Ice worm

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Ice worm
Mesenchytraeus solifugus anterior.png
Mesenchytraeus solifugus
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Annelida
Class: Clitellata
Subclass: Oligochaeta
Order: Haplotaxida
Family: Enchytraeidae
Genus: Mesenchytraeus
Eisen, 1878[1]
Type species
Mesenchytraeus primaevus
Eisen, 1878
Species

See text

Ice worms (also written as ice-worms or iceworms) are enchytraeid annelids of the genus Mesenchytraeus. The majority of the species in the genus are abundant in gravel beds or the banks of riverine habitats,[2][3] but the most well-known members of the genus are found in glacial ice. They include the only annelid worms known to spend their entire lives in glacial ice,[4] and some of the few metazoans to complete their entire life cycle at conditions below 0 °C (32 °F).[5]

The genus contains 77 species, including the North American glacier ice worm (Mesenchytraeus solifugus) and the Yosemite snow worm (Mesenchytraeus gelidus).[6][7][8]

Species[edit]

The genus contains 77 species. They are the following:[6][7][9]

Mesenchytraeus franzi is a junior synonym of Cognettia clarae.[6] Mesenchytraeus megachaetae Shen, Chen & Xie, 2011 has been renamed Mesenchytraeus gigachaetus Xie, 2012 due to the previous name being preoccupied by Mesenchytraeus megachaetae Bretscher, 1901, a junior synonym of Mesenchytraeus armatus.[7][10]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Kathryn A. Coates; Jan M. Locke; Brenda M. Healy; Mark J. Wetzel (August 26, 2008). "The aphanoneuran and clitellate Annelida occurring in the United States and Canada: families Enchytraeidae and Propappidae". University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Retrieved January 22, 2010. 
  2. ^ Paula L. Hartzell & Daniel H. Shain (2009). "Glacier Ice Worms". In Daniel H. Shain. Annelids in Modern Biology. Wiley-Blackwell. p. 305. ISBN 9780470455197. 
  3. ^ Brenda Healy & Steve Fend (2002). "The occurrence of Mesenchytraeus (Enchytraeidae: Oligochaeta) in riffle habitats of north-west American rivers, with description of a new species". Journal of Natural History. 36 (1): 15–23. doi:10.1080/713833842. 
  4. ^ Shain, Daniel H.; Carter, Melissa R.; Murray, Kurt P.; Maleski, Karen A.; Smith, Nancy R.; McBride, Taresha R.; Michalewicz, Lisa A.; Saidel, William M. (2000). "Morphologic characterization of the ice worm Mesenchytraeus solifugus". Journal of Morphology. 246 (3): 192–7. doi:10.1002/1097-4687(200012)246:3<192::AID-JMOR3>3.0.CO;2-B. PMID 11077431. 
  5. ^ A.H. Farrell, K.A.Hohenstein, & D.H. Shain (2004). "Molecular adaptation in the ice worm, Mesenchytraeus solifugus: divergence of energetic-associated genes". Journal of Molecular Evolution. 59 (5): 666–673. doi:10.1007/s00239-004-2658-z. PMID 15693622. 
  6. ^ a b c Rüdiger M. Schmelz & Rut Collado (2012). "An updated checklist of currently accepted species of Enchytraeidae (Oligochaeta, Annelida)" (PDF). vTI Agriculture and Forestry Research, Special Issue. 357: 67–87. 
  7. ^ a b c Rüdiger M. Schmelz & Rut Collado (2015). "Checklist of taxa of Enchytraeidae (Oligochaeta): an update" (PDF). Soil Organisms. 87 (2): 149–152. 
  8. ^ Qi Shen, Jing Chen, & Zhicai Xie (2012). "Mesenchytraeus monodiverticulus sp. nov. (Annelida: Cliterllata: Enchytraeidae) from Changbai Mountain, with a key to Mesenchytraeus with enlarged chaetae". Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington. 125 (3): 215–227. 
  9. ^ Qi Shen, Jing Chen, & Zhicai Xie (2012). "Mesenchytraeus monodiverticulus sp. nov. (Annelida: Clitellata: Enchytraeidae) from Changbai Mountain, with a key to Mesenchytraeus with enlarged chaetae". Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington. 125 (3): 215–227. 
  10. ^ Zhicai Xie (2012). "Mesenchytraeus gigachaetus, new name, a replacement name for Mesenchytraeus megachaetus Shen et al., 2011". Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington. 125 (1): 18. 

External links[edit]