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Idiyappam served with curry
Alternative namesindiappa, noolputtu, noolappam, santhagai, ottu shavige, putu mayam, putu mayang, chomai, suvaijappam
Place of originSouth India
Region or stateKerala, Sri Lanka, Tamil Nadu, Malaysia, Singapore
Associated cuisineKerala cuisine, Tamil cuisine, Sri Lankan cuisine
Main ingredientsRice flour

Idiyappam (Tamil: இடியப்பம்/இடியாப்பம்; Malayalam: ഇടിയപ്പം), also known as indiappa (Sinhala: ඉඳිආප්ප), noolputtu (நூல்புட்டு; നൂൽപ്പുട്ട്), noolappam (நூலப்பம்/நூலாப்பம்), santhagai (சந்தகை; നൂലപ്പം), or ottu shavige (Kannada: ಒತ್ತು ಶಾವಿಗೆ), is a string hopper dish originating from southern India. It consists of rice flour pressed into noodles, laid into a flat disc-like shape and steamed. The dish also spread to Southeast Asia, where it is called putu mayam in Malaysia and Singapore, and putu mayang in Indonesia.



According to food historian K. T. Achaya, idiyappam, appam, idli, dosai and vadai were known during ancient Tamil country the 1st century AD, as per references in the Sangam literature.[1] Lokopakara (1025 CE) cookbook in Kannada language also mentions a method of making shavige and the mold-presser used for it.[2]



Idiyappam is a culinary speciality throughout the Indian states of Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Karnataka and in Sri Lanka. The name idiyappam derives from Tamil and Malayalam. The Tamil/Malayalam word 'Idi' together forms the name Idiyappam. The dish is also, frequently, called as noolappam or noolputtu, originating from the Tamil and Malayalam word nool, meaning string or thread. In Karnataka, it is known as Ottu Shavige in Kannada and it is also termed semige or semé da addae in Tulu in Mangalore and Udupi. In Maharashtra it is known as Shirvale. In Karnataka distinction between Ottu Shavige (unbroken shavige) and shavige is made based on different recipes. In Mangalore and Udupi it is eaten with Tuluva chicken or fish curry, and a coconut milk dish called rasayana.[3] It is also a common breakfast item in Malaysia & Singapore, where it is called Puttu Mayam, typically served with brown sugar and grated coconut.


Ottu Shavige being prepared in a traditional wooden press, Karnataka

It is made of rice flour, salt, and water. In most parts of Tamil Nadu and Kerala Idiyappam is steamed after making sevai, while in the Kongu region of Tamil Nadu, the steamed rice flour ball is pressed to make Idiyappam, a reverse process more similar to Ottu Shavige in neighbouring Karnataka.[4] It is generally served as the main course at breakfast or dinner together with a curry (potato, egg, fish, or meat curry or rasam) and coconut chutney. It is served with coconut milk and sugar in the Malabar region of Kerala. It is not usually served at lunch. In other parts of Tamil Nadu, Kerala, and Sri Lanka, it is mostly eaten with spicy curries or rasam. Using wheat flour in its preparation gives it a brownish hue.

Putu mayam is made by mixing rice flour or idiyappam flour with water or coconut milk, and pressing the dough through a sieve to make vermicelli-like noodles which are steamed, usually with the addition of juice from the aromatic pandan leaf (screwpine) as flavouring. The noodles are served with grated coconut and jaggery, or gur (date palm sugar). In some areas, gula melaka (coconut palm sugar) is the favourite sweetener. Putu piring is a version of putu mayam in which the rice flour dough is used to form a small cake around a filling of coconut and gur or jaggery.[5][unreliable source?]


Putu mayam

This dish may be eaten for breakfast with a vegetable stew or avial, or a fish curry, etc. The same liking for serving the slightly sweet putu mayam, putu piring, or cendol with savory dishes also occurs in Malaysia and Singapore. Idiyappam is typical of Tamil Nadu, Kerala and Karnataka, as well as Sri Lanka. A very finely ground, commercial idiyappam flour is sold as a sort of "instant" way to make all of these dishes.

In Malaysia and Singapore, putu mayam and its relatives are commonly sold as street food from market stalls or carts, as well as being made at home, and are usually served cold. In Indonesia, putu mayam is called putu mayang and is served with palm sugar mixed with coconut milk.


See also



  1. ^ K. T. Achaya (November 2003). The Story of Our Food. Universities Press. p. 80. ISBN 81-7371-293-X.
  2. ^ "Lokopakara" Agri-History Bulletin No. 6 - (Trans) Ayangarya, Y. L. Nene, Nalini Sadhale, Valmiki Sreenivasa (Trans), 2004
  3. ^ "Idiyappam". Marias Menu. Retrieved 12 April 2014.
  4. ^ Ottu shavige http://vegrecipesofkarnataka.com/235-ottu-shavige-akki-shavige-idiyappam-semettu-nool-puttu.php
  5. ^ "AROMA RASA: Heavenly putu piring". Archived from the original on 18 June 2013. Retrieved 13 August 2019.

Media related to Idiyappam at Wikimedia Commons