Chinese character description languages
The Chinese character description languages are several proposed languages to most accurately and completely describe Chinese (or CJKV) characters and information such as their list of components, list of strokes (basic and complex), their order, and the location of each of them on a background empty square. They are designed to overcome the inherent lack of information within a bitmap description. This enriched information can be used to identify variants of characters that are unified into one code point by Unicode and ISO/IEC 10646, as well as to provide an alternative form of encoding for rare characters that do not yet have a standardized encoding in Unicode or ISO/IEC 10646. Many aim to work for Kaishu style and Song style, as well as to provide the character's internal structure which can be used for easier look-up of a character by indexing the character's internal make-up and cross-referencing among similar characters.
Chinese Character Description Language is a font technology, based on XML, co-created by Tom Bishop and Richard Cook for the Wenlin Institute, designed for describing any CJK character, but suitable for describing any glyph.
This XML-based declarative language actually defines the stroke order of each component (≈ a radical), as well as assembly of previously defined components to build up ever more complex characters. Many of these components are characters in their own right, in addition to serving as building-block components.
The background looks like a square of 128 pixels on each side. In this background:
- Each kind of stroke can be drawn in SVG (more than 50 strokes).
- A basic component is composed by calling several strokes. In this component, each stroke is described by its bottom-left and top-right corner. Transformations are possible (reduction, enlargement, etc.). There are more than 1,000 basic components.
- A character is composed by calling several components. In this character, each component is described by its bottom-left and top-right corner. In order for a component to fit into its proper portion of the Chinese character's rectangular block, a component may be transformed (e.g., horizontal or vertical reduction or enlargement) upon its use as a building-block embedded within a containing more-complex character.
Accordingly, a set of 50 strokes allow one to construct a set of 1,000 components which may in turn be embedded within tens of thousands of characters' descriptions. A change in the shape of one of the 50 basic strokes is implicitly applied within each character that embeds that stroke. Likewise, a change to a component is implicitly applied within each character whose assemblage uses that component.
T. Bishop and R. Cook explain this as follows:
- "The stroke count of one character is generally related to the stroke counts of other characters. Most characters are built from components, and as long as the stroke counts of those components are defined, there is rarely any difficulty in adding them together to obtain the combined stroke count. Therefore, if a standard defines the strokes of a few thousand characters, it implicitly defines the strokes of many thousands of additional characters."
As of spring 2003, over 50,000 Chinese characters had been described via CDL. As of 26 February 2013, 86,416 Chinese characters had been described via CDL.
A character description language intended for supplying missing rare characters in documents (addressing the Chinese equivalent of the gaiji problem). Documents can contain markup for missing characters, which will automatically trigger the generation of small fonts to provide the characters. The language itself is a simple postfix notation describing strokes and ways to combine them. The prototype software uses Metapost to render the characters and embed them in LaTeX documents. The language was presented by Wai Wong in 1997, and papers about its implementation in Metapost and LaTeX appeared at TeX user group conferences in 2003.
Ideographic Description Sequences
Chapter 12 of the Unicode specification defines a syntax for "Ideographic Description Sequences" (IDSes) intended for use in describing characters not included in the standard in terms of combinations of components that do have code points. Twelve special characters in the range U+2FF0 to U+2FFB act as prefix operators to combine other characters or sequences to form larger characters.
|Character||Unicode Character Number||Full Unicode Name|
|⿰||U+2FF0||Ideographic description character left to right|
|⿱||U+2FF1||Ideographic description character above to below|
|⿲||U+2FF2||Ideographic description character left to middle and right|
|⿳||U+2FF3||Ideographic description character above to middle and below|
|⿴||U+2FF4||Ideographic description character full surround|
|⿵||U+2FF5||Ideographic description character surround from above|
|⿶||U+2FF6||Ideographic description character surround from below|
|⿷||U+2FF7||Ideographic description character surround from left|
|⿸||U+2FF8||Ideographic description character surround from upper left|
|⿹||U+2FF9||Ideographic description character surround from upper right|
|⿺||U+2FFA||Ideographic description character surround from lower left|
|⿻||U+2FFB||Ideographic description character overlaid|
These sequences differ from some other character description languages in that they do not include detailed information about the locations and shapes of strokes. They do not, by themselves, provide enough information for an actual rendering of a character being described.
However, these sequences are useful in describing to the reader a character that is not directly printable, either because it is absent in a given font, or is absent from the Unicode standard altogether.
These sequences may incidentally be useful for dictionary lookup purposes, as a sort of rough input method for queries.
Unicode's specification for these sequences is based on the characters and syntax of the earlier GBK standard.
The IDSgrep free software package by Matthew Skala extends Unicode's IDS syntax to include additional features for dictionary lookup; it is capable of converting KanjiVG's database to its own extended IDS format, or of searching EIDS files generated by the related Tsukurimashou font family.
KanjiVG is a free (CC-by-sa-3.0) Japanese character description language (intended to eventually expand to Chinese as well) based on SVG and a wiki system of edition.
|This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (December 2009)|
In 2007, Structural Character Modeling Language was proposed as a different kind of XML-based Chinese-character description language whose positioning is not based on a numerical grid, as CDL and HanGlyph are. The known database of characters whose strokes and components are encoded in SCML is for demonstration-of-principle only; no known effort exists to attempt to encode, say, all of Unicode's CJK characters in SCML.
- List of Shuowen Jiezi radicals - a system of 540 components used by Xu Shen (d. ~147 AD) in his Shuowen Jiezi
- List of Kangxi radicals - a system of 214 components used by the Kangxi dictionary (1716), made under the leadership of the Kangxi Emperor
- List of unicode radicals － a modern and computer-based ongoing attempt to create a complete and accurate set of CJK component list, led by Unicode.
- Cangjie input method
- CJK characters
- stroke order
- Bishop, Tom & Cook, Richard 2003 Oct. 31st, pp. 8–9, point n⁰12
- "HanGlyph". Retrieved 17 February 2012.
- Wong, Wai (April 1997). "HanGlyph – a Chinese Character Description Language". Proceedings of the Seventeenth International Conference on Computer Processing of Oriental Languages, Hong Kong.
- Yiu, Candy L. K.; Wai Wong (July 2003). "Chinese Character Synthesis using METAPOST". Proceedings of the 24th Annual Meeting and Conference of the TeX User Group, Hawaii, U.S.A.
- Wong, Wai; Candy L. K. Yiu; Kelvin, C. F. Ng (June 2003). "Typesetting Rare Chinese Characters in LaTeX". Proceedings of the 14th European TeX Conference, Brest, France.
- Skala, Matthew (2015). "A Structural Query System for Han Characters" (PDF). International Journal of Asian Language Processing. 23 (2): 127–159.
- CDL language from Wenlin Institute
- Bishop, Tom; Cook, Richard, CDL specification
- Bishop, Tom; Cook, Richard (2003 Oct. 31st), Specification for CDL (PDF) Check date values in:
- Cook, Richard (2003, Oct. 26th), Chinese Character Description Languages (PDF) Check date values in:
- Bishop, Tom (2007), A character description language for CJK (PDF), Multilingual, #91, Volume 18 Issue 7, pp. 62–8
- Digital Humanities Start-up Grant from the U.S. National Endowment for the Humanities
- Peebles, Daniel G.; Balkcom, Devin (Advisor) (May 29, 2007), SCML: A Structural Representation for Chinese Characters, Technical Report TR2007-592 (PDF), Dartmouth College, p. 30
- HanGlyph – a Chinese Character Description Language - Presentation
- HanGlyph – a Chinese Character Description Language - Reference Manual (PDF), 2003, Sept. 13th, p. 31 Check date values in: