Il turco in Italia
|Il turco in Italia|
|Opera buffa by Gioachino Rossini|
Portrait of the composer
|Translation||The Turk in Italy|
14 August 1814|
La Scala, Milan
Il turco in Italia (The Turk in Italy) is an opera in two acts by Gioachino Rossini. The Italian-language libretto was written by Felice Romani. It was a re-working of a libretto by Caterino Mazzolà set as an opera (with the same title) by the German composer Franz Seydelmann in 1788.
An opera buffa, it was influenced by Mozart's Così fan tutte, which was performed at the same theatre shortly before Rossini's work. The strangely harmonized overture, though infrequently recorded, is one of the best examples of Rossini's characteristic style. An unusually long introduction displays an extended, melancholy horn solo with full orchestral accompaniment, before giving way to a lively, purely comic main theme.
Il turco in Italia was first performed in La Scala, Milan, on 14 August 1814. It was given in London at His Majesty's Theatre on 19 May 1822 with Giuseppe de Begnis and Giuseppina de Begnis. It was first staged in New York City at the Park Theatre on 14 March 1826 with Maria Malibran, Manuel García Senior, Manuel García Junior, Barbieri, Crivelli, Rosich and Agrisani. In 1950 it was revived in Rome at the Teatro Eliseo with Maria Callas. In 1955 Callas again starred as Fiorilla, this time at the Teatro alla Scala where the opera was produced by Franco Zeffirelli. In later years Fiorilla has been sung by Cecilia Bartoli.
|Role||Voice type||Premiere Cast, August 14, 1814|
(Conductor: Alessandro Rolla)
|Don Geronio, a Neapolitan gentleman||bass||Luigi Pacini|
|Fiorilla, his wife||soprano||Francesca Maffei Festa|
|Selim, the Turk||bass||Filippo Galli|
|Narciso, in love with Fiorilla||tenor||Giovanni David|
|Prosdocimo, a poet||baritone||Pietro Vasoli|
|Zaida, a Turk||mezzo-soprano||Adelaide Carpano|
|Albazar, a Turk||tenor||Gaetano Pozzi|
|Gypsies, Turks, people - Chorus|
By the sea shore near Naples
The poet Prosdocimo (baritone) is searching for a plot for a drama buffo. He meets a band of Gypsies, including the beautiful but unhappy Zaida (mezzo-soprano) and her confidant Albazar (tenor). Perhaps the Gypsies can provide some ideas? Prosdocimo's friend, the obstinate and sometimes foolish Geronio (bass), is looking for a fortune teller to advise him on his marital problems, but the Gypsies tease him. Zaida tells Prosdocimo that she is from a Turkish harem. She and her master, Prince Selim, were in love, but jealous rivals accused her of infidelity and she had to flee for her life, accompanied by Albazar. Nevertheless, she still loves only one man and that man is Selim. Prosdocimo knows that a Turkish prince will shortly be arriving in Italy. Perhaps he can help? Geronio's capricious young wife Fiorilla (soprano) enters singing (in contrast to Zaida) of the joys of free and unfettered love. A Turkish ship arrives and the prince disembarks. It is Selim (bass) himself. Fiorilla is immediately attracted to the handsome Turk, and a romance rapidly develops. Narciso (tenor) appears in her pursuit. He is an ineffectual admirer of Fiorilla posing as a friend of her husband. Geronio follows, horrified to learn that Fiorilla is taking the Turk home to drink his coffee!
Fiorilla and Selim are flirting. Geronio enters timidly and Selim is initially impressed by his unexpected meekness, however Narciso noisily scolds Geronio. The domestic menage irritates Selim and he leaves after quietly arranging to meet Fiorilla again by his ship. Geronio tells Fiorilla he will not allow any more Turks - or Italians - in his house. She sweetly undermines his complaints, and then, when he softens, threatens to punish him by enjoying herself even more wildly.
The sea shore at night
Selim is waiting for Fiorilla. Instead he meets Zaida. The former lovers are shocked and delighted, and declare once more their mutual love. Narciso re-appears, followed by Fiorilla in disguise, with Geronio in pursuit. Selim confuses the veiled Fiorilla with Zaida and the two women come suddenly face to face. Fiorilla accuses Selim of betrayal. Zaida confronts Fiorilla. Geronio tells his wife to go home. There is a stormy finale.
At an inn
Selim approaches Geronio amicably, offering to buy Fiorilla. That way Geronio can be rid of his problems and also make some money. Geronio refuses. Selim vows to steal her instead. After they leave, Fiorilla and a group of her friends appear, followed by Zaida. Fiorilla has set up a meeting between them and Selim, so that the Turk will be forced to decide between the two women. In the event he is indecisive, not wishing to lose either of them. Zaida leaves in disgust. Selim and Fiorilla quarrel but are eventually reconciled. As the poet tells Geronio, there is going to be a party. Fiorilla will be there to meet Selim, who will be masked. Geronio should also go - disguised as a Turk! Narciso overhears this, and decides to take advantage of the situation to take Fiorilla himself, in revenge for her former indifference. Geronio laments his destiny, that he should have such a terrible, crazy wife. Albazar passes by holding a costume - for Zaida!
A ballroom with masqueraders and dancers
Fiorilla mistakes Narciso for Selim and Narciso leads her away. Meanwhile, Selim enters with Zaida, under the impression that she is Fiorilla. Geronio is in utter despair at finding two couples and two Fiorillas! Narciso and Selim both entreat their partners to leave with them. Confused and angry, Geronio attempts to stop both couples, but they eventually escape.
Back at the inn
Prosdocimo meets Geronio. They now know that Selim was with Zaida and guess that Fiorilla was with Narciso. Albazar confirms that Selim will definitely stay with Zaida. Prosdocimo advises Geronio to have his revenge on Fiorilla by pretending to divorce her and threatening to send her back to her family.
Having discovered Narciso's deception, Fiorilla tries to find Selim, but he has already left with Zaida. She returns home only to find the divorce letter, and her belongings being removed from the house. She is devastated by shame, and promptly deserted by her friends.
Selim and Zaida are about to set sail for Turkey, while Fiorilla is looking for a boat to take her back to her home town. Geronio finds and forgives her. They are affectionately reconciled. Both couples are now reunited and Prosdocimo is delighted with his happy ending.
Opera House and Orchestra
Piero de Palma
Chorus and Orchestra of the Teatro alla Scala, Milan
|Audio CD: EMI Classics|
Cat: CD 58662
RAI Symphony Orchestra and Chorus, Milan
|Audio CD: Pantheon/Myto/Urania/Opera d'Oro|
Cat: CD 6653
New York City Opera Orchestra and Chorus
(Video recording of a performance in an English translation by Andrew Porter at the New York City Opera, stage directed by Tito Capobianco, 4 October)
|DVD: Premiere Opera Ltd.|
National Philharmonic Orchestra and the Ambrosian Opera Chorus
|Audio CD: CBS “Masterworks”/Sony Music Distribution|
Cat: CD 37859
Vienna Philharmonic Orchestra and the Vienna State Opera Chorus
|Audio CD: Deutsche Grammophon|
Cat: 436 577-2
Academy of St Martin in the Fields and the Ambrosian Opera Chorus
|Audio CD: Philips Classics Records|
Roberto de Candia,
Theatre Chorus and Orchestra of La Scala
Antonio de Gobbi,
Citta Lirica Orchestra and Chorus
|Audio CD: Kicco Classic|
Orchestra and Chorus of the Zürich Opera
(Video recording of a performance at the Zürich Opera, April or May 2002)
|DVD: ArtHaus Musik|
Natale de Carolis,
Orchestra and Chorus of the Theatre Maruccino, Chieti
|Audio CD: Naxos Records|
Haydn Orchestra of Bolzano and Trento
|Audio CD: Dynamic|
- Osborne, p.30
- The synopsis by Simon Holledge was first published at Operajaponica.org and appears here by permission.
- Recordings of Il turco in Italia on operadis-opera-discography.org.uk
- Holden, Amanda (Ed.), The New Penguin Opera Guide, New York: Penguin Putnam, 2001. ISBN 0-14-029312-4
- Osborne, Charles, The Bel Canto Operas of Rossini, Donizetti, and Bellini, Portland, Oregon: Amadeus Press, 1994 ISBN 0-931340-71-3
- Warrack, John and West, Ewan, The Oxford Dictionary of Opera, 1992. ISBN 0-19-869164-5