Idaho State Capitol
|Idaho State Capitol|
|Owner||State of Idaho|
|Height||208 feet (63 m)|
|Floor area||201,720 sq ft (18,740 m2)|
|Design and construction|
|Architect||John E. Tourtellotte
The Idaho State Capitol in Boise is the home of the government of the state of Idaho. Although Lewiston, Idaho, briefly served as Idaho's capital from the formation of Idaho Territory in 1863, the territorial Legislature moved the capital to Boise on December 24, 1864.
Construction of the original capitol building began in the summer of 1906, 16 years after Idaho gained statehood. Architects were John E. Tourtellotte and Charles Hummel. Tourtellotte was a Connecticut native whose career began in Massachusetts and skyrocketed further when he moved to Boise. Hummel was a German immigrant who partnered with Tourtellotte in 1903. The final cost of the building was just over $2 million; it was completed in 1920. The architects used varied materials to construct the building and their design was inspired by Classical examples.
Construction of the original building
Tourtellotte and Hummel used four types of marble: red marble from Georgia, gray marble from Alaska, green marble from Vermont, and black marble from Italy. Architectural inspirations included St. Peter’s Basilica in Rome, St Paul's Cathedral in London and the U.S. Capitol in Washington, D.C. The most prominent feature of the capitol is its dome. On top of this dome is a bronze eagle, 5 feet 7 inches (1.7 m) high. The capitol building is 208 feet (63 m) high and takes up a total of 201,720 square feet (18,740 m2), and there is over 50,000 square feet (4,600 m2) of artistically carved marble.
There are 219 pillars in the original building – Doric, Corinthian, or Ionic – and each pillar is made up of marble dust, plaster and scagliola. Scagliola is a mixture of granite, marble dust, gypsum and glue dyed to look like marble. This artificial marble was created by a family of artisans in Italy.
On the first floor of the capitol building, when looking upward to the dome, 13 large stars and 43 smaller stars can be seen. The 13 large stars represent the thirteen original colonies and the 43 smaller stars indicate that Idaho was the forty third state to enter the union. When looking down at the floor, a compass rose can be seen. In its center is a sundial that has minerals found in Idaho. Also on the first floor is a statue called the Patriot. It was made by Kenneth Lonn for those who worked in the mining industry.
On the second floor there are three separate entrances; from the east, the south and the west. The lieutenant governor’s office is located in the west wing, just opposite the governor’s office. On the north side of the second floor rotunda is the statue of George Washington astride a horse. And to the rear of the George Washington statue is the attorney general’s suite of offices. The offices were used by the Idaho Supreme Court until the new Supreme Court building was constructed in 1970. In the east wing is the office of the secretary of state and in the reception area is the official copy of the Great Seal of the State of Idaho.
The third floor contains the Senate in the west wing and the House of Representatives in the east wing. The two chambers were remodeled in 1968. Also on this floor is the old Idaho Supreme Court room, now used for hearings and committee meetings of the Joint Finance and Appropriations Committee. On the fourth floor are balcony entrances to the senate and house galleries. The galleries enable members of the public to watch the Legislature while it is in session. On this floor there are many historic paintings that the public can see as well as three murals by Dana Boussard. They hang in the northeast, northwest and southwest corners of this floor.
Restoration of the Capitol
In 1998, Idaho officials drafted a master plan to restore the Capitol. Though it has many impressive features, the "Statehouse" it had begun to fade with age. The interior restoration work would include restoration and refinishing of windows, repairs to marble flooring and decorative plaster, restoration of wood floors, refinishing wood doors and restoring hardware, upgrading electrical, smoke and fire-detection systems, improving exterior lighting, adding an emergency power generator, and installation of an elevator accessible to disabled persons.
The Legislature initially provided a mere $120,000 for the project. In 2000, The master plan was completed and its total cost estimate put at $64 million. In 2001, the Legislature granted a one-time appropriation of $32 million; bonds were issued to cover the other half of the project. In 2002-03 builders worked on Phase II of the project, which involved exterior repairs; a supplementary $1.5 million appropriation was passed. In 2005, an increase in the state cigarette tax helped pay for interior restoration expenses totaling $20 million.
In 2006, authorization was voted to finance two two-story underground legislative office wings that would cost about $130 million. However, in view of the U.S. economic downturn in 2008, Governor C.L. "Butch" Otter proposed single-story underground wings. After this compromise was reached construction continued until 2010, when both interior and exterior renovations were finished.
Plasterers were tasked with restoring scagliola, a composite of selenite, glue and natural pigments, imitating marble and other hard stones. Making scagliola is a laborious 15-step process which has to be restarted if a single mistake is made. During its construction, the Idaho state capitol’s architects used a combination of white marble and matching scagliola to create a "Capitol of Light," so called because the materials would glow in natural light in the rotunda.
The Winged Victory statue is a plaster replica of the original marble statue of Nike of Samothrace. The original statue was found on the island of Samothrace, Greece, in 1863 by a French explorer. The statue has characteristic features of Hellenistic art. The replica was given to the United States as a gift from France after U.S. forces helped liberate France from Nazi occupation at the end of World War II. The gift was chosen to reside in the Boise capitol, and it arrived in February 1949.
The sculpture Statue head of Terry Shadduck was created out of bronze and black stone. Shadduck was an Idaho author, historian, civil servant and political activist. In 1958 Shadduck was elected secretary of Commerce and Development – the first women to hold that office. The statue, made of bronze and black stone, was created to honor the dedication she showed to Idaho. Shadduck died in 2008, aged 92.
Attractions in the restored and expanded building include a gilded equestrian statue of George Washington and information about the historic trees that surrounded the capitol building before the grounds were cleared for underground construction. (Presidents Benjamin Harrison, Teddy Roosevelt and William Taft planted trees on the property; Harrison planted a Water Oak, Roosevelt planted a Sugar Maple in 1903, and Taft planted the Ohio Buckeye in 1911.) The Golden Statue was carved by Charles Osner in 1869 from white pine, the state tree of Idaho. He did all of his work by candlelight and it took him four years to finish it. Another popular statue that resides near The George Washington Statue is a replica of the Winged Victory of Samothrace (see above).
Details of the Capitol
Underground tunnels connect the Capitol Building to the Supreme Court building and other government buildings on Capitol Mall to the east. Used daily by government employees, these tunnels are not accessible to the public, and could serve as bomb shelters to protect the governor and other public officials.
A large bell directly in front of the Capitol is a scale replica of the Liberty Bell (uncracked). Pedestrians can ring the bell. Inside the capitol, 20 portraits of Idaho territorial and state Governors by artist Herbert A. Collins in 1911 are on display.
- Laws of the Territory of Idaho, Second session: An Act to permanently locate the capital of the Territory of Idaho. December 7, 1864. p. 427.
- "Idaho Capitol Building". idahoptv.org. Retrieved 19 May 2015.
- Images of America, Boise by Frank Thomason
- Boise, Idaho 1882-1910 Prosperity in Isolation by Carol Lynn MacGregor
- Historic Boise by Arthur A. Hart
- Idaho Capitol Commission - History of the Idaho Capitol Building
- Office of the Governor of Idaho - Capitol Tour Guide
- Idaho Public Television - Idaho Capitol Building
-  - Capitol Self Guided Tour
-  - A music video shot on iPhones
Media related to Idaho State Capitol at Wikimedia Commons