Iki no Hakatoko no Sho

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Iki no Hakatoko no Sho (伊吉博徳書?, "The Document of Iki no Hakatoko") is a historical Japanese record written by Iki no Hakatoko. Composed late in the 7th century, the record is primarily known for being used as a reference in the composition of Nihon Shoki as well as for being the oldest Japanese travel record.[1] It is no longer extant.


While the record no longer exists, a fragment of its contents may be found in quotations. Passages are quoted four times in Nihon Shoki:[1][2]

  • the 2nd month of 654
  • the 7th month of 659: composed on the way to as well as at Chang'an[1]
  • the 7th month of 660: composed around Luoyang[1]
  • the 5th month of 661: primarily relates the return journey[1]

The various quotations relate details about the Imperial Japanese embassies to China and foreign policy around the middle of the 7th century.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b c d e Nihon Koten Bungaku Daijiten (1986:61)
  2. ^ Sakamoto (1965: 575)