Ich will den Kreuzstab gerne tragen, BWV 56
|Ich will den Kreuzstab gerne tragen
|Church cantata by J. S. Bach|
Cross and Staff, Brooklyn Museum
|Occasion||19th Sunday after Trinity|
|Performed||27 October 1726Leipzig:|
|Cantata text||Christoph Birkmann|
|Chorale||by Johann Franck|
Johann Sebastian Bach composed the church cantata Ich will den Kreuzstab gerne tragen ("I will the cross-staff gladly carry" or "I will gladly carry the Cross"), BWV 56,[a] is a church cantata by Johann Sebastian Bach. He composed the solo cantata for bass in Leipzig for the 19th Sunday after Trinity Sunday and first performed it on 27 October 1726. The cantata is regarded as part of Bach's third annual cycle of cantatas for all occasions of the liturgical year, and one of few works for which Bach himself used the term cantata.
The text by Christoph Birkmann reflects life of the Christian as a voluntary journey "carrying the cross" as a follower of Jesus. The text refers indirectly to the prescribed gospel reading which tells that Jesus traveled by boat, which on the other hand refers to a navigational instrument called Kreuzstab, the Jacob's staff. The poet used the imagery to liken life to a sea voyage, finally reflecting a yearning for death to reach the ultimate destination. The yearning for death is re-enforced by the choice of a closing chorale, the stanza "Komm, o Tod, du Schlafes Bruder" (Come, o death, you brother of sleep) from Johann Franck's 1653 hymn "Du, o schönes Weltgebäude" which also relates to the ship voyage imagery. Bach, who composed the cantata in his fourth year as Thomaskantor in Leipzig, structured the cantata in five movements, alternating arias and recitatives for a bass soloist and closing with a four-part chorale, and chose a Baroque instrumental ensemble of three woodwind instruments (two oboes and taille) playing mostly with three string instruments (two violins and viola), and continuo, with an obbligato cello in the first recitative and an obbligato oboe in the second aria, resulting in different timbres for the four movements for the same voice part.
History and words
Bach wrote the cantata during his fourth year as Thomaskantor (director of music) in Leipzig for the 19th Sunday after Trinity. It is regarded as part of his third cantata cycle. The original score has Bach's handwritten comment "Cantata à Voce Sola e Stromenti" (Cantata for solo voice and instruments). This is one of few examples in which Bach uses the generic musical term cantata in his own writing.
The prescribed readings for the Sunday were from Paul's Epistle to the Ephesians, "put on the new man, which after God is created" (Ephesians 4:22–28), and from the Gospel of Matthew, Healing the paralytic at Capernaum (Matthew 9:1–8).
The author of the text is Christoph Birkmann , which has been discovered recently. Kreuzweg means Way of the Cross, literally the stations of the cross presented along a way to be walked in meditation, but often a general description of the way of a Christian following Jesus "carrying the cross" in life and death. The text refers indirectly to the Gospel. Although there is no explicit reference to the sick man in the text, he appears as a follower of Christ who bears his cross and suffers torment until the end, when in the words of Revelation 7:17 "God shall wipe away the tears from their eyes". The cantata accordingly takes as its starting point the torment that the faithful must endure, told in the first person.
The image of life as a sea voyage to the Kingdom of Heaven in the first recitative comes from the opening of the Gospel reading: "There He went on board a ship and passed over and came into His own city" (Matthew 9:1). Affirmations that God will not forsake the faithful on this journey and will lead them out of tribulation come from Hebrews 13:5 and Revelation 7:14. The third movement expresses the joy at being united with the Saviour; the text comes from Isaiah 40:31: "Those that wait upon the Lord shall gain new strength so that they mount up with wings like an eagle, so that they run and do not grow weary." This joy is coupled with a yearning for death, a theme that is present until the very end of the work. The concluding chorale is the sixth stanza of Johann Franck's hymn "Du, o schönes Weltgebäude" (1653), which also alludes to the ship imagery, saying "Löse meines Schiffleins Ruder, bringe mich an sichern Port" (release the rudder of my little ship, bring me to the secure harbor). Before the chorale, the final lines of the opening aria taken from Revelation 7:17 ("there my Savior himself will wipe away my tears") are heard once more.
Scoring and structure
Bach structured the cantata in five movements, alternating arias and recitatives and a four-part chorale. He scored it for a bass soloist, a four-part choir only in the closing chorale, and a Baroque instrumental ensemble of two oboes (Ob), taille (Ot), two violins (Vl), viola (Va), cello (Vc), and basso continuo. Except for the obbligato oboe in movement 3, the three oboes double the violins and viola colla parte. The title page of the autograph score reads: "Domin. 19 post Trinit. / Ich will den Xstab gerne tragen / a / 2 / Hautb. o Viol. / Viola o / Taille / 4 Voci / Basso solo / e / Cont. / di / J.S.Bach". The score begins with the line "J.J.Dominica 19 post trinitatis. Cantata à Voce sola. è stromenti".
In the following table of the movements, the scoring follows the Neue Bach-Ausgabe. The keys and time signatures are taken from Alfred Dürr, using the symbol for common time (4/4). The continuo, playing throughout, is not shown.
|1||Ich will den Kreuzstab gerne tragen||Birkmann||Aria||Bass||2Ob Ot||2Vl Va||G minor||3/4|
|2||Mein Wandel auf der Welt / ist einer Schiffahrt gleich||Birkmann||Recitative||Bass||Vc||B-flat major|
|3||Endlich, endlich wird mein Joch / wieder von mir weichen müssen||Birkmann||Aria||Bass||Ob||B-flat major|
|4||Ich stehe fertig und bereit||Birkmann||Recitative||Bass||2Vl Va||G minor|
|5||Komm, o Tod, du Schlafes Bruder||Franck||Chorale||SATB||2Ob Ot||2Vl Va||C minor|
Wolff notes that Bach achieved "a finely shaded series of timbres" by scoring even the four solo movements differently, with all instruments in the opening aria, only continuo in a secco recitative, obbligato oboe in the central aria, and strings in an accompagnato recitative. All instruments play again in the closing chorale.
The opening aria, "Ich will den Kreuzstab gerne tragen" (I will gladly carry the Cross), is in bar form AAB, with two stollen (A) followed by an abgesang (B). The first stollen starts with a ritornello for full orchestra, anticipating in counterpoint the rising and then falling motif of the bass soloist, mounting to an anguished augmented second marking the word Kreuzstab (Cross), followed by descending sighing figures signalling the bearing of the cross. After the entry of the soloist, with its long and expressive melismatic lines, the three groups of strings and oboes accompany in counterpoint and echoing responses drawn from motifs of the opening ritornello. The ritornello is then taken up in the second stollen, but with significant variations because of the differing text: "It leads me after my torments to God in the Promised Land". After a repeat of the opening ritornello, the final abgesang illustrates the words, "There at last I will lay my sorrow in the grave, there my Savior himself will wipe away my tears." Declamatory triplets, dramatically spanning the whole bass register, are responded to by sighing motifs in the accompaniment. A reprise of the orchestral ritornello brings the aria to a close.
In the second movement, "Mein Wandel auf der Welt" (My pilgrimage in the world), the undulation of the sea is depicted in the accompaniment by flowing semiquavers in the cello over repeated quavers in the basso continuo.
The joyous third movement is a da capo aria "Endlich, endlich wird mein Joch" (Finally, finally my yoke), illustrating the passage from Isaiah. It is a lively concertante duet for solo oboe, bass soloist and continuo, full of elaborate coloraturas in the solo parts. The fourth movement starts as a declamatory recitative for bass with sustained string accompaniment which after seven bars changes time signature from 4/4 to 3/4, resuming a simplified and becalmed version of the second half of the abgesang from the first movement.
"Ich stehe fertig und bereit" (I stand ready and prepared), expressing readiness for the final journey, is an accompagnato recitative with the strings. Words related to the Book of Revelation are repeated from the first aria, and with them the rhythm in triplets. John Eliot Gardiner, who conducted the Bach Cantata Pilgrimage in 2000, describes: "now slowed to adagio and transposed to F minor, and from there by means of melisma floating effortlessly upwards, for the first time, to C major".
The final four-part chorale, "Komm, o Tod, du Schlafes Bruder" (Come, o death, brother of sleep), with the orchestra doubling the vocal parts, is regarded as an inspired masterpiece. Death is addressed as a brother of sleep, and requested to end the voyage of life by loosening the rudders of a little boat and bring it to a safe port, marking the end of the metaphorical journey in the cantata.
Komm, o Tod, du Schlafes Bruder,
Come, O death, of sleep the brother,
The melody was written by Johann Crüger, published in 1646. In his setting, Bach introduces dramatic syncopation for each declamation in "Come, o death, you brother of sleep"; and it is only at the end of the penultimate line that torment and dissonance are transformed into glory and harmony, illuminating the words "Denn durch dich komm ich herein / zu dem schönsten Jesulein" (for through you I will come to my loveliest little Jesus). Gardiner notes that it is Bach's only setting of Crüger's tune which recalls the style of his father's cousin Johann Christoph Bach whom he regarded as a 'profound composer'.
The entries of the table are taken from the listing on the Bach Cantatas Website. Choirs are marked as one voice per part (OVPP) by green background, also ensembles playing period instruments in historically informed performances.
|Title||Conductor / Choir / Orchestra||Soloists||Label||Year||Choir type||Instr.|
|Johann Sebastian Bach: Kantaten BWV 4, 56, 82||Ristenpart, KarlKarl Ristenpart Berliner Mottenchor Kammerorchester Karl Ristenpart||Dietrich Fischer-Dieskau||Archiv||1951||Chamber|
|Les Grandes Cantates de J. S. Bach Vol. 18||Werner, FritzFritz Werner Heinrich-Schütz-Chor Heilbronn Pforzheim Chamber Orchestra||Barry McDaniel||Erato||1964||Chamber|
|Kreuzstab & Ich Habe Genug||Brüggen, FransFrans Brüggen||Max van Egmond||Sony||1977||Period|
|J.S. Bach: Solokantaten Kreuzstabkantate BWV 56; "Der Friede sei mit dir" BWV 158; "Ich habe genug" BWV 82||Beringer, Karl-Friedrich Karl-Friedrich Beringer Windsbacher Knabenchor Consortium Musicum||Siegmund Nimsgern||Baier Records||1991|
|J. S. Bach: Complete Cantatas Vol. 17||Koopman, TonTon Koopman Amsterdam Baroque Orchestra & Choir||Klaus Mertens||Antoine Marchand||1995||Period|
|J. S. Bach: Bach: Kantaten · Cantatas BWV 82, BWV 158, BWV 56||Schneider, MichaelMichael Schneider Thomanerchor La Stagione||Gotthold Schwarz||Capriccio||2006||Period|
|J. S. Bach: Cantatas for the Complete Liturgical Year Vol. 1 Cantatas BWV 55, 56, 98, 180||Kuijken, SigiswaldSigiswald Kuijken La Petite Bande||Dominik Wörner||Accent||2006||OVPP||Period|
|Bach Cantatas for Bass BWV 82/158/56/203||Terakado, RyoRyo Terakado il Gardellino||Dominik Wörner||Passacaille||2013||Period|
- "BWV" is Bach-Werke-Verzeichnis, a thematic catalogue of Bach's works.
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- Hofmann, Klaus (2008). "Ich will den Kreuzstab gerne tragen / (I Shall Willingly Carry the Cross), BWV 56" (PDF). Bach Cantatas Website. pp. 5–6. Retrieved 30 September 2015.
- Bischof, Walter F. "BWV 56 Ich will den Kreuzstab gerne tragen". University of Alberta. Retrieved 30 September 2015.
- Mincham, Julian (2010). "Chapter 29 BWV 56 Ich will den Kreuzstab gerne tragen / I will happily bear the cross staff". jsbachcantatas.com. Retrieved 30 September 2015.
- Traupman-Carr, Carol (2006). "Cantata BWV 56 Ich will den Kreuzstab gerne tragen". The Bach Choir of Bethlehem. Retrieved 30 September 2015.
- Oron, Aryeh. "Cantata BWV 56 Ich will den Kreuzstab gerne tragen". Bach Cantatas Website. Retrieved 2 October 2015.
- Shiloni, Ehud (1998). "Kantaten: "Kreuzstab"&"Ich Habe Genug"". jsbach.org. Retrieved 30 September 2015.
- Ich will den Kreuzstab gerne tragen, BWV 56: Scores at the International Music Score Library Project (IMSLP)
- Ich will den Kreuzstab gerne tragen BWV 56; BC A 146 / Sacred cantata (19th Sunday after Trinity) Bach Digital
- BWV 56.5 bach-chorales.com