Calderón started his playing career with Guadalajara. In 1962, he won three Mexican league championships with the team (1963–64, 1964–95, 1969–70) and was called up to the Mexico national team for the first time in 1965.
Calderón played in two FIFA World Cups for the Mexico national team, and in the 1970 World Cup he set a World Cup record of 310 minutes without conceding a goal.
In 1974 Calderón joined the U de G team that finished as runners up in the Mexican Primera twice (1975–76, 1976–77) and shared the CONCACAF Champions' Cup in 1978.
After a three-month spell with Atlas in 1980 Calderón retired at the age of 36.