Ich hab in Gottes Herz und Sinn, BWV 92
|Ich hab in Gottes Herz und Sinn |
|Chorale cantata by J. S. Bach|
Paul Gerhardt, author of the chorale text
|Performed||28 January 1725 Leipzig:|
"Ich hab in Gottes Herz und Sinn"|
by Paul Gerhardt
|Vocal||SATB choir and solo|
Ich hab in Gottes Herz und Sinn (I have given over to God's heart and mind), BWV 92,[a] is a cantata by Johann Sebastian Bach for use in the Lutheran service. He composed the chorale cantata in Leipzig for Septuagesimae and first performed it on 28 January 1725. It is based on the hymn "Ich hab in Gottes Herz und Sinn" by Paul Gerhardt (1647), and is the only chorale cantata Bach based on a hymn by Gerhardt.
History and words
When Bach composed the cantata, he was in his second year as Thomaskantor (director of church music) in Leipzig. During his first year, beginning with the first Sunday after Trinity 1723, he had written a cycle of cantatas for the occasions of the liturgical year. In his second year he composed a second annual cycle of cantatas, which was planned to consist exclusively of chorale cantatas, each based on one Lutheran hymn. It included Ich hab in Gottes Herz und Sinn.
Bach composed the cantata for Septuagesima., the third Sunday before Lent. The prescribed readings for the Sunday were taken from the First Epistle to the Corinthians, "race for victory" (1 Corinthians 9:24–10:5), and from the Gospel of Matthew, the parable of the Workers in the Vineyard (Matthew 20:1–16). That year, Bach composed a cycle of chorale cantatas, begun on the first Sunday after Trinity of 1724. The cantata is based on "Ich hab in Gottes Herz und Sinn", a hymn in twelve stanzas by Paul Gerhardt (1647), sung to the melody of "Was mein Gott will, das g'scheh allzeit". The theme of the hymn is faith in God and the submission to his will. An unknown poet kept five stanzas unchanged, in contrast to the usual two for opening and closing a chorale cantata. He retained the first stanza for the first movement, the second for the second movement, the fifth stanza for the fourth movement, the tenth stanza for the seventh movement, and the twelfth stanza for the ninth and final movement. He paraphrased ideas from the fourth stanza in the third movement, an aria, used phrases from stanzas 6 and 8 in the fifth movement, a recitative, ideas from the ninth stanza in the sixth movement, and elements from the eleventh stanza in the eighth movement. He interpolated recitative in the chorale in movements 2 and 7, but without reference to the gospel.
Bach first performed the cantata on 28 January 1725. Bach's manuscript of the score and the parts of that performance are extant.
Scoring and structure
The cantata is scored for four vocal soloists—soprano, alto, tenor and bass—a four-part choir (SATB), two oboes d'amore, two violins, viola, and basso continuo. The cantata is in nine movements and is one of Bach's longer cantatas both in terms of form and amount of text and music, lasting around thirty minutes.
- Chorus: Ich habe in Gottes Herz und Sinn
- Recitative (bass) and chorale: Es kann mir fehlen nimmermehr!
- Aria (tenor): Seht, seht! wie reißt, wie bricht, wie fällt
- Chorale: Zudem ist Weisheit und Verstand
- Recitative (tenor): Wir wollen uns nicht länger zagen
- Aria (bass): Das Brausen von den rauhen Winden
- Chorale (choir) and recitative (bass, tenor, alto, soprano): Ei nun, mein Gott, so fall ich dir – So spricht der Gott gelassne Geist
- Aria (soprano): Meinem Hirten bleib ich treu
- Chorale: Soll ich denn auch des Todes Weg
Klaus Hofmann notes that the choice of chorale is surprising because it has the same tune as the base for the cantata of the previous week, Was mein Gott will, das g'scheh allzeit, BWV 111. In the opening chorus, the soprano sings the melody of the chorale as a cantus firmus in long notes. The melody appears in an interesting combination of phrases of different length, two measures alternating with three measures. The vocal parts are embedded in an independent orchestral concerto. their motifs are not taken from the hymn tune, but from the orchestra. The musicologist Julian Mincham notes the movement's "shimmering, translucent beauty, apparent from the very beginning".
Bach successfully tried to shape the five movements, which cite the chorale in words and music, differently. In the bass recitative, the singer switches between rendering the chorale tune and free recitative, with elements of tone painting. For example, "mit grausem Knallen die Berge und die Hügel fallen" (with cracking and terrible crashing, the mountains and the hills must fall) is depicted with "very fast downward sequences into the depths – very similar to the depiction of the veil of the temple being torn asunder when Jesus dies" in the St John Passion and the St Matthew Passion. The tenor aria illustrates a dramatic text, "Seht, seht, wie reißt, wie bricht, wie fällt" (See, see, how [it] is torn, how it breaks and falls) in the "truly bizarre contour of the vocal line" and in "rhythmically disjointed orchestral writing". The next chorale stanza is sung by the alto to an independent trio of the oboes and the continuo, with the word "traurig" (sad) rendered by chromatic lines in the oboes. The message is God's wisdom, "Zeit, Ort und Stund ist ihm bekannt, zu tun und auch zu lassen" (He knows the time, the place, the hour in which to act or not to act).
The bass aria describes the "howling and raging of the rough winds", an image of the rough situation of a Christian, by "incessant movement" of both the voice and the continuo. In the following chorale, the text again is alternating chorale words and free poetry. This time Bach alternates also the voices, the chorale is sung by the choir, the recitative by the four soloists in the sequence bass, tenor, alto and soprano. The last line, "und ich kann bei gedämpften Saiten dem Friedensfürst ein neues Lied bereiten" (And, with muted strings, I can prepare a new song for the Prince of Peace) leads to the following soprano aria, which Bach graces with pizzicato of the strings and no continuo, to which oboe d'amore and soprano perform a "graceful, dance-like melody and poignant ascending sixths and sevenths". John Eliot Gardiner notes that in the "enchanting conclusion" on the words "Amen: Vater, nimm mich an!" (Amen: Father take me up!), "innocence, trust and fragility are all rolled into one". The cantata is closed by a four-part setting of the chorale.
The cantata is Bach's only chorale cantata based on a hymn by Gerhardt.
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- Hofmann, Klaus (2005). "Ich hab in Gottes Herz und Sinn, BWV 92 / To God's heart and mind" (PDF). Bach Cantatas Website. pp. 5–6. Retrieved 22 January 2013.
- Gardiner, John Eliot (2009). "Cantatas for the Second Sunday after Trinity / Basilique Saint-Denis, Paris" (PDF). Bach Cantatas Website. pp. 5–6. Retrieved 23 January 2013.
- Mincham, Julian (2010). "Chapter 37 BWV 92 Ich hab in Gottes Herz und Sinn / I have, to God's heart and mind (surrendered myself)". jsbachcantatas.com. Retrieved 23 January 2013.
- Wiebusch, Carsten. "Über die Vertonung der Liedtexte Paul Gerhardts" (PDF) (in German). Christuskirche Karlsruhe. p. 3. Retrieved 11 February 2017.
- Ich hab in Gottes Herz und Sinn, BWV 92: Scores at the International Music Score Library Project (IMSLP)
- Ich hab in Gottes Herz und Sinn BWV 92; BC A 42 / Chorale cantata (Septuagesima) Bach Digital
- Cantata BWV 92 Ich hab in Gottes Herz und Sinn: history, scoring, sources for text and music, translations to various languages, discography, discussion, Bach Cantatas Website
- BWV 92 Ich hab in Gottes Herz und Sinn: English translation, University of Vermont
- BWV 92 Ich hab in Gottes Herz und Sinn: text, scoring, University of Alberta
- BWV 92.9 bach-chorales.com