First page of Il manifesto the day after the election of Pope Benedict XVI.
|Owner(s)||il nuovo manifesto società coop editrice|
|Political alignment||Leftist, Communist|
|Circulation||11,324 (May 2016)|
History and profile
Il manifesto was founded as a monthly review in 1969 by a collective of left-wing journalists engaged in the wave of critical thought and activity on the Italian left in that period. Its founders included Luigi Pintor, Valentino Parlato, Lucio Magri, and Rossana Rossanda. In April 1971 it became a daily. Although critical of the Italian Communist Party (PCI), it was popular with many party supporters who saw it as more lively and independent than the party newspaper L'Unità.
The 1991 PCI dissolution that gave birth to the social democratic Democratic Party of the Left was not followed by Il manifesto, a paper which maintains positions closer to those of robustly left wing parties, such as Communist Refoundation Party, while remaining independent.
Il manifesto is known in Italy for its bitter and sarcastic headlines, puns, and clever choice of photographs. For example, the day of the election of Pope Benedict XVI, the first page of Il manifesto featured a large photo of the newly elected pope, along with the title the German shepherd. It has included the satirical drawings of Vauro.
One of its reporters, Giuliana Sgrena, was kidnapped by Iraqi insurgents in February 2005 and released on 4 March. A controversy erupted when her rescue vehicle was shot by American troops, killing an Italian security agent.
By the late 2000s, state aid to media in Italy was dropping, and il manifesto began to operate at a loss. It was owned by a cooperative of journalists until entering legal liquidation in February 2012. However, it continued to publish. The cooperative announced a subscription campaign to buy back the brand, which was successful in July 2016.
- "Austerity threatens Europe's Left press". Revolting Europe. 12 January 2012. Retrieved 1 July 2015.
- Dominique Vidal (December 2014). "Buying back 'il manifesto'". Le Monde diplomatique. Retrieved 30 November 2014.
- Gino Moliterno, ed. (2005). Encyclopedia of Contemporary Italian Culture (PDF). London and New York: Routledge. ISBN 0-203-74849-2. Retrieved 11 January 2015.
- Clyde Haberman (24 April 1989). "Newspaper Deal in Italy Stirs Debate over Press Freedom". The New York Times. Rome. Retrieved 7 June 2015.
- "Il collettivo del manifesto". Il manifesto. Retrieved 22 May 2016.
- "Bush repeats Italian death regret". CNN. 7 April 2005. Retrieved 30 November 2014.
- "Il manifesto, i giornalisti ricomprano la testata. "Siamo tornati padroni di un giornale indipendente e autogestito"". il Fatto Quotidiano. 15 July 2016. Retrieved 1 August 2016.
- Data for average newspaper circulation in 2008. Accertamenti Diffusione Stampa.
- "National Newspapers". International Federation of Audit Bureaux of Circulations. Retrieved 6 March 2015.
- Diffusione stampa: quotidiani e settimanali a febbraio, mensili a gennaio (Ads, gennaio e febbraio 2014)