[12][13][14] Inventions like this paved the way for the wholesaling of ice cream cones.

He sold his company in 1928 to Nabisco, which is still producing ice cream cones as of 2017. Other ice-cream providers such as Ben & Jerry's make their own cones.


In 1928, J. T. "Stubby" Parker of Fort Worth, Texas, created an ice cream cone that could be stored in a grocer's freezer, with the cone and the ice cream frozen together as one item.[15] He formed The Drumstick Company in 1931 to market the product, and in 1991 the company was purchased by Nestlé.

In 1959, Spica, an Italian ice cream manufacturer based in Naples, invented a process whereby the inside of the waffle cone was insulated from the ice cream by a layer of oil, sugar and chocolate. Spica registered the name Cornetto in 1960. Initial sales were poor, but in 1976 Unilever bought out Spica and began a mass-marketing campaign throughout Europe. Cornetto is now[when?] one of the most popular ice creams in the world.[16]

In 1979, a patent for a new packaging design by David Weinstein led to easier transportation of commercial ice cream cones. Weinstein's design enabled the ice cream cone to be wrapped in a wax paper package. This made the cones more sanitary while also preventing the paper wrapper from falling off during transportation, or from becoming stuck to the cone.[17]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "The History of the Ice Cream Cone". International Dairy Foods Association.
  2. ^ Archambault, Julien (1825). Le Cuisinier économe ou Élémens nouveaux de cuisine, de pâtisserie et d'office (in French). Paris: Librairie du commerce. p. 346.
  3. ^ Stradley, Linda. "History of Ice Cream Cone". What's Cooking America. Retrieved 2008-05-13.
  4. ^ Weir, Robert. "An 1807 Ice Cream Cone: Discovery and Evidence". Historic Food. Retrieved 2008-05-13.
  5. ^ US patent 701776, Antonio Valona, "Apparatus for baking biscuit-cups for ice-cream", issued 1902-06-03 
  6. ^ US patent 746971, Italo Marchiony, "Mold", issued 1903-12-15 
  7. ^ Kennedy, Pagan. "Who Made That Ice-Cream Cone?". The New York Times. Retrieved 24 July 2018.
  8. ^ Marlowe, Jack. "Zalabia and the First Ice-Cream Cone". (Issue July/August 2003). Aramco Services Company. Retrieved 2016-02-16.
  9. ^ The Ocean View Nickel Tour - Part VII Archived 2015-02-17 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved on 2015-11-20.
  10. ^ History | Doumar's. (2013-06-16). Retrieved on 2015-11-20.
  11. ^ IT, Missouri Secretary of State -. "The State Dessert - Missouri Secretary of State". Retrieved 2018-01-27.
  12. ^ US patent 1071027, F. A. Bruckman, "Automatic Pastry Making Machine", issued 1913-08-26 
  13. ^ US patent 1138450, F. A. Bruckman, "Ice Cream Cone Machine", issued 1915-05-04 
  14. ^ US patent 1091729, F. A. Bruckman, "Oven For Ice Cream Cone Molding Devices", issued 1914-03-31 
  15. ^ Funderburg, Anne Cooper (1995). Chocolate, Strawberry, and Vanilla: A History Of American Ice Cream. Popular Press. ISBN 9780879726928. Retrieved June 10, 2012.
  16. ^ "Cone History – Comaco Alimentare". Retrieved 2020-10-19.
  17. ^ "The United States Patent and Trademark Office". Retrieved 11 October 2012.

Further reading[edit]

  • US patent 913597, L. L. Westling, "Edible Cone Shaper", issued 1909-02-23 
    Patent for core & shell, which tilts back to drop the shaped cone down; displays this as a row of several irons + shapers next to each other
  • US patent 943293, "Cone-waffle Machine", issued 1909-12-14 
    Machine that softens pre-baked waffles before rolling them up; curiously submitted 1 day ahead of Westling's patent, describing similar goals