Iddefjord

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Iddefjorden seen from Fredriksten

Iddefjord (English: Idd Fjord[1][2] or Idde Fjord[3][4]; Swedish: Idefjorden) is a classic fjord with a narrow watercourse and steep natural formations on both sides. It runs along the Norwegian-Swedish border from the Singlefjord (English: Single Fjord).[5][6] The Iddefjord separates the province of Bohuslän in the county of Västra Götaland in Sweden from the municipality of Halden in the county of Østfold in Norway. It opens to the Skagerrak via the Svinesund and Hvaler archipelago (a cluster of classic skerries). The outermost stretch is called the Ringdalsfjord (English: Ringdals Fjord),[5][7] but from the point where it makes a sharp bend and further south, it is called the Iddefjord. Like several other fjords, it was named after a part of its coast, in this case the parish of Idd.

The Norwegian fortress of Fredriksten in Halden rises over the Iddefjord. The Iddefjord was one of several important geological features that enabled Fredriksten Fortress to successfully repel Swedish invasions in 1716, 1718, and 1814.

References

  1. ^ Alnæs, Karsten (2001). A History of Norway in Words and Pictures. Gyldendal Norsk forlag: Oslo. p. 104.
  2. ^ Mikkelsen, Egil; Ballin, Torben Bjarke; Hufthammer, Anne Karin (1999). "Tørkop—A Boreal Settlement in South-Eastern Norway: A Phase-Defining Lithic Assemblage". Acta Archaeologica. 70: 25–57.
  3. ^ Anderson, Ewan W. 2003. International Boundaries: A Geopolitical Atlas. New York: Routledge, p. 768.
  4. ^ Major, Harlan. 1950. Norwegian Holiday. New York: Funk & Wagnalls, p. 128.
  5. ^ a b A Brief Geographical and Hydro Graphical Study of Bays and Estuaries the Coasts of which Belong to Different States. 2009. Geneva: United Nations, p. 218.
  6. ^ Alander, Harald. 1942. Sponges from the Swedish West-Coast and Adjacent Waters. Göteborg: Henrik Struves boktryckeri, p. 8.
  7. ^ Hyde, Robert. 1979. The Sparks Flew in Sweden. Cruising World (January): 92–93.

Coordinates: 59°03′N 11°24′E / 59.050°N 11.400°E / 59.050; 11.400