Ichthyosauridae

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Ichthyosauridae
Temporal range: latest Triassic-Early Cretaceous, 207–185 Ma
Ichthyosaurus breviceps 2.jpg
Fossil specimen of Ichthyosaurus breviceps
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Reptilia
Order: Ichthyosauria
Node: Thunnosauria
Family: Ichthyosauridae
Bonaparte, 1841
Type species
Ichthyosaurus communis
Conybeare, 1822
Subgroups

Ichthyosauridae is an extinct family of thunnosaur ichthyosaurs from the latest Triassic and Early Jurassic (Rhaetian to Pliensbachian stages) of Europe, and possibly also from the middle Early Cretaceous (Hauterivian or Barremian stage) of Iraq. Named by Charles Lucien Bonaparte, in 1841, it is usually thought to contain a single genus, Ichthyosaurus, which is known from several species from the Early Jurassic. In 2013, Fischer et al. named and described Malawania anachronus from the middle Early Cretaceous of Iraq. It was found to share several synapomorphies with the type species of this family, Ichthyosaurus communis, and a large phylogenetic analysis recovered these species as sister taxa. Despite its geologically younger age, M. anachronus was also assigned to Ichthyosauridae.[1]

Phylogeny[edit]

Fischer et al. (2013) applied the name Ichthyosauridae Bonaparte, 1841 for the clade that contains Malawania anachronus and Ichthyosaurus communis. This clade was recovered in the phylogenetic analysis that was based on the largest currently available data matrix of parvipelvian species. Most other phylogenetic analyses, that were based on smaller matrices, also recovered this clade or found M. anachronus to be in a more basal position. Ichthyosauridae was recovered as the sister taxon of Baracromia, a clade first defined by Fischer et al. (2013) that includes all other thunnosaurs. The cladogram below follows the large phylogenetic analysis of Fischer et al. (2013).[1]

Life reconstruction of Ichthyosaurus anningae

Cladogram[edit]



Mikadocephalus gracilirostris


 Parvipelvia 

Hudsonelpidia brevirostris




Macgowania janiceps


 Neoichthyosauria 


Temnodontosaurus




Leptonectes tenuirostris




Eurhinosaurus longirostris



Excalibosaurus costini







Suevoleviathan disinteger




Hauffiopteryx typicus


Thunnosauria 
 Ichthyosauridae 

Ichthyosaurus communis



Malawania anachronus



 Baracromia 

Stenopterygius quadriscissus




Chacaicosaurus cayi


 Ophthalmosauridae 

Arthropterygius chrisorum



 Ophthalmosaurinae 

Mollesaurus periallus




Ophthalmosaurus icenicus (type species)




Baptanodon natans ("O." natans)



Acamptonectes densus





 Platypterygiinae 


Brachypterygius extremus




Maiaspondylus lindoei




Aegirosaurus leptospondylus



Sveltonectes insolitus







"Platypterygius" hercynicus




Caypullisaurus bonapartei




Athabascasaurus bitumineus



"Platypterygius" australis

















References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Fischer, V.; Appleby, R. M.; Naish, D.; Liston, J.; Riding, J. B.; Brindley, S.; Godefroit, P. (2013). "A basal thunnosaurian from Iraq reveals disparate phylogenetic origins for Cretaceous ichthyosaurs". Biology Letters. 9 (4): 20130021. PMC 3730615Freely accessible. PMID 23676653. doi:10.1098/rsbl.2013.0021.