Comparison between Ido and Novial

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Novial was created by Otto Jespersen, who had also been a co-author of Ido. Both languages base their vocabularies primarily on the Germanic and Romance languages but differ grammatically in several important respects. Comparisons among Ido, Novial, and other notable international auxiliary languages have formed an important part of interlinguistic studies. For example, both Ido and Novial were among the languages investigated by the International Auxiliary Language Association (IALA), which developed Interlingua. This article is intended to provide an overview of the salient differences and similarities of Ido and Novial.

Novial is more analytic than Ido, and in Jespersen's view more natural.

Alphabets and pronunciation[edit]

Both Ido and Novial are written using the modern Latin alphabet with no diacritics.

In the Phonetic Novial spelling system (1928, 1930) the main differences between the Novial vocabulary and those of other systems come from the suppression of the letters c and z. The letter s plays an important part but tends to distort the visual appearance of some words (sientie = science, sesa = cease, sivil(i) = civil). [1]

Ido IPA Novial
A, a /a/ A, a
B, b /b/ B, b
C, c /ts/ TS, ts
CH, ch; /tʃ/ CH, ch
D, d /d/ D, d
E, e /e/ or /ɛ/ E, e
F, f /f/ F, f
G, g /ɡ/ G, g
Dj, dj /dʒ/ J, j
H, h /h/ H, h
I, i /i/ I, i
J, j /ʒ/ J, j
K, k /k/ K, k
L, l /l/ L, l
M, m /m/ M, m
N, n /n/ N, n
O, o /o/ or /ɒ/ O, o
P, p /p/ P, p
QU, qu /kw/ or /kv/ QU, qu
R, r /r/ R, r
S, s /s/ S, s (also Z,z)
SH, sh /ʃ/ SH, sh
T, t /t/ T, t
U, u /u/ U, u
W, w /w/ W, w (before a vowel)

U, u (after a vowel)

V, v /v/ V, v
X, x /ks/ or /ɡz/ X, x
Y, y /j/ Y, y
Z, z /z/ Z, z (also S, s)

Personal pronouns[edit]

singular plural indef.
1st 2nd 3rd 1st 2nd 3rd
familiar formal m. f. n. pan-gender m. f. n. pan-gender Reflexive
English I you (thou) you he she it he/it we you       they one
Ido me tu vu il(u) el(u) ol(u) lu ni vi ili eli oli li su on(u)
Novial me vu vu lo la lu(m) le nus vus los las lus les se on

Verbal systems[edit]

The grammars of Novial and Ido differ substantially in the way that the various tenses, moods and voices of verbs are expressed. Both use a combination of auxiliary verbs and verb endings. However, Novial uses many more auxiliary verbs and few endings, while Ido uses only one auxiliary verb and a greater number of verb endings.

As with most international auxiliary languages, all verb forms in Ido and Novial are independent of person (1st, 2nd or 3rd persons) and number (singular or plural).

Language sample for comparison[edit]

Here is the Lord's Prayer in both languages:

Ido version:
Patro nia, qua esas en la cielo,
tua nomo santigesez;
tua regno advenez;
tua volo facesez
quale en la cielo tale anke sur la tero.
Donez a ni cadie l'omnidiala pano,
e pardonez a ni nia ofensi,
quale anke ni pardonas a nia ofensanti,
e ne duktez ni aden la tento,
ma liberigez ni del malajo.
Novial version:
Nusen Patre, kel es in siele,
mey vun nome bli sanktifika,
mey vun regno veni;
mey on fa vun volio
kom in siele anke sur tere.
Dona a nus disidi li omnidiali pane,
e pardona a nus nusen ofensos,
kom anke nus pardona a nusen ofensantes,
e non dukte nus en tentatione,
ma liberisa nus fro malu.

See also[edit]


External links[edit]