Ichikawa Fusae (市川 房枝, May 15, 1893 – February 11, 1981) was a Japanese feminist, politician and a leader of the women's suffrage movement. Ichikawa was a key supporter of women's suffrage in Japan, and her activism was partially responsible for the extension of the franchise to women in 1945.
Born in Bisai, Aichi Prefecture in 1893, Ichikawa was raised with an emphasis on education but also as a witness to her mother's physical abuse from her father. She attended the Aichi Women's Teacher Academy with the intention of becoming a primary school teacher. Upon her relocation to Tokyo in the 1910s, however, she became exposed to the women's movement. Returning to Aichi in 1917, she became the first woman reporter with the Nagoya Newspaper. In 1920 she co-founded the New Women's Association (新婦人協会, Shin-fujin kyokai) together with pioneering Japanese feminist Hiratsuka Raicho.
The New Women's Association was the first Japanese organization formed expressly for the improvement of the status and welfare of women. The organization, under Ichikawa's leadership, campaigned for changes in Japanese laws prohibiting the participation of women in politics. As women were barred from this sort of campaign (by the same law the organization sought to overturn), the organization held events known as "lecture meetings" to further their campaign. The law was eventually overturned by the Imperial Diet in 1922, after which the association disbanded.
Two years later, Ichikawa traveled to the United States, intent on making contact with American women's suffrage leader Alice Paul. Returning to Japan in 1924 to work for the Tokyo branch office of the International Labour Organization, she founded Japan's first women's suffrage organization, the Women's Suffrage League of Japan (日本婦人有権者同盟, Nippon fujin yûkensha dômei), which in 1930 held the country's first ever national convention on the enfranchisement of women in Japan. Ichikawa worked closely with Shigeri Yamataka, who went on to be elected to the House of Councillors.
The postwar occupation period saw Ichikawa play an important role in ensuring that women's suffrage was enshrined in Japan's postwar constitution, arguing that the political empowerment of women might have prevented Japan's entry into such a destructive war. The New Japan Women's League began its operation as an organization dedicated to winning suffrage for women, and Ichikawa was named the organization's first president.
Other campaigns included efforts to curb the corruption of elections, which led to the 1933 Women's Association to Clean Tokyo Politics and the creation of an official government office, the Central Association to Clean Up Elections, to which Ichikawa was appointed as one of five female trustees. During World War II, Ichikawa was appointed secretary of the Central Association for National Spiritual Mobilization, an organization formed by the Japanese government for the purpose of increasing popular support for the Japanese war effort. She also served as trustee of the Great Japan Women's Association, which coordinated the efforts of private support organizations.
A tireless champion of women's issues, she would organize and participate in women's conferences in Japan and internationally, and in 1980 emerged as the leading voice in urging the Japanese government to ratify the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women.
After World War II, Ichikawa was initially purged and excluded from political or governmental offices by the occupation. She returned to politics after the occupation ended, and was elected to the Diet in 1953 as a representative of Tokyo. She continued to focus on issues important to women, as well as electoral reforms. She was re-elected twice, but failed in her next re-election bid, and left office in 1971.
In 1974, however, the then 81-year-old Ichikawa was asked to run again, and earned a fourth term in the Diet. She was re-elected to the House of Councillors in 1980, with the highest number of votes from the national constituency.
- List of suffragists and suffragettes
- Timeline of women's suffrage
- Timeline of women's rights (other than voting)
- Women's suffrage in Japan
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- Lublin, Elizabeth Dorn (2013). "Ichikawa Fusae (1893-1981)". In Perez, Louis G. (ed.). Japan at War: An Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 9781598847420.
- Ichikawa, Fusae; Nuita, Yoko (Autumn 1978). "Fusae Ichikawa: Japanese Women Suffragist". Frontiers: A Journal of Women Studies. University of Nebraska Press. 3 (3): 58-62. doi:10.2307/3346332. JSTOR 3346332. - Interview of Ichikawa by Yoko Nuita
- Molony, Barbara (February 2011). "From "Mothers of Humanity" to "Assisting the Emperor": Gendered Belonging in the Wartime Rhetoric of Japanese Feminist Ichikawa Fusae". Pacific Historical Review. University of California Press. 80 (1): 1–27. doi:10.1525/phr.2011.80.1.1. JSTOR 10.1525/phr.2011.80.1.1.
- Vavich, Dee Ann (1967). "The Japanese Woman's Movement: Ichikawa Fusae, A Pioneer in Woman's Suffrage". Monumenta Nipponica. Sophia University. 22 (3/4): 402–436. doi:10.2307/2383075. JSTOR 2383075.
- "Ichikawa, Fusae (1893 - 1981)". Portraits of Modern Japanese Historical Figures. National Diet Library.
- ICHIKAWA Fusae Center for Women and Governance (公益財団法人市川房枝記念会女性と政治センター) (in Japanese) - Previously known as the Fusae Ichikawa Memorial Association (FIMA, 市川房枝記念会)
- The Fusae Ichikawa Memorial Association at the Wayback Machine (archive index) in English
|House of Councillors|
| Councillor for Tokyo's At-large district
Served alongside: Takeo Kurokawa, Sōji Okada, Kei Ishii, Yasu Kashiwabara, Kinjirō Aikawa, Sanzō Nosaka, Hiroshi Hōjō, Kihachirō Kimura
50-member SNTV district
| Councillor for Japan's At-large district (zenkoku-ku)
Served alongside: numerous others
50-member SNTV district
| Oldest member of the House of Councillors of Japan