Ikejime (活け締め?) or Ikijime (活き締め?) is a method of paralyzing fish to maintain its quality. The technique originated in Japan, but is now in widespread use. It involves the insertion of a spike quickly and directly into the hind brain, usually located slightly behind and above the eye, thereby causing immediate brain death. When spiked correctly, the fish fins flare and the fish relaxes, immediately ceasing all motion. Destroying the brain and the spinal cord of the fish will prevent reflex action from happening; such muscle movements would otherwise consume Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in the muscle, and as a result produce lactic acid, making the fish sour. Furthermore, the blood contained in the fish flesh retracts to the gut cavity, which produces a better coloured and flavoured fillet. This method is considered to be the fastest and most humane method of killing fish.
Another technique in APEC Air shipment of live and fresh fish and seafood guidelines is described as follows: "A cut is made toward the front of the flatfish severing the major artery and the spinal cord. Placement of the cut is made to preserve the greatest amount of flatfish flesh. This paralyzes the flatfish. A second cut is made in the tail to hasten the removal of blood. Flatfish are then chilled slowly to maintain circulation and facilitate the bleeding process. After the flatfish have been bled, they are transferred to a salt/ice water slurry and chilled to 12° Centigrade."
Ikejime has been successfully used manually in the tuna and yellowtail industries, along with limited use in sport and game fishing, and provides a rapid slaughter technique with concurrent quality benefits. Rather than cutting their throats and leaving them to die by bleeding, it is better to use ikejime and put the fish straight into an ice slurry. Fish being exported to Japan and certain other markets[which?] should not be allowed to die naturally, but should be killed immediately after being brought on board by using the ikejime method.
- "APEC AIR SHIPMENT OF LIVE AND FRESH FISH & SEAFOOD GUIDELINES" (PDF). APEC Fisheries Working Group. January 1999. p. xxiii.
- Websites such as www.ikijime.com and phone apps such as Ikijime Tool show the brain location of many fish species.
- Poli BM, Parisi G, Scappini F, Zampacavallo G (2005). Fish welfare and quality as affected by pre-slaughter and slaughter management. Aquaculture International 13: 29-49
- "APEC AIR SHIPMENT OF LIVE AND FRESH FISH & SEAFOOD GUIDELINES" (PDF). APEC Fisheries Working Group. January 1999. p. 29.
- FAO: Care of the catch
- Comparison of Common Slaughter Methods for Farmed Finfish Seafood innovations.
- Angus L, Malcolmson L and Nicolson A (1995) Improving the Quality of Farmed Salmon by "Iki Jime" Harvesting Fisheries Development Note, North Atlantic Fisheries College.
- Smart, Alastair Fish Welfare at Harvest: Killing Me Softly
- Ikijime Tool phone app - A phone app that demonstrates brain location for fish
- Humane Killing of Live Seafood Western Australia Department of Fisheries.
- Preparing fish FISH.govt.au.
- Japanese Food Report