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The Ikshvaku dynasty, in Puranic literature, was a mythical dynasty founded by Rishabha, also known as Ikshvaku. Ikshvaku, literally means sugar cane". The dynasty is also known as Sūryavaṁśa (the Solar dynasty). Rama, hero of the Ramayana belonged to this dynasty. Twenty-two out of the twenty-four Jain Tirthankara belonged to this dynasty. Rishabha is present in both Hindu as well as Jain mythology. Both refers to the same person.
The important personalities belonging to this royal house are Bharata, Harishchandra, Dilīpa, Sagara, Raghu, Rama and Prasenajit. Although, both the Hindu Puranas and the Buddhist texts include Shuddodhana, Gautama Buddha and Rahula in their accounts of the Ikshvaku dynasty, but according to the Buddhist texts, Mahasammata, an ancestor of Ikshvaku was the founder of this dynasty, who was elected by the people as the first king of the present era. According to the Puranas, supreme preceptor of the Ikshvaku dynasty was sage Vashishta.
In Hinduism, Ikshvaku, is the grandson of Vivasvan or Surya and son of Vaivasvata Manu. They ruled from the Kosala Kingdom, today known as Oudh in the state of Uttar Pradesh along the banks of river Sarayu with saketa, Ayodhya today as their capital. Ikshvaku is the first king who executed the Manusmrti or religious rules of Hindu living which were composed by his father Manu. Ikshvaku, ruled as Monarch at the beginning of the Saya Yuga or First yuga, had hundred sons. His estates descended to his eldest son Vikukshi.
Ikshvaku dynasty lineage
The lists of kings of Ikṣvāku or Aikṣvāka dynasty are found in the Ramayana, the Mahabharata, the Harivamsha and the Puranas. The Raghuvamsha of Kalidasa also mentions the names of the kings of this dynasty.
The genealogy of the Ikshvaku dynasty to Rama is mentioned in the Ramayana in two lists . The only difference between the two lists is that, Kukshi is mentioned only in the second list . In the first list, Vikukshi is mentioned as the son of Ikshvaku. The genealogy is as follows:
Vivasvan or Surya
- Vaivasvata Manu
The begin Of Ikshwaku Dynasty
- Vivasvan Manu (wife:- Shraddha)
- Bharata :- Bharata is the son of King Rishabha, the first king of the Ikshvaku dynasty and founder of the Sun Dynasty (Suryavansha). Among the hundred sons of king Ikshvaku, Bharata is the eldest one. Because he has very broad chest of a warrior, he was also called as Kushki.
- Vikukshi (Shashad) (he who eats the meat of a rabbit so he named Shashad) (contemporary to King Pururava who was founder of Chandravansh)
- Baan (contemporary to 2nd Chandravanshi King Aayu & Vijaya-1)
- Kakutstha (Puranjaya or Indrahomi or Indravahu) ruled 10,900 years (contemporary to 2nd Chandravanshi King Aayu)
- Anena (Anaranya or Suyodhana) (contemporary to 3rd Chandravanshi King Nahusha)
- Prithu (contemporary to 4th Chandravanshi King Yayati and demon king Vrushaparva)
- Vishvarandhri (Vishvagandhi or Vishvamshaha) (contemporary to 5th Chndravanshi King Yadu, Puru, Suhotra)
- Chandra (Aayu in Agni Puran or Indu in Matsya Puran or Aadra in Vishnu Puran)
- Shashvat (Shravant of Vishnu Puran, Harivansh Puran, Agni Puran) who built town Saraswati
- Kuvalayasva (or) Dubdhunara (21,000 sons and Here time duration is many thousands years long)
- Dridhasva, Kapilashva, Bhadrashva (Dand in Agni Puran & Matsya Puran, Chandrashva in Vishnu Puran & Harivansh Puran)
- Haryasva (Pramodak or Vayarshvah in Vishnu Puran)
- Baharnashva (Shanhatashva in Agni Puran, Matsya Puran, Harivasnh Puran)
- Krisasva (Akrutashva in Agni Puran, Matsya Puran)
- Prasenajit-1 (Seinya Jeet, Ranashva in Agni Puran)
- Yuvanashva(2) (who was contemporary to Chandravanshi King Gandhara who was founder of Gandhara Kingdom, Shakuni born 95 generation after King Gandhara)
- Mandhata (Chakravarti Samrat) killed by Lavanasura in Mathura (He defeated Ravana). Conquered the Druhyus and vanquished Nriga, Marutta, Jaya, Suna, Sudhanwan, Angara, Gaya and Asita.
- Purukutsha (married with Narmada), Ambarisha (adopted by Yuvanashva), Muchukanda (helped Deva in Deva-Asur War & latter he killed Kaal Yavan by fire from his eyes at the time of Sri Krishna Avatara in end of Dwaparayuga) (Contemporary to Chandravanshi King Shibi who was founder of Keikaya & Madra Kingdom)
- Trayadasyu (Sambhuti in Agni Puran)
- Sambhrut (Vishnu Puran, Agni Puran, Matsya Puran)
- Anaranya-1 (killed by Ravana, Anaranya cursed Ravana that one day one king of Ikshvaku line age will kill Ravana & Sri Rama killed Ravana)
- Pushadashva (Vishnu Puran)
- Sumana (Sudhanava in Harivansh Puran, Vasuman, Paarjitar)
- Tridhanva (Vishvamitra was chief minister in his court, contemporary to God Parashurama)
- Satyavrata (or) Trishanku
- Harishchandra (contemporary to Shahashtra Bahu Kartivirya Arjuna)
- Rohit (Rohitashva) (Kanyakubj or Kannauj dynasty ended during Rohitashva's reigned)
- Harita (Haritashva) (Contemporary to Chandravanshi King Dushyant)
- Champ (Chunchu) (Conntemporary of Chakravarti Samrat Bharata of Chandravansh in line age of Puru)
- Sudeva (Chakshu in Vishnu Puran, Agni Puran)
- Vijaya (Ramayana was written by Valmiki during reign of this king) (contemporary to Maharshi Bharadwaja)
- Bharuk (Ruruk in Vishnu Puran, Harivansh Puran)
- Bharat (Ramayana)
- Asit (Kalinda in Ramayana)
- Sagara (Chakravartin Samrat) he ended Haihaya Dynasty. Sagar had 60,000 sons but only Asamanjash live (Contemporary to Chandravanshi King Hasti who founded Hatinapura)
- Asamanjash (Contemporary to Chandravanshi King Ajaamidha who was founder of Panchala Kingdom)
- Bhagiratha (He brought river Ganga on earth)
- Naabh (Nabhag in Matsya Puran, Harivansh Puran)
- Ambarisha(2) (great devotee of God Maha Vishnu)
- Avyutayu (Shrutayu in Agni Puran)
- Sarvakama (Sarvakarma, Aartupani in Harivansha Puran)
- Sudas (contemporary to King Kuru-1 of Chandravansh who founded Magadha Kingdom)
- Saudasa (or) Kalmashapada (married to Madayanti)
- Mulaka (Naari Kavacha) (Contemporary to Yadava King Shakuni who was father of Rashasha "Bhasmasura")
- Adwil (Ilabil in Vishnu Puran)
- Dululaha (Harivansh Puran)
- Dilipa(2) (or) Khatvanga (in Vishnu Puran, Harivansh Puran)
- Raghu-2 (Chakravartin Samrat) (Raghuvansh, Raghava, Raghuvir word use in honour of this king)
- Aja (married to Indumati)
- Dasharatha was of age 60,000 years when Sri Rama born mentioned in Valmiki Ramayana (contemporary to Videha King Siradwaja (Janaka-2) father of Seeta)
- Rama ruled 11,000 years mentioned in Valmiki Ramayana, Vishnu Purana, Harivansha Puran, Agni Puran, Srimad Bhagavat Maha Puran (Lakshmana, Bharata & Shatrughna are his siblings and they are also avatar of lord Vishnu)
Kusha to Brihadbala
94 Dala (or Balasthala)
95 Chhal (or Anal)
98 Khagan (or Shankhanaad)
99 Vighruti (or Vyushitashva)
101 Hiranyanabha (He was student of Sage Jaimini, Yagnyavalkya has accepted him as his teacher)
110 Susandhi (or Sugandhi)
111 Amarshana and Sahasvanta, the sons of Susandhi
115 Takshaka116 Brihadbala (at Mahabharata time, Abhimanyu killed Brihadbalam at age 125 years in Mahabharata War).
from Sri Rama to Brihadbalam 36 generation were passed in ikshvakuvansha. Avarage lifespan of Ikshvakuvanshi Kings in Dwaparayuga was 24,682 years. Maximume Lifespan of human became 200 years in last 400 years of Dwaparayuga.
Brihadbala to Sumitra
The Puranas also provide the list of the kings from Brihadbala to the last ruler Sumitra. But these lists mention Shakya as an individual, and incorporate the names of Shakya, Shuddodhana, Siddhartha (Gautama Buddha) and Rahula between Sanjaya and Prasenajit. The names of the kings are:
118 Brihatkshaya (or Bruhadrunam)
119 Urukriya (or Gurukshep)
123 Divakara (or Divak)
124 Veer Sahadeva
126 Bhanuratha (or Bhanumaan)
131 Pushkara (or Kinnara)
133 Suvarna (or Sutapaa)
134 Sumitra (or Amitrajit)
139 Sanjaya (or Mahakoshala)
140 Shakya Suddodaka
141 Laangul Siddhartha (or Gautama Buddha) (B.C.E. 563-B.C.E. 483)
142 Prasenajit (Born in B.C.E. 536; when Siddhartha was of age 27 years)
143 Kshudraka (or Kuntala)
144 Ranaka (or Kulaka)
146 SumitraKing Sumitra was Last ruler of Ikshvakuvansh/Suryavansha. He was defeated and driven out from Ayodhya by Mahapadma Nanda in B.C.E. 383
From, Mahabharata War (BCE 3138) to last king Sumitra (BCE 383) 29 generation passed in 2755 years.
So,Avarage life span of Ikhvakuvanshi Kings was 95 years in Kaliyuga.
King Parikshita(BCE 3138-BCE 3042) who was son of Abhimanyu or grand son of Arjuna lived 96 years.
Gautama Buddha(BCE 563-BCE 483) lived 80 years.
Founder of Nanda dynasty(BCE 432-BCE 322) King Mahapadma Nanda(BCE 450-BCE 362) lived 88 years.
In Buddhist tradition
The Buddhist text, Mahavamsa (II, 1-24) traces the origin of the Shakyas to king Okkaka (Pali equivalent to Sanskrit Ikshvaku) and gives their genealogy from Mahasammata, an ancestor of Okkaka. This list comprises the names of a number of prominent kings of the Ikshvaku dynasty, namely, Mandhata and Sagara. The genealogy according to the Mahavamsa is as follows:
- Siddhartha (Gautama Buddha)
In Jain tradition
The Ikshvaku dynasty has a significant place in Jainism, as twenty-two Tirthankaras were born in this dynasty.
- Rishabhanatha (son of King Nabhi), the founder of Jainism in the present Avasarpani era (descending half time cycle as per Jain cosmology) is said to have founded the Ikshvaku dynasty. Ikshvaku is considered to be his another name. He is said to have taught the people how to extract sugarcane juice. Hence, name for the Ikshvaku dynasty comes from the word ikhsu (sugarcane) because of this event.
- Bharata Chakravarti (first Chakravartin) and Bahubali (first Kamadeva), sons of Rishabha
- Arkakirti and Marichi, son of Bharata
- at the time of Ajitanatha
- Jitashatru (father of Ajitanatha) and his younger brother Sumitra (father of Sagara)
- Ajitanatha (the 2nd Tirthankara) and Sagara (2nd Chakravartin)
- Janhu (eldest son of Sagara), the one who flooded village of Nagas with waters of Ganga leading to turning of sixty thousand sons of Sagara into ashes by Jawalanprabha (emperor of Nagas)
- Bhagiratha (eldest grandson of Sagara)
- at the time of Sambhavanatha
- at the time of Abhinandananatha
- at the time of Sumatinatha
- at the time of Padmaprabha
- at the time of Suparshvanatha
- at the time of Chandraprabha
- at the time of Pushpadanta
- at the time of Shitalanatha
- at the time of Shreyanasanatha
- at the time of Vasupujya
- at the time of Vimalanatha
- at the time of Anantanatha
- at the time of Dharmanatha
- at the time of Shantinatha
- at the time of Kunthunatha
- at the time of Aranatha
- at the time of Mallinatha
- at the time of Munisuvrata (Munisuvrata himself was not from Ikshvaku, but Harivamsa)
- at the time of Naminatha
- at the time of Parshvanatha
- at the time of Mahavira
- Geography of Rigvedic India, M.L. Bhargava, Lucknow 1964, pp. 15-18, 46-49, 92-98, 100-/1, 136
- Zimmer 1952, p. 218.
- Zimmer 1952, p. 220.
- Ikshaku tribe The Mahabharata translated by Kisari Mohan Ganguli (1883 -1896), Book 3: Vana Parva: Tirtha-yatra Parva: Section CVI, p. 228 'There was born in the family of the Ikshaku, a ruler of the earth named Sagara, endued with beauty, and strength...".
- Malalasekera, G. P. (2007) . Dictionary of Pāli Proper Names: A-Dh. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass. pp. 461–2. ISBN 978-81-208-3021-9.
- Pargiter, F.E. (1972). Ancient Indian Historical Tradition. New Delhi: Motilal Banarasidass. pp. 90–91.
- Valmiki, Arshia Sattar (1996). The Ramayana. New Delhi: Penguin Books. ISBN 0-14-029866-5.
- Vyas, R.T. (ed.) (1992). Vālmīki Rāmāyaṇa, Text as Constituted in its Critical Edition. Vadodara: Oriental Institute, Vadodara. pp. 91–2, 255–56.
- Pargiter, F.E. (1972). Ancient Indian Historical Tradition. New Delhi: Motilal Banarasidass. p. 149.
- Misra, V.S. (2007). Ancient Indian Dynasties, Mumbai: Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan, ISBN 81-7276-413-8, pp.283-8, 384
- Law, B.C. (1973). Tribes in Ancient India, Bhandarkar Oriental Series No.4, Poona: Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute, p.246
- Misra, V.S. (2007). Ancient Indian Dynasties, Mumbai: Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan, ISBN 81-7276-413-8, p.286
- Geiger, Wilhelm (tr.) (1912). "Mahavamsa, Chapter II". Ceylon Government Information Dept.,Colombo (in lakdvia.org website). Retrieved 2009-10-26. line feed character in
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- Jain 1991, p. 2.
- Jain 1991, p. 5.
- Shah 2004, p. 15.
- Shah, Chandraprakash, Shri Shantinatha, 16th Tirthankara
- Jain 1991, p. 161.
- Shah, Natubhai (2004), Jainism: The World of Conquerors, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-81-208-1938-2
- Jain, Kailash Chand (1991), Lord Mahavira and his times, Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-81-208-0805-8
- Zimmer, Heinrich (1952), Joseph Campbell, ed., Philosophies Of India, London, E.C. 4: Routledge & Kegan Paul Ltd, ISBN 978-81-208-0739-6
- Genealogical tables of the deities, princes, heroes, and remarkable personages, of the Hindus, with an intr. and index, by F. Hamilton
Kulkara (in Jainism)
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