Ikshvaku dynasty

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The Ikshvaku dynasty, in Puranic literature, was a dynasty[1] founded by the legendary king Ikshvaku. Ikshvaku, literally means "sugarcane"[2]. The dynasty is also known as Sūryavaṁśa (the Solar dynasty). Lord Rama belonged to the Ikshavaku dynasty.[3] Twenty-two out of the twenty-four Jain Tirthankara belonged to this dynasty.[4] Rishabha is present in both Hindu as well as Jain mythology. Both refers to the same person. According to the Buddhist texts, Prince Siddhartha belonged to this dynasty.

The important personalities belonging to this royal house are Mandhatri , Muchukunda , Ambarisha , Bharata Chakravartin, Bahubali, Harishchandra, Dilīpa, Sagara,[5] Raghu, Rama and Pasenadi. Although, both the Hindu Puranas and the Buddhist texts include Shuddodhana, Gautama Buddha and Rahula in their accounts of the Ikshvaku dynasty, but according to the Buddhist texts, Mahasammata, an ancestor of Ikshvaku was the founder of this dynasty,[6] who was elected by the people as the first king of the present era. According to the Puranas, supreme preceptor of the Ikshvaku dynasty was sage Vashishta.

Hinduism[edit]

Symbol of Hinduism

In Hinduism, Ikshvaku, is the grandson of Vivasvan or Surya and son of Vaivasvata Manu. They ruled from the Kosala Kingdom, today known as Awadh in the state of Uttar Pradesh along the banks of river Sarayu with saketa, Ayodhya today as their capital. Ikshvaku is the first king who executed the Manusmrti or religious rules of Hindu living which were composed by his father Manu. Ikshvaku, ruled as Monarch at the beginning of the Satya Yuga or First yuga, had hundred sons. His estates descended to his eldest son Vikukshi.[7]

Ikshvaku dynasty lineage[edit]

The lists of kings of Ikṣvāku or Aikṣvāka dynasty are found in the Ramayana, the Mahabharata, the Harivamsha and the Puranas. The Raghuvamsha of Kalidasa also mentions the names of the kings of this dynasty.[8][9]

Suryavanshi kings[edit]

The genealogy of the Ikshvaku dynasty to Rama is mentioned in the Ramayana in two lists . The only difference between the two lists is that, Kukshi is mentioned only in the second list . In the first list, Vikukshi is mentioned as the son of Ikshavaku. The descendants of Vikukshi are known as Vikauwa. [10]

  1. Ikshvaku
  2. Kukshi/Vikukshi
  3. Kakutstha or Puranjaya
  4. Anena or Anaranya
  5. Prithu
  6. Vishvagashva
  7. Ardra or Chandra
  8. Yuvanashva I
  9. Shravast
  10. Vrihadashva
  11. Kuvalashva
  12. Dridhashva
  13. Pramod
  14. Haryashva I
  15. Nikumbh
  16. Santashva
  17. Krishasva
  18. Prasenjit I
  19. Yuvanashva II
  20. Mandhatri
  21. Purukutsa
  22. Trasadasyu
  23. Sambhoot
  24. Anaranya II
  25. Trashdashva
  26. Haryashva II
  27. Vasuman
  28. Tridhanva
  29. Tryyaruna
  30. Satyavrata or Trishanku
  31. Harishchandra
  32. Rohitashva
  33. Harita
  34. Chenchu
  35. Vijay
  36. Rusak
  37. Vrika
  38. Bahu or Asit
  39. Sagara
  40. Asmanjasa
  41. Anshuman
  42. Dileepa I
  43. Bhagiratha
  44. Shrut
  45. Nabhag
  46. Ambarish
  47. Sindhu Dweep
  48. Pratayu
  49. Shrutuparna
  50. Sarvakama
  51. Sudaas
  52. Mitrasah
  53. Sarvakama II
  54. Ananaranya III
  55. Nighna
  56. Animitra (Raghu is the brother of Animitra)
  57. Duliduh
  58. Dileepa II
  59. Raghu II
  60. Aja
  61. Dasaratha
  62. Rama

Suryavanshi kings after Rama[edit]

The Puranas provide a genealogical list from Kusha to Brihadbala, who was killed by Abhimanyu in the Mahabharata war. This list is corroborated by the Raghuvamsha till Agnivarna:[11]

82 Kusha (Contemporary to Chandravanshi King Kunti)

83 Atithi (Contemporary to Chandravanshi King Turvasu -2)

84 Nishadha was the founder of Nishada Kingddom.

85 Nala

86 Nabhas

87 Pundarika

88 Kshemadhanvan

89 Devanika

90 Ahinagu

91 Roop

92 Rudra

93 Paripatra

94 Dala (or Balasthala)

95 Chhal (or Anal)

96 Ukya

97 Vajranabha

98 Avalash (or Shankhanaad)

99 Vighruti (or Vyushitashva)

100 Vishvasaha-2

101 Hiranyanabha (He was student of Sage Jaimini, Yagnyavalkya has accepted him as his teacher)

102 Pushya

103 Dhruvasandhi

104 Sudarshana-2

106 Agnivatna-2

107 Shighra

108 Maru-2

109 Prasushruta

110 Susandhi (or Sugandhi)

111 Amarshana and Sahasvanta, the sons of Susandhi

112 Mahasvan

113 Vishwasahav

114 Prasenjit-1

115 Takshaka

116 Brihadbala (at Mahabharata time, Abhimanyu killed Brihadbalam at age 125 years in Mahabharata War).

from Sri Rama to Brihadbalam 36 generation were passed in ikshvakuvansha. Average lifespan of Ikshvakuvanshi Kings in Dwaparayuga was 24,682 years. Maximum Lifespan of human became 200 years in last 400 years of Dwaparayuga.

Suryavanshi kings after Mahabharatha[edit]

The Puranas also provide the list of the kings from Brihadbala to the last ruler Sumitra. But these lists mention Shakya as an individual, and incorporate the names of Shakya, Shuddodhana, Siddhartha (Gautama Buddha) and Rahula between Sanjaya and Prasenajit. The names of the kings are:[12]

117 Brihatkshaya (or Bruhadrunam)

118 Urukriya (or Gurukshep)

119 Vatsavyuha

120 Prativyoma

121 Bhaanu

122 Divakara (or Divak)

123 Veer Sahadeva

124 Brihadashva-2

125 Bhanuratha (or Bhanumaan)

126 Pratitashva

127 Supratika

128 Marudeva

129 Sunakshatra

130 Pushkara (or Kinnara)

131 Antariksha

132 Suvarna (or Sutapaa)

133 Sumitra (or Amitrajit)

134 Bruhadaraaj (Okkaka)

135 Barhi (Okkamukha)

136 Kritanjaya (Sivisamjaya)

137 Ranajjaya (Sihassara)

138 Sanjaya (Mahakoshala or Jayasena)

139 Shakya (Sihahanu)

140 Śuddhodana (ruler of Shakya Republic of Kapilavastu)

141 Siddhartha (or Gautama Buddha)

142 Rāhula, the only son of Gautam Buddha

143 Prasenajit (Born when Siddhartha was of age 27 years)

144 Kshudraka (or Kuntala)

145 Ranaka (or Kulaka)

146 Suratha

147 Sumitra

King Sumitra was Last ruler of Ikshvakuvansh/Suryavansha. He was defeated and driven out from Ayodhya.[13][page needed]

In Buddhist tradition[edit]

The Buddhist text, Mahavamsa (II, 1-24) traces the origin of the Shakyas to king Okkaka (Pali equivalent to Sanskrit Ikshvaku) and gives their genealogy from Mahasammata, an ancestor of Okkaka. This list comprises the names of a number of prominent kings of the Ikshvaku dynasty, namely, Mandhata and Sagara.[14] The genealogy according to the Mahavamsa is as follows:[15][16]

  1. Okkaka
  2. Okkamukha
  3. Sivisamjaya
  4. Sihassara
  5. Jayasena
  6. Sihahanu
  7. Suddhodana
  8. Siddhartha (Gautama Buddha)
  9. Rahula

In Jain tradition[edit]

The Ikshvaku dynasty has a significant place in Jainism, as twenty-two Tirthankaras were born in this dynasty.[17]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Citations[edit]

  1. ^ Geography of Rigvedic India, M.L. Bhargava, Lucknow 1964, pp. 15-18, 46-49, 92-98, 100-/1, 136
  2. ^ Glashoff, Klaus. "Sanskrit Dictionary for Spoken Sanskrit". spokensanskrit.org. Retrieved 2017-08-18.
  3. ^ Zimmer 1952, p. 218.
  4. ^ Zimmer 1952, p. 220.
  5. ^ Ikshaku tribe The Mahabharata translated by Kisari Mohan Ganguli (1883 -1896), Book 3: Vana Parva: Tirtha-yatra Parva: Section CVI, p. 228 'There was born in the family of the Ikshaku, a ruler of the earth named Sagara, endued with beauty, and strength...".
  6. ^ Malalasekera, G. P. (2007) [1937]. Dictionary of Pāli Proper Names: A-Dh. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass. pp. 461–2. ISBN 978-81-208-3021-9.
  7. ^ http://www.gloriousindia.com/history/dynasties/ikshvaku/ikshvaku.html
  8. ^ Pargiter, F.E. (1972). Ancient Indian Historical Tradition. New Delhi: Motilal Banarasidass. pp. 90–91.
  9. ^ Valmiki, Arshia Sattar (1996). The Ramayana. New Delhi: Penguin Books. ISBN 0-14-029866-5.
  10. ^ Vyas, R.T. (ed.) (1992). Vālmīki Rāmāyaṇa, Text as Constituted in its Critical Edition. Vadodara: Oriental Institute, Vadodara. pp. 91–92, 255–56.
  11. ^ Pargiter, F.E. (1972). Ancient Indian Historical Tradition. New Delhi: Motilal Banarasidass. p. 149.
  12. ^ Misra, V.S. (2007). Ancient Indian Dynasties, Mumbai: Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan, ISBN 81-7276-413-8, pp.283-8, 384
  13. ^ [1]
  14. ^ Law, B.C. (1973). Tribes in Ancient India, Bhandarkar Oriental Series No.4, Poona: Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute, p.246
  15. ^ Misra, V.S. (2007). Ancient Indian Dynasties, Mumbai: Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan, ISBN 81-7276-413-8, p.286
  16. ^ Geiger, Wilhelm (tr.) (1912). "Mahavamsa, Chapter II". Ceylon Government Information Dept.,Colombo (in lakdvia.org website). Retrieved 2009-10-26.
  17. ^ Jain 1991, p. 2.
  18. ^ Jain 1991, p. 5.
  19. ^ Shah 2004, p. 15.
  20. ^ Shah, Chandraprakash, Shri Shantinatha, 16th Tirthankara
  21. ^ Jain 1991, p. 161.

Sources[edit]

Preceded by
Kulakara (in Jainism)
Ikshvaku Dynasty Succeeded by