Ignatius Abded Aloho II
|Ignatius Abded Aloho II Sattuf|
|Syriac Orthodox Patriarch of Antioch and All the East|
|Church||Syriac Orthodox Church|
|Predecessor||Ignatius Abded Mshiho II|
|Successor||Ignatius Elias III|
|Birth name||Abded Sattuf|
Sadad, Ottoman Empire
Jerusalem, Ottoman Empire
|Residence||Monastery of Mor Marqos|
Abded was born in 1833 in the village of Sadad, a predominantly Syriac Orthodox village, south of Homs. He became a monk at an early age, and was later ordained priest. In 1870, he toured the Tur Abdin region and recorded the names of villages, monasteries, churches, clergy and the families living in the area.
He was appointed metropolitan bishop of Jerusalem in 1872 by Patriarch Ignatius Peter IV, taking the name Gregorius, and in August 1874 accompanied him to Britain to persuade the British government to assist the church in India. They stayed here until April 1875, when they left for India to reorganise the church in India with the help of the British governor. Whilst in India, Abded fraternised with Protestant missionaries. After Returning to Syria he spread Protestant ideas.
They left India in May 1877 and remained in Syria before returning to London in 1879, where he secured a printing press for the Monastery of Mor Hananyo. Upon his return, Abded was ordained Bishop of Homs and Hama and left to attend the 1888 Lambeth Conference, and secured a second printing press.
After the death of Ignatius Peter IV in 1894, a rivalry began between Abded and Abded Mshiho to be elected to the patriarchal throne. According to American missionaries operating in Syria at the time, the Ottoman government interfered and intimidated bishops based on the highest bidder. However, in 1895, Abded Mshiho was elected and consecrated patriarch.
The following year, Abded joined the Syriac Catholic Church and became Metropolitan of Homs. In 1905, Abded renounced the church and took up his position as Syriac Orthodox Metropolitan of Amid again, under the promise of becoming the Patriarch upon its vacancy.
The Patriarch, Ignatius Abdul Masih II, was deposed that year, however by who and why is highly controversial within the church. Supporters of Abded Sattuf claim the patriarch had converted to Catholicism and was excommunicated by the Holy Synod as a result. Whereas supporters of Abded Mshiho claim Abded Sattuf bribed the Ottoman Government a total of 500 lira to issue a firman deposing Abded Mshiho as Patriarch and that he was not excommunicated by the Holy Synod. Abded Sattuf claimed the patriarchal throne on August 15, 1906 and left for London shortly after.
Whilst in London, Abded met with King Edward VII twice and received a medal. He travelled to India in 1908 and began ordaining Indian bishops much to the chagrin of the local church. This led to the demand of a Maphrian or Catholicos to prevent the Malankara Church coming under Abded's control. In 1910, Abded established the Knanaya Archdiocese and travelled to Jerusalem in 1912.
Abded resided at the Monastery of Mor Marqos from 1912 until his death in 1915, where he was also buried.
- Adrian Fortescue. The Lesser Eastern Churches. p. 338.
- Adrian Fortescue. The Lesser Eastern Churches. p. 339.
- John Joseph. Muslim-Christian Relations and Inter-Christian Rivalries in the Middle East: The Case of the Jacobites in an Age of Transition.
- "ܐܦܛܪܘܦܘܬܐ ܦܛܪܝܪܟܝܬܐ". Soc-wus.org.
Ignatius Abded Mshiho II
|Syriac Orthodox Patriarch of Antioch
Ignatius Elias III