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Shōka arrangement by the 40th headmaster Ikenobō Senjō, drawing from the Sōka Hyakki by the Shijō school (1820)
An ikebana flower arrangement in a tokonoma alcove, in front of a hanging scroll (kakemono)

Ikebana (生け花, "living flowers") is the Japanese art of flower arrangement.[1][2] It is also known as kadō (華道, the "way of flowers"). The tradition dates back to the 7th century when floral offerings were made at altars. Later they were placed in the tokonoma alcove of a home. Ikebana reached its first zenith in the 16th century under the influence of Buddhist teamasters and has grown over the centuries, with over 1,000 different schools in Japan and abroad.

Kadō is counted as one of the three classical Japanese arts of refinement, along with kōdō for incense appreciation and chadō for tea and the tea ceremony.


"Ikebana" is from the Japanese ikeru (生ける, "keep alive, arrange flowers, living") and hana (, "flower"). Possible translations include "giving life to flowers" and "arranging flowers".[3]


A drawing of mitsu-gusoku, from the Senden-shō (15-18th century)
Illustration from the Kaō irai no Kadensho, believed to be the oldest extant manuscript of ikebana teaching, dating from a time shortly after that of Ikenobō Senkei. It shows various arranging styles of tatebana (ogibana) wide-mouth (right) and upright styles

Plants play an important role in the native Shinto religion. Yorishiro are objects that divine spirits are summoned to. Evergreen plants such as kadomatsu are a traditional decoration of the New Year placed in pairs in front of homes to welcome ancestral spirits or kami of the harvest.[4]

Viewing plants and appreciating flowers throughout the four seasons was established in Japan early on through the aristocracy. Waka poetry anthologies such as the Man'yōshū and Kokin Wakashū from the Heian period (794–1185) included many poems on the topic of flowers.[5] During this time, Buddhism was introduced to Japan starting in the 6th century through China and Korea. Offering flowers at Buddhist altars became common. Although the lotus is widely used in India where Buddhism originated, in Japan other native flowers for each season were selected for this purpose.[6] While in China the Buddhist priests were the first instructors of flower arrangement, in Japan they only introduced its crudest elements. For a long time the art had no meaning and was merely the placing in vases, without system, of the flowers to be used as temple offerings and before ancestral shrines. The first flower arrangements worked out with a system were known as shin-no-hana, meaning central flower arrangement. A huge branch of pine or cryptomeria stood in the middle, and around the tree were placed three or five seasonable flowers. These branches and stems were put in vases in upright positions without attempt at artificial curves. The general form was symmetrical, and appeared in Japanese religious pictures of the fourteenth century. It was the first attempt to represent natural scenery. The large tree in the center represented distant scenery; plum or cherry blossoms middle distance, the little flowering plants the foreground. The lines of these arrangements were known as centre and sub-centre.[7] Among various ways of Buddhist offering, later on placing mitsu-gusoku became popular in the Kamakura (1185–1333) and Nanboku-chō periods (1336–1392).[8] Various Buddhist scriptures have been named after flowers such as the Kegon-kyo (Flower Garland Sutra) and Hokke-kyo (Lotus Sutra). The Chōjū-jinbutsu-giga (Scroll of Frolicking Animals and Humans) depicts lotus being offered by a monk(ey) in front of a frog mimicking the Buddha.[9][10]

With the development of the shoin-zukuri architectural style starting in the Muromachi period (1336–1573), kakemono (scroll pictures) and containers could be suitable displayed as art objects in the oshiita, a precursor to the tokonoma alcove, and the chigaidana two-leveled shelves. Flower arrangements in vases were also displayed in these spaces and influenced the interior decorations, which became more simple and more exquisite.[11] This style of decoration was called zashiki kazari (座敷飾).[12] The set of three ceremonial objects at the Buddhist altar called mitsugusoku consisted of candles lit in holders, a censer, and flowers in a vase. The flowers in the vase were arranged in the earliest style called tatebana or tatehana (立花, "standing flowers"), and were composed of shin (motoki) and shitakusa.[13] Recent historical research now indicates that the practice of tatebana[14] derived from a combination of belief systems including Buddhist and Shinto yorishiro belief is most likely the origin of the Japanese practice of ikebana that we know today. Together they form the basis for the original purely Japanese derivation of the practice of ikebana.

The art developed very slowly, and the many schools did not develop into existence until the end of the fifteenth century following the period of the civil war. The eight shogun Ashikaga Yoshimasa (1436–1490), was a patron of the arts and the greatest promoter of cha-no-yu, the ceremonial tea, and ikebana flower arrangement. Yoshimasa finally abdicated the office in order to devote his time to the fine arts. It was he who said that flowers offered on all ceremonial occasions and placed as offerings before the gods should not be offered loosely, but should represent time and thought. Rules then commenced to be formulated.[15]

It is to the celebrated painter Sōami, a contemporary and friend of Yoshimasa, who conceived the idea of representing the three elements of heaven, human, and earth, from which have grown the principles of the arrangements used at the present day. It was at Yoshimasa's Silver Pavilion in Kyoto, where the art of cha-no-yu, the tea ceremony, and ko-awase, the incense ceremony, may be said to have been evolved that the art of ikebana received its great development.[16]

Artists of the Kanō school such as Sesshū Tōyō (1420–1506), Sesson, Kanō Masanobu, Kanō Motonobu (1476–1559), and Shugetsu of the sixteenth century were lovers of nature, so that ikebana advanced in this period a step farther than temple and room decoration and commenced in a crude way to consider natural beauty in floral arrangement. At this time ikebana was known as rikka.[17]

This same age conceived another form called nageirebana. Rikka and nageirebana are the two branches into which ikebana has been divided. Popularity of the two styles vacillated between these two for centuries. In the beginning rikka was stiff, formal, and the more decorative; whereas nageirebana was simple and more natural.[18]

Although nageirebana began to come into favour in the Higashiyama period, rikka was still preferred, and nageirebana did not truly gain popularity until the Momoyama period, about one hundred years after Ashikaga Yoshimasa. It was at this period that cha-no-yu reached its highest development and strongly influenced the flower art. A practitioner of tea was most probably also a follower of ikebana.[19]

After a long, hard struggle for existence as a dependent of rikka, nageirebana branched off and became independent and very popular. It was welcomed by the people of the sixteenth century for its freedom of line and natural beauty. So that while these two branches both started in the Higashiyama period, rikka better represents the taste of that time, while nageirebana is more of a reflection of the taste of the Momoyama period. Rikka lost some of its popularity in the Momoyama period, but in the first part of the Edo period (1603-1668) it was revived and became more popular than ever before.[20]

In the Higashiyama period rikka was used only as room decorations on ceremonial occasions, but it now was followed as a fine art and looked upon as an accomplishment and pastime of the upper classes.[21]

Ikebana has always been considered a dignified accomplishment. All of Japan's most celebrated generals have been masters of this art, finding that it calmed their minds and made clear their decisions for the field of action. Warriors like Hideyoshi and Yoshimasa, two of Japan's most famous generals, found benefit in the practise of ikebana shows that it is valuable training, even for the masculine mind. Rikka reached its greatest popularity during the Genroku era.[22]

There were many works on ikebana published in the centuries from Ken'ei (1206–1207) to Genroku (1668–1704) eras. The first was a book called Sendensho, published in the early part of Kenei, and there were many others, but none of much value to the student of flower arrangement. They gave few rules and their chief object seemed to be to withhold all information. They were all founded on Sōami's idea of the three elements. Although these books were of little value as far as instruction is concerned, they were all fully illustrated, documenting the gradual progress of the art. Finally a most valuable book was written by Ikenobu, called Kandensho. This was carefully written and very instructive, with rules and principles freely given.[23]

In the Ken'ei era rikka was simple and natural, with no extreme curves, but in Genroku the lines of the arrangement became complicated and the forms pattern-like. This was an age of utmost elegance. All the fine arts were highly developed, above all pattern-printing for fabrics and decoration. In the later part of the seventeenth century Korin, the famous lacquer artist and essentially a creator of exquisite designs, strongly influenced ikebana. At this period the combination of a pattern or design in flower arrangement, with lines which followed the natural growth of the plant, produced the most pleasing and graceful results.[24]

It was in this later part of the seventeenth century that ikebana was most practised and reached its highest degree of perfection as an art. Still there were occasional developments into unnatural curves and into artificialities. This occurring at the end of the period caused a shift and nageirebana again revived. Until then only one branch of ikebana had been taught at a time, and this followed the taste of the day; but now rival teachers in both rikka and nageirebana existed.[25]

Rikka reached its greatest popularity in the Genroku era, and also then commenced its decline. From the decline of rikka, nageirebana, the origin of the present ikebana, grew in power. From this time on it ceased to be called nageirebana and took the name of ikebana. In the Tenmei era (1781-1789) nageirebana or ikebana advanced rapidly in favour and developed great beauty of line. At this date the exponents of the art not only studied nature freely, but combined this knowledge with that of rikka, the result bringing ikebana to a very perfect state of development. After Tenmei the purest and best taste in ikebana began to diminish and a formal and artificial form of arrangement came into existence. This is the present form, which has a fixed rule or model known as heaven, human, and earth.[26]

The most popular schools of today, Ikenobō, Enshū-ryū, Mishō-ryū, etc., adhere to these principles, but there still exist in Tokyo and Kyoto many masters of ikebana who teach the simpler forms of Ko-ryū, and Ko-Shin-ryū of the Genroku and Tenmei eras.[27]

The oldest international organization, Ikebana International, was founded in 1956.[28] Her Imperial Highness Princess Takamado is the honourary president.[29]

Noted Japanese persons who practiced it as Junichi Kakizaki, Mokichi Okada, and Yuki Tsuji. Tsuji was at a March 2015 TEDx in Shimizu, Shizuoka where he elaborated on the relationship of ikebana to beauty.[30]

The Hollywood actress Marcia Gay Harden is a practitioner and started when she was living in Japan as a child.[31] She has published a book about it with her works.[32]


There are over a 1,000 different types of schools throughout the world today. A school is normally headed by an iemoto, oftentimes passed down within one family from one generation to the next. Some of the most historic and well-known schools are:[33]

Ikenobō goes back to the 700s CE of the Heian period and is considered the oldest school. This school marks its beginnings from the construction of the Rokkaku-dō in Kyoto, the second oldest Buddhist temple in Japan. It was built in 587 by Prince Shōtoku, who had camped near a pond in what is now central Kyoto, and enshrined a small statue of her. During the thirteenth century Ono-no-Imoko, an official state emissary, brought the practice of placing Buddhist flowers on an altar from China, became a priest at the temple, and spent the rest of his days practicing flower arranging. The original priests of the temple lived by the side of the pond, for which the Japanese word is 'Ike' "池", and the word 'Bō' "坊", meaning priest, connected by the possessive particle 'no' ”の” gives the meaning, 'priest of the lake', 'Ikenobō' "池坊". The name Ikenobō granted by the emperor became attached to the priests there who specialized in altar arrangements.

Ikenobō is the only school that does not have the ending -ryū in its name, as it is considered the original school. The first systematized classical styles, including rikka, started in the middle of the fifteenth century. The first students and teachers of were Ikenobō Buddhist priests and members of the Buddhist community. As time passed, other schools emerged, styles changed, and ikebana became a custom among the whole of Japanese society.[34]

  • Ikenobō (池坊) is a development of rikka, and its branches include the schools of:
    • Higashiyama-ryū
    • Senki-ryū
    • Enshiu-ryū
    • Seizan-ryū
    • Misho-ryū
  • Saga Go-ryū (嵯峨御流), dates back to Emperor Saga, who reigned from 809–823 CE.
  • Shōgetsudo Ko-ryū, originated by the monk Myōe (1171–1231)
  • Ko-ryū (古流), originated by Ōun Hoshi or Matsune Ishiro (1333–1402)
  • Higashiyama Jishō-in-ryū (東山銀閣院流), originated by Shōgun Ashikaga Yoshimasa (1436–1490), who was also called Higashiyama-dono or Jishō-in. Branches of this school are:
    • Senzan-ryū
    • Higashiyama-Ko-Sei-ryū
    • Higashiyama-ryū (東山流)
    • Sōami-ryū (相阿弥流)
  • Senke-Ko-ryū, originated by the famous tea master Sen no Rikyū in 1520
  • Bisho-ryū, originated by Goto Daigakunokami or Bishokui Dokaku in 1545
  • Enshū-ryū (遠州流), originated by Lord Kobori Enshū (1579–1647). The branches of this school are numerous:
    • Nihonbashi Enshū
    • Shin Enshū
    • Ango Enshū
    • Miyako Enshū
    • Seifu Enshū
    • Asakusa Enshū

and many others.

  • Ko-Shin-ryū, originated by Shin-tetsu-sai, who was the teacher of Shōgun Tokugawa Hidetada (1579–1632)
  • Sekishu-ryū, originated by Katagiri Iwaminokami Sadamasa (1604–1673)
  • Jikei-ryū, originated by Shōuken Jikei in the year 1699
  • Senkei-ryū, founded around 1669 by Senkei Tomiharunoki
  • Tōgen-Ryu, commenced by Togensai Masayasu about 1716
    • Sōgensai
    • Murakumo-ryū
    • Tōko-ryū
    • Shikishima-ryū
    • Dōnin-ryū
  • Gengi-ryū, commenced by Chiba Ryōboku in the year 1772
  • Mishō-ryū (未生流), founded by Ippo Mishōsai (1761–1824) in Osaka
  • Yōshin Go-ryū developed during the Edo period
  • Sei-ryū, commenced by Dōseiken Ittoku in 1818
  • Shōko-ryū, commenced by Hakusuisai in the year 1896
  • Ohara-ryū (小原流), founded in 1895 by Ohara Unshin
  • Sōgetsu-ryū (草月流), founded in 1927 by Teshigahara Sofu

Other schools include Banmi Shofu-ryū, founded in 1962 by Bessie "Yoneko Banmi" Fooks, and Kaden-ryū, founded by Kikuto Sakagawa in 1987 based on the Ikenobo school.


Since flower arrangement entered Japan from China with Buddhism, it naturally was imbued with Chinese and Buddhist philosophy. The Buddhist desire to preserve life lies at the root of the whole subject and has created most of the rules of flower arrangement, controlling also the shapes of the flower vases, which are so formed as to help to prolong the life of the flowers. So much thought and time would never have been given to preservatives had not this desire predominated in all their floral offerings.[35]

The idea of good and evil fortune governs both selection of material and form of arrangement. The concept of hanakotoba (花言葉) is the Japanese form of the language of flowers. In this practice, plants are given codes and passwords. Physiological effects and action under the color of the flowers, put into words from the impressions of nature and the presence of thorns with the height of tall plants, flowers and garlands of flowers through the various types. These are meant to convey emotion and communicate directly to the recipient or viewer without needing the use of words. The colours of some flowers are considered unlucky. Red flowers, which are used at funerals, are undesirable not only for that reason, but also because red is supposed to suggest the red flames of a fire. An odd number of flowers is lucky, while even numbers are unlucky and therefore undesirable, and never used in flower arrangements. With the odd numbers one avoids symmetry and equal balance, which are actually seldom found in nature, and which from the Japanese standpoint are never attractive in art of any description.

More than simply putting flowers in a container, ikebana is a disciplined art form in which nature and humanity are brought together. Contrary to the idea of a particolored or multicolored arrangement of blossoms, ikebana often emphasizes other areas of the plant, such as its stems and leaves, and puts emphasis on shape, line, and form. Though ikebana is an expression of creativity, certain rules govern its form. The artist's intention behind each arrangement is shown through a piece's color combinations, natural shapes, graceful lines, and the implied meaning of the arrangement.

Another common but not exclusive aspect present in ikebana is its employment of minimalism. Some arrangements may consist of only a minimal number of blooms interspersed among stalks and leaves. The structure of some Japanese flower arrangements is based on a scalene triangle delineated by three main points, usually twigs, considered in some schools to symbolize heaven, human, and earth, or sun, moon, and earth.[36] Use of these terms is limited to certain schools and is not customary in more traditional schools. A notable exception is the traditional rikka form, which follows other precepts. The container can be a key element of the composition, and various styles of pottery may be used in their construction. In some schools the container is only regarded as a vessel to hold water and should be subordinate to the arrangement.

Consideration of the vase as being something more than a mere holder of the flowers is purely Japanese. They think of the surface of the water, which they always expose, as the surface of earth from which the group springs. This aids in working out the effect of representing a complete plant growing as nearly as possible in its natural conditions.[37]

They give an expression of the seasons in their floral arrangements, grouping the flowers differently according to the time of the year. For example, in the month of March, when high winds prevail, the unusual curves of the branches convey at once the impression of strong winds. In summer the Japanese rejoice in the low, broad receptacles, where the water predominating produces a cooler and more refreshing arrangement than those in upright vases.[38]

There is no occasion which cannot be suggested by the manner in which the flowers are arranged.[39]

It might seem strange to us to have our departure from home announced by an unusual arrangement of flowers. Yet hundreds of ordinary occurrences are heralded by charming flower compositions. So many Japanese poets have sung of the willow, comparing its very long branches with long life, happy married life, etc., that it is frequently used for many celebrations and is a great favorite for an arrangement made at parting, the length of branch insuring a safe return from the longest journey, especially if one branch is made to form a complete circle.[40]

For a house-warming white flowers are used, as they suggest water to quench a fire; fire being their constant dread, as in the construction of many houses everything but the roof is inflammable. Red flowers suggest fire, so should be avoided on such occasions. To celebrate an inheritance all kinds of evergreens or chrysanthemums may be used, any flowers which are long-lived, to convey the idea that the wealth or possessions may remain forever with you.[41]

There are appropriate arrangements for all felicitous occasions, as well as for sad ones. An offering at death should be of white flowers, with some dead leaves and branches, so arranged as to express peace. All gifts of flowers must be in bud, so that the person to whom they are sent may have the pleasure of seeing them open — quite a contrast to the present Western idea of everything being forced to perfection before leaving the florists.[42]

The spiritual aspect of kadō is considered very important to its practitioners. Some practitioners feel silence is needed while making ikebana while others feel this is not necessary. It is a time to appreciate things in nature that people often overlook because of their busy lives. One becomes more patient and tolerant of differences, not only in nature, but also in general. Kadō can inspire one to identify with beauty in all art forms. This is also the time when one feels closeness to nature, which provides relaxation for the mind, body, and soul.


Rikka arrangement by Ikenobō Senkō II (drawing from the Rikka-no-Shidai Kyūjūsanpei-ari, Important Cultural Property)

Patterns and styles evolved, and by the late 15th century arrangements were common enough to be appreciated by ordinary people and not only by the imperial family and its retainers.

Ikebana in the beginning was very simple, constructed from only a very few stems of flowers and evergreen branches. This first form of ikebana is called kuge (供華).

Styles of ikebana changed in the late 15th century and transformed into an art form with fixed instructions. Books were written about it, "Sedensho" being the oldest one, covering the years 1443 to 1536. ikebana became a major part of traditional festivals, and exhibitions were occasionally held.

The first styles were characterized by a tall, upright central stem accompanied by two shorter stems. During the Momoyama period, 1560–1600, splendid castles were constructed. Noblemen and royal retainers made large decorative rikka floral arrangements that were considered the most appropriate decoration for castles.

  • Rikka (立花;[43] "standing flowers") style was developed as a Buddhist expression of the beauty of landscapes in nature. Key to this style are nine branches that represent elements of nature.[44] One of the styles of arrangement of rikka is called suna-no-mono (砂の物; sand arrangement).[45]

When the tea ceremony emerged, another style was introduced for tea ceremony rooms called chabana. This style is the opposite of the Momoyama style and emphasizes rustic simplicity. Chabana is not considered a style of ikebana but is separate. The simplicity of chabana in turn helped create the nageirebana or “thrown-in” style.

  • Nageirebana (投入花; "thrown-in flowers") is a non-structured design which led to the development of the seika or shoka style. It is characterized by a tight bundle of stems that form a triangular three-branched asymmetrical arrangement that was considered classic. It is also known in the shortform nageire.
  • Shōka (生花;[46] "pure flowers") style consists of only three main parts, known in some schools as ten (heaven), chi (earth), and jin (human). It is a simple style that is designed to show the beauty and uniqueness of the plant itself. Formalization of the nageire style for use in the Japanese alcove resulted in the formal shoka style.
  • Moribana (盛花, "piled-up flowers") that are arranged in a shallow vase or suiban, compote vessel, or basket. Flowers are secured on a kenzan or needlepoint holders, also known as metal frogs.
  • Jiyūka (自由花;[47] "free flowers") is a free creative design. It is not confined to flowers; every material can be used. In the 20th century, with the advent of modernism, the three schools of ikebana partially gave way to what is commonly known in Japan as "Free Style".



There is a large variety of flower receptacles. These are not only beautiful in form, material, and design, but are made for the use to which they are put; so that a flower can always be placed in an appropriate receptacle, and probably in one especially designed for that particular sort of flower.[48]

Their love of the beautiful, however, does not cause them to overlook the practical in these vases, and they most seek in their shapes what will best prolong the life of flowers. For this reason their vases are wide open at the mouth, for they do not depend upon the vase itself, as we do, to hold flowers in position, having found that the oxygen entering through the neck opening is as necessary to the plant as the oxygen it receives from the depths of the water; thus also the water remains sweet much longer than in small-necked vases, where it so quickly becomes foul.[49]

There are many significances connected with these receptacles. For instance, the hanging vases came into use through the idea that flowers presented by an esteemed friend should not be placed where they could be looked down upon, so they were raised and hung. And in the hanging bamboo vases the large, round surface on top is supposed to represent the moon, and the hole for the nail a star. The cut, or opening, below the top is called fukumuki the "wind drawing through place".[50]

The low, flat vases, more used in summer than winter, not only give variety in the form of receptacles, but, as with vines and hanging vases, make it possible to arrange plants of bulbous and water growth in natural positions. The standard vases are the most common, for in them all arrangements of flowers, except aquatics and creepers, are placed. They alone outnumber in beauty and variety all forms of our flower vases combined.[51]

Again, when we come to consider the color of the Japanese vases, we can only admire their never failing taste in the choice of the soft pastel shades. Could anything more clearly show their perfect taste than their preference for bronze? This to them seems most like mother earth in color, and therefore best, as it is, to enhance the beauty of flowers instead of detracting from their exquisite shades. What a contrast to the glitter and show of our silver vases, which represent generally little else but their cost.[52]

The bamboo, in its simplicity of line and neutral color, makes a vase always charming but, not practical in countries outside of Japan, where the dryness of the weather causes it to split. But while vases made from solid pieces of bamboo are often unsuitable to be used in the west, the baskets made in such variety of shape from bamboo reeds, with their color assuming the soft brown shades of mother earth, so perfect an offset for all the varied tints of the flowers, are entirely practical in any climate.[53]

Not to be overlooked is the tiny hanging vase found in the simple peasant home—some curious root picked up at no cost and fashioned into a shape suitable to hold a single flower or vine. Such vases could be made with little effort by anyone and find place anywhere in our own land, had we only a keen enough desire to be always surrounded by the beautiful.[54]

In popular culture[edit]

Ikebana is shown on television and taught in schools. An example of a television show that involves ikebana is Seikei Bijin (Artificial Beauty). The story incorporates the importance of natural beauty. It was also mentioned in We Love Katamari for PS2.

In 1957, the film director and grand master of the Sōgetsu-ryū Hiroshi Teshigahara made the movie Ikebana, which describes his school.[55] Hana ikusa was released in 2017 and tells the story of the development of ikebana during the Sengoku period under the rule of the regent Toyotomi Hideyoshi in the 16th century. It was directed by Tetsuo Shinohara, based on a novel by Tadashi Onitsuka, starring

Kamejiro Ichikawa as Lord Hideyoshi, Mansai Nomura as the monk Senko Ikenobo and Koichi Sato as Sen no Rikyu.[56] Masters and their assistants of the Ikenobo school were involved in creating the various rikka, shoka and suna-no-mono arrangements for the movie.[57] Of particular note is a very large suna-no-mono arrangement that was recreated based on a historic piece arranged in the Maeda clan residence in Bunroku 3 (1594),[58] that took 14 persons 10 days to make and measured 3.5 metres in height and 7.2 metres in length.[59][60][61][62]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ http://www.ikebanahq.org/whatis.php
  2. ^ https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/ikebana
  3. ^ The Modern Reader's Japanese-English Character Dictionary, Charles E. Tuttle Company, ISBN 0-8048-0408-7
  4. ^ http://www.ikenobo.jp/english/about/history.html#his01
  5. ^ http://www.ikenobo.jp/english/about/history.html#his01
  6. ^ http://www.ikenobo.jp/english/about/history.html#his01
  7. ^ https://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Japanese_flower_arrangement/Chapter_1
  8. ^ http://www.ikenobo.jp/english/about/history.html#his01
  9. ^ http://www.ikenobo.jp/english/about/history.html#his01
  10. ^ https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:EB1911_Japan_-_Priests_caricatured_by_Toba_Sojo.jpg
  11. ^ https://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Japanese_flower_arrangement/Chapter_1
  12. ^ http://www.aisf.or.jp/~jaanus/deta/z/zashikikazari.htm
  13. ^ http://www.ikenobo.jp/english/about/history.html#his02
  14. ^ "tatebana – Japanese art style". Retrieved 19 October 2016. 
  15. ^ https://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Japanese_flower_arrangement/Chapter_1
  16. ^ https://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Japanese_flower_arrangement/Chapter_1
  17. ^ https://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Japanese_flower_arrangement/Chapter_1
  18. ^ https://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Japanese_flower_arrangement/Chapter_1
  19. ^ https://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Japanese_flower_arrangement/Chapter_1
  20. ^ https://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Japanese_flower_arrangement/Chapter_1
  21. ^ https://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Japanese_flower_arrangement/Chapter_1
  22. ^ https://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Japanese_flower_arrangement/Chapter_1
  23. ^ https://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Japanese_flower_arrangement/Chapter_1
  24. ^ https://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Japanese_flower_arrangement/Chapter_1
  25. ^ https://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Japanese_flower_arrangement/Chapter_1
  26. ^ https://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Japanese_flower_arrangement/Chapter_1
  27. ^ https://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Japanese_flower_arrangement/Chapter_1
  28. ^ "Ikebana International". Retrieved 19 October 2016. 
  29. ^ http://www.ikebanahq.org/profile.php
  30. ^ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jLwwCeBsNkE
  31. ^ http://www.marthastewart.com/268653/ikebana
  32. ^ Marcia Gay Harden. The Seasons of My Mother: A Memoir of Love, Family, and Flowers. Atria Books. 2018. ISBN 978-1501135705
  33. ^ https://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Japanese_flower_arrangement/Chapter_22
  34. ^ Kubo, keiko (2013). "introduction". Keiko's Ikebana: A Contemporary Approach to the Traditional Japanese Art of Flower Arranging. Tuttle Publishing. ISBN 9781462906000. Retrieved 25 August 2016. 
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  55. ^ http://www.imdb.com/title/tt1086315/
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  61. ^ http://www.ikenobo.jp/lp/movie/
  62. ^ http://www.ikenoboikebana.com/Containers-for-Sale-.html

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]