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The Ikshvaku dynasty, in Puranic literature, was a mythical dynasty founded by Ikshvaku. Ikshvaku, literally means "sugar cane". The dynasty is also known as Sūryavaṁśa (the Solar dynasty). Rama, hero of the Ramayana belonged to this dynasty. Twenty-two out of the twenty-four Jain Tirthankara belonged to this dynasty.
The important personalities belonging to this royal house are Harishchandra, Dilīpa, Sagara, Raghu, Rama and Prasenajit. Although, both the Hindu Puranas and the Buddhist texts include Shuddodhana, Gautama Buddha and Rahula in their accounts of the Ikshvaku dynasty, but according to the Buddhist texts, Mahasammata, an ancestor of Ikshvaku was the founder of this dynasty, who was elected by the people as the first king of the present era. According to the Puranas, supreme preceptor of the Ikshvaku dynasty was sage Vashishta.
In Hinduism, Ikshvaku, is the grandson of Vivasvan or Surya and son of Vaivasvata Manu. They ruled from the Kosala Kingdom, today known as Oudh in the state of Uttar Pradesh along the banks of river Sarayu with saketa, Ayodhya today as their capital. Ikshvaku is the first king who executed the Manusmrti or religious rules of Hindu living which were composed by his father Manu. Ikshvaku, ruled as Monarch at the beginning of the Treta Yuga or second yuga, had hundred sons. His estates descended to his eldest son Vikukshi.
Ikshvaku dynasty lineage
The lists of kings of Ikṣvāku or Aikṣvāka dynasty are found in the Ramayana, the Mahabharata, the Harivamsha and the Puranas. The Raghuvamsha of Kalidasa also mentions the names of the kings of this dynasty.
The genealogy of the Ikshvaku dynasty to Rama is mentioned in the Ramayana in two lists . The only difference between the two lists is that, Kukshi is mentioned only in the second list . In the first list, Vikukshi is mentioned as the son of Ikshvaku. The genealogy is as follows:
Vivasvan or Surya
The begin Of Ikshwaku Dynasty
- Kukshi/Vikukshi-Vikukshi is the son of King Ikshvaku, the first king of the Ikshvaku dynasty and founder of the Sun Dynasty (Suryavansha). Among the hundred sons of king Ikshvaku, Vikukshi is the eldest one. Because he has very broad chest of a warrior, he was called as Vi-Kukshi.
- Sravasthi (Built Sravasti City)
- Kuvalayasva (or) Dubdhunara
- Satyavrata (or) Trishanku
- Saudasa (or) Kalmashapada
- Dilipa(2) (or) Khatvanga
- Rama( Lakshmana, Bharata & Shatrughna are his siblings and he is also avatar of lord Vishnu)
Kusha to Brihadbala
- Atithi, the son of Kusha
- Nishadha, the son of Atithi
- Nala, the son of Nishadha
- Nabhas, the son of Nala
- Pundarika, the son Nabhas
- Kshemadhanvan, the son of Pundarika
- Devanika, the son of Kshemadhanvan
- Ahinagu, the son of Davanika
- Paripatra, the son of Ahinagu
- Dala (or Bala), the son of Ahinagu
- Uktha, the son of Dala
- Vajranabha, the son of Uktha
- Shankhana, the son of Vajranabha
- Vyushitashva, the son of Shankhana
- Vishvasaha, the son of Vyushitashva
- Hiranyanabha, the son of Vishvasaha
- Pushya, the son of Hiranyanabha
- Dhruvasandhi, the son of Pushya
- Agnivarna, the son of Dhruvasandhi
- Shighra, the son of Agnivarna
- Maru, the son of Shighra
- Prasushruta, the son of Maru
- Susandhi, the son of Prasushruta
- Amarsha and Sahasvanta, the sons of Susandhi
- Vishrutavanta, the son of Amarsha
- Brihadbala, the son of Vishrutavanta.
Brihadbala to Sumitra
The Puranas also provide the list of the kings from Brihadbala to the last ruler Sumitra. But these lists mention Shakya as an individual, and incorporate the names of Shakya, Shuddodhana, Siddhartha (Gautama Buddha) and Rahula between Sanjaya and Prasenajit. The names of the kings are:
- Sumitra Amitrajit
- Sanjaya Mahakoshala
- Prasenajit (c. 6th century BCE)
- Sumitra, defeated by Mahapadma Nanda
In Buddhist tradition
The Buddhist text, Mahavamsa (II, 1-24) traces the origin of the Shakyas to king Okkaka (Pali equivalent to Sanskrit Ikshvaku) and gives their genealogy from Mahasammata, an ancestor of Okkaka. This list comprises the names of a number of prominent kings of the Ikshvaku dynasty, namely, Mandhata and Sagara. The genealogy according to the Mahavamsa is as follows:
- Siddhartha (Gautama Buddha)
The Ikshvaku dynasty has a significant place in Jainism, as twenty-two Tirthankaras were born in this dynasty.
- Rishabha (son of King Nabhi), the founder of Jainism in the present Avasarpani era (descending half time cycle as per Jain cosmology) is said to have founded the Ikshvaku dynasty. Ikshvaku is considered to be his another name. He is said to have taught the people how to extract sugarcane juice. Hence, name for the Ikshvaku dynasty comes from the word ikhsu (sugarcane) because of this event.
- Bharata (first Chakravartin) and Bahubali (first Kamadeva), sons of Rishabha
- Arkakirti and Marichi, son of Bharata
- at the time of Ajitanatha
- Jitashatru (father of Ajitanatha) and his younger brother Sumitra (father of Sagara)
- Ajitanatha (the 2nd Tirthankara) and Sagara (2nd Chakravartin)
- Janhu (eldest son of Sagara), the one who flooded village of Nagas with waters of Ganga leading to turning of sixty thousand sons of Sagara into ashes by Jawalanprabha (emperor of Nagas)
- Bhagiratha (eldest grandson of Sagara)
- at the time of Abhinandananatha
- at the time of Suparshvanatha
- at the time of Shreyanasanatha
- at the time of Vasupujya
- at the time of Shantinatha
- at the time of Kunthunatha
- at the time of Aranatha
- at the time of Munisuvrata (Munisuvrata himself was not from Ikshvaku, but Harivamsa)
- Geography of Rgvedic India, M.L. Bhargava, Lucknow 1964, pp. 15-18, 46-49, 92-98, 100-/1, 136
- Zimmer 1952, p. 218.
- Zimmer 1952, p. 220.
- Ikshaku tribe The Mahabharata translated by Kisari Mohan Ganguli (1883 -1896), Book 3: Vana Parva: Tirtha-yatra Parva: Section CVI, p. 228 'There was born in the family of the Ikshaku, a ruler of the earth named Sagara, endued with beauty, and strength...".
- Malalasekera, G. P. (2007) . Dictionary of Pāli Proper Names: A-Dh. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass. pp. 461–2. ISBN 978-81-208-3021-9.
- Pargiter, F.E. (1972). Ancient Indian Historical Tradition. New Delhi: Motilal Banarasidass. pp. 90–91.
- Valmiki, Arshia Sattar (1996). The Ramayana. New Delhi: Penguin Books. ISBN 0-14-029866-5.
- Vyas, R.T. (ed.) (1992). Vālmīki Rāmāyaṇa, Text as Constituted in its Critical Edition. Vadodara: Oriental Institute, Vadodara. pp. 91–2, 255–56.
- Pargiter, F.E. (1972). Ancient Indian Historical Tradition. New Delhi: Motilal Banarasidass. p. 149.
- Misra, V.S. (2007). Ancient Indian Dynasties, Mumbai: Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan, ISBN 81-7276-413-8, pp.283-8, 384
- Law, B.C. (1973). Tribes in Ancient India, Bhandarkar Oriental Series No.4, Poona: Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute, p.246
- Misra, V.S. (2007). Ancient Indian Dynasties, Mumbai: Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan, ISBN 81-7276-413-8, p.286
- Geiger, Wilhelm (tr.) (1912). "Mahavamsa, Chapter II". Ceylon Government Information Dept.,Colombo (in lakdvia.org website). Retrieved 2009-10-26.
- Jain 1991, p. 2.
- Jain 1991, p. 5.
- Shah 2004, p. 15.
- Shah, Chandraprakash, Shri Shantinatha, 16th Tirthankara
- Jain 1991, p. 161.
- Shah, Natubhai (2004), Jainism: The World of Conquerors, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-81-208-1938-2
- Jain, Kailash Chand (1991), Lord Mahavira and his times, Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-81-208-0805-8
- Zimmer, Heinrich (1953), Joseph Campbell, ed., Philosophies Of India, London, E.C. 4: Routledge & Kegan Paul Ltd, ISBN 978-81-208-0739-6
- Genealogical tables of the deities, princes, heroes, and remarkable personages, of the Hindus, with an intr. and index, by F. Hamilton
Kulkara (in Jainism)
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