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|Elevation||42.6 m (139.8 ft)|
|Time zone||IST (UTC+5:30)|
|Sex ratio||1:1.082 ♂/♀|
Ilaiyangudi,(Tamil: இளையான்குடி) also spelled Ilayangudi or Ilaiyangudi, is a taluk headquarters and Sub Town situated 21 km Southeast of Manamadurai, in Sivaganga district, India. The town Sivaganga is roughly 37 km Northwest of Ilaiyangudi. The nearest airport is at Madurai, and the Paramakudi Junction Railway Station serves Ilaiyangudi. The nearest town is Paramakudi which is 11 km away, and Ilayangudi is 66km from Karaikudi and 70km from Madurai.
Islam was introduced to Ilayangudi during the 6th and 7th century by Arab traders. Because of this,the majority of the people in the town are now Muslim. The old Muslim community of this town is engaged in different trades such as textile weaving, transportation and plantation of betel leaves and it also has various esteemed educational institutions of Sivaganga district. Kadai theru is the heart of the Sub town and is known for its shops and retail outlets.
As of 2011[update] India census, Ilayangudi is a Town Panchayat city in the district of Sivaganga, Tamil Nadu. The Ilayangudi city is divided into 18 wards for which elections are held every 5 years. The Ilayangudi Town Panchayat has population of 24,767 of which 12,448 are males and 12,319 are females according to the report released by the census of India in 2011.
Population of children between the age of 0-6 is 2657, accounting for 10.73% of total population of Ilayangudi (TP). In Ilayangudi town Panchayat, the female sex ratio is of 990, versus the state average of 996. Moreover, the child sex ratio in Ilayangudi is around 942, compared to the Tamil Nadu state average of 943. The literacy rate of Ilayangudi city is 88.94%, higher than state average of 80.09%. In Ilayangudi, male literacy is around 93.03%, while female literacy rate is 84.83%. Among the population, 70% are Islamic, 27% are Hindu, and 3% are Christians, with a mix of Catholics and Protestants.
Ilayangudi Town Panchayat has total administration over 5,947 houses to which it supplies basic amenities such as water and sewerage. It is also authorized to build roads within the town Panchayat limits and impose taxes on properties coming under its jurisdiction.
Ilayangudi Muslims are divided into Four predominant Jamaths  as follows:
1, INP Jamaath (Nesavuppattadai alias Nesavukkaarargal ) - Who were textile weavers earlier
2, Melappallivasal Jamaath (Melappattadai alias eruthukaarargal) - Who were Bull-A-Cart Transporters earlier
3, Salai Hanafi Jamaath (Kodikkalpattadai) - Who were Betel Leaves Planters
4, Salai Shaafi Jamaath (Salaiyur Nesavupattadai) - Who were Textile Weavers earlier
Ilaiyangudi is a taluk headquarters town of a total area of 16.4 km2 having 18 wards.
Ilaiyangudi is also famous for its traditional Islamic foods. A large number of shops, business outlets, banks, playgrounds, associations, societies, constructions, brick chambers, marriage halls, computer centres, hardware shops, cycle shops, audio-video shops, photo studios, printing presses, and parks are in Ilaiyankudi.
There are also many (Mosque) Masjids in the town. The town contains basic amenities such as the women's hospital, Panchayath, bus stations, government departments, a police station, and a post office.
The Ilayangudi Higher Secondary School was established in 1914 by the Ilayangudi Muslim Educational Association and the association's founder Khalifa. K.M. Abdul Kareem, as a supplementary higher school to theRahmaniya Elementary school. Astructure for school was donated in 1954 by Late Oppadaiyar K.M.Sultan Aludeen & Sons, on the ground of 14.5 acres donated by Sivagangai King Shamnugaraja. The land was registered to Khalifa. Abdul Kareem by Sivaganga Dynasty initially, and was later transferred to Ilayangudi Muslim Educational Association.
A reservoir known as "the samuthram" is situated on the Northwest side of the town and draws water through a river passage known as "kanmaai" from vaigai. The "samuthram" is a major source of water for the town and is also used to swim, wash clothes, and fish.
The ancient landmark of this town is Thevoorani which is located on the heart of the downtown and its banks are decorated with INP Thozhugai Medai Pallivasal and Rajendra Chooleeswara Temple. The water channel from Kanmaai travels to the Northwest and reaches Thevoorani and proceeds towards Poochiyendal Kanmaai.
"Kadai theru “is the heart of the city and is known for its shops and retail outlets. "Kanmaai karai" is a leisure zone and has a variety of teashops open late into the night.
Hotels in the town include the Baatcha Hotel, the Kansa Hotel, the Ibrahim hotel, the Salai Kaka Hotel, and the United hotel. These hotels are known for parrata (locally called parrota), kadai, and chalna (a kind of curry). Singarathoppu and Alankarathoppu are the major entertainment outlets for young people, offeringy football teams and football coaching to teenagers. The libraries available in the town run by the District Authority and Jamath Trusts.
Ilaiyankudi is located at  It has an average elevation of 43.6 m (143 ft)..
Ilayangudi is surrounded by more than 30 villages, including Pudur, Sodukudi, Karunchuthi, Keelayur, Malli pattinam, Thiruvallur, Karumpakootam, Keeranur, Kongampatti, Idayavalasai, Pavandan, Manikkavasaga Nagar, Melayur, Nagamugundhangudi, Peachatthai, Seethoorani, Ariyandipuram, Kannamangalam, Thayamangalam, Melayur, Athikarai, Alimadurai, Meiyananthal, Kottaiyur, Sirupalai, Perumbalai, and Aranaiyur.
Historical evidence shows that he first settlement of Muslims in the Ilaiyangudi township began in the 15th century at Thuraian Pacher, but some speculate that a section of Muslim population had already settled in Ilaiyangudi, arguing that a few of the settlers converted to Islam from Jainism during the 7th and 8th centuries. Nesavu (Textile weaving)was a major part of the economy during the Kalapirar Dynasty.
The Muslims who migrated to Ilaiyangudi were from Sevaleperi, Udangudi, Ulakkudi, Sundrapandipuram, Thenmalai, Kadaiyanallur and Thanjavoor. They were first settled in a place called Thuraiyan Pacheery, where water was available (near the main bazaar - Kadai Road). During that time, that place was occupied by Pallars. With the help of the Pallars, new Muslim migrant settlements were formed and slowly the Pallars left and settled further South.
There is a story to support migration of first settlement of Muslims in Ilaiyangudi. There was a drought in the Southern part of the Tamil Nadu in the 14th Century. Because of this, roughly 40 families left in search of fertile land. They settled when they reached Ilaiyangudi. The first mosque in Ilaiyangudi was built between 1400 and 1450. This Mosque was called as keela pallivaasal. The current melappalivasal which was constructed during AD 1744 in the west side of the old Keela Pallivasal, thus called as melappalli meaning west mosque. The Ilaiyangudi Muslims economy relied on agriculture, textile weaving, bullock carts transportation and betel leave farming. Based on their trade, each Jamath was called either a neasvu pattadai or an eruthu pattadai. Betel nut farmers were known as kodikkal pattadais.
The full-fledged Nesavu Pattadai mosque was built in 1816 at the location where they were offering prayers since 1553 with a Medai. This land was awarded as bounty to Sage sehappa owlia by Pandiya King Sadasivarayar in 1553. Sehappa owlia mosoleum is located in Salaiyur Shafi masjid premises.
There are two more mosques built in Salaiyur in 1775 (Shafi also called as Salaiyur Nesavu pattadai masjid) and 1811 (Hanafi also known as kodikkal pattadai masjid). During the Muslim migration, the town was so small having restricted boundaries around the Thearar Oorani area. When Muslim settlement occupied the outskirt in Thuraiyan Pacherry, the wealthy and educated people moved towards North side of the town.The North Side of the town was constructed with well planned straight roads and better living conditions.
The Ilayangudi's roots can be traced from the third and second century BCE. The full-sized Mahavira image outside the present Rajendra Choleeswarar Temple proves that this ancient township of Southern Tip was influenced by Jainism for thousands of years.
Mahavira, the 24th Tirthankara of Jainism attained Nirvana in 527 BCE. The eighth successor of Mahavira, Bhatira Baghu Munivar, was the Religious Chieftain of Chandragupta Maurya, who sent Vaisaga Munivar to south to spread Jainism in Pandiya and Chola countries.
During the third century BCE, Buddhism was introduced to Tamil Land by Empiror Ashoka through his brother Mahendirar. Unlike Jainism, Buddha statues are not found in Ilayangudi, but the public water tank is still called as Therar Oorani. Thearar is Tamil term for Buddhist Monk. This leads us to conclude that there could have been a Buddha Vikar near Thearar Oorani that time.
The present Sivan temple was built by Chola King Rajendra Cholan (1012-1044). The temple is called Rajendra Chola Eswara Temple. This temple might be an old Zain Temple and later converted to a Shivite Temple by the King. The present Manju Puthur Chettiyars (local Chettiyars of Ilayangudi) were Jains originally and later converted to Saivam. When the temple was converted to Hindu temple, the Mahavira Statue was kept outside temple, while Hindu gods were placed inside. There is an old eleventh century Stone Edict from the Chola Dynasty.
Tamil Saivam was established by 63 nayanmars around Tamil Nadu, one of famous nayanmar called as ILAYANGUDI MAARA NAAYANAAR was lived in ilayangudi.
Ilayangudi is known as PULAMAI PERUR meaning literates town. Ilayangudi delivered lot of Poets, Wisemen, Writers etc. In Tamil literature, we can find many poets praised the talents of Ilayangudians and their contribution to the Tamil Literature. Zawwadu Pulavar, famous poet of yesteryears, who lived in Emeneshwaram near Paramakudi, praised Ilayangudians in his various poems.
The above poets lived in Ilayagudi in the 18th, 19th and 20th centuries. They have written various poems & essays. We have collected very few of them which were printed and preserved.
Thenmalaikhan Mathura Kavi Batcha Pulavar lived roughly between 1860 and 1930. He was titled as Mathura Kavi by Sivagangai Raja as his poems were so sweet. He was rewarded with a Pattayam by his dynasty. Mathura Kavi was ancestor for Late. Calcutta. T.S.Abdul Rahim, Late. T.M. Meera Hussain and T.S. Jainulabdeen (Thablic). There is a memorial Madarasa Building in the name of Mathura Kavi at Ilayangudi built by his grandson Late. T.S. Abdul Rahim.
Nagaimani Maalai Collection of poems written praising Nagoor Meeran Shahib by Thenmalaikhan Mathurakavi Batcha Pulavar during Hijri 1314 Ramalan Month (circa.1892). The first print was published by Karaikal. K.S. Syed Ibrahim Rawoother in his Mohamed Samadani Press in Karaikal. The second publish was during Hijri 1383 Rabiul Awwal - 1963 July by Madurai A.M. Abdul Jabbar (Pagavi) in his Quraniya Press in Madurai. Pillai Thzamil Collection of poems written by Mathurakavi narrating Nagoor Shahul Hameed's childhood incidents, published in 1892 by the Madurai Pandiyan Press. The second edition was published in 1963 July by the Quraniya Press Madurai. This book also contains four more short poems such as Kalithurai, Nagai Patthu, Nagai Kochagam and Nagai Thiruvasagam. Arul Mani Malai This poems were written in praise of Karaikal. Hazarat Shahu Ali Masthan Oli Shahib by Mathurakavi. This poems were published during Hijri 1314 in By Karaikal Kadir Mohideen in Mohamed Samadani Press. Second edition was published in 1963 by the Quraniya Press, Madurai. Thirukarana Vannangal These poems were written by Mathura kavi and published by 1895 in the Karaikal Samadani Press.
The second edition was published in 1963 by the Quraniaya Press in Madurai. Deen Vilakka Vannam These poems were written by Mathura Kavi praising Ervadi. Hazarat Syed Ibrahim Sahid, published in 1895 by the Samadani Press, Karaikal. The second edition was by the Quraniya Press in 1963. Pancha Rathina Vannangal This book was not published by Mathurakavi and handwritten copies were preserved in his house. Many chapters were lost by termites, rest of the poems were published in 1963 by the Quraniya Press Madurai.
Madaru Pulavar lived in Ilayangudi in the 19th Century. He descended from Noordeen family. The is ancestor of Capt. N.A.Ameer Ali. To dignify his work Ilayangudi Panchayat Board named one street in his name.
He wrote KUTHUBU MANI MALAI, this book was written praising Mohideen Abdul Kadir Jailani. This book was published in 1922 by Thubash. T.K. Mohamed Ibrahim of Abiramam-Natham, who is a relative of Madaru Pulavar in Manonmani Vilasam Press in Madurai.
Katchi Pillaiyammal was daughter of Lukman Rawoother who spend his life in search of wisdom. Katchi Pillaiyamal written poems mostly about wisdom related subjects. She is the first recorded female poet of Ilayangudi.
Seeniyaval Rawoother is the brother-in-law of Kuppapitchai Ambalam. He has written this Singara Vazhi Lavani praising the Ilayangudi town and describing the various landmarks of Ilayangudi. This Book was published in 1918 by the Sivagangai Sri Kala Press.
There are many living poets in Ilayangudi such as:
Pulavar. Sheiko @ S.M.S. Mohamed Kassim Porkizhi Kavingar Hidayathulla alias ex Shanmugam Thai. Ka. Kader Gani Kavingar. V.M. Shajahan Gani (He married in Ilayangudi)
Also, there are lot of Pudu Kavingargal in Ilayangudi who did not come to light.
Ilayangudians played a major role in Indian Politics and Independence.
Late. Allama Karim Gani  veteran Scholar and Information Minister of Netaji BAMA Ministry of INA was hailing from Sodugudi-Ilayangudi. He was serving as advisor to Nethaji during Independence struggle.
During the 4th Assembly Election, Ilayangudi was created as 197th Constituency of Tamil Nadu Legislative Assembly by the Delimitation of Parliamentary and Assembly Constituencies Order, 1965, while the number of territorial constituencies in Tamil Nadu was increased to 234. The 2009 Assembly Election was the last election for Ilayangudi assembly constituency. Mr.S.Mathiyarsan from DMK was the last MLA of Ilayangudi. Ilayangudi Assembly Constituency has been merged with Manamadurai city Constituency by Delimitation of Parliamentary and Assembly Constituency Order 2008, by Election Commission of India.
- Late. P.N.Abuthalib was Joint Secretary of Indian Union Muslim League and served as an advisor to Qaide-e-Millath Ismail Sahib.
- Late . Hajee. V.M.PEER MOHAMED, statesman, administrator, businessman of Ilayangudi. He is the donor for Dr. Zakir Hussain College Main Block. He was a former trustee of INP Jamath.
- Late. T.K.A. Dewan Mohamed, IAS, was the first IAS officer from this town who contributed in various administrative levels in Government of Tamil Nadu including Collector and Additional Chief Secretary.
- Late. Captain T.K.S. Mohamed Iqbal IPS, who was killed along with Rajiv Gandhi was the first IPS officer of this town, who served the Indian Army as Captain in 1972 Pakistan war.
Ilayangudi is the one of the most educated Muslim towns of Tamil Nadu. These are some of the educational institutions of the town.
- Rahmanniya Elementary School (popularly known as Sanga Pallikoodam), established in 1914.
- Ilayangudi Higher Secondary School,
- Government Girls High School,
- Melapallivasal Girls Higher Secondary School,
- INP Metriculation School,
- Iqra Metriculation School,
- Hamidiyya Higher Secondary School, Salaiyur,
- Haji. K.K.Ibrahim Ali Higher Secondary School, Pudur
- Muslim Nalvali abiviruthi School, Salaiyur,
- St. Anne's Matric Hr.sec school, Mallipattinam,
- Al Ameen Buhari Technical Institute,
- Dr. Zakir Hussain College
Sal Sabeel Trust established in the early 1990's in Mallipattinam, Ilayangudi is the leading Charitable Trust managing Orphan Child of Islamic faith. The trust is managing more than 100 children boarding, lodging and their education. Mr.Sheik Kutty (Haji JANAB Sheik Mohideen), well known philanthropist is Chairman of the Trust.
Sal Sabeel is taking care of orphans of Islamic society by providing them Food, Shelter, and Education (both academic and Islamic). The organization is well known for its simplicity and efficient management. Since it is raised and managed on the basis of Islamic faith, they do not accept non Islamic earning as donation.
In 2013 the Sal Sabeel Orphanage is undertaken by TAMIL NADU THOWHEED JAMA'ATH. And also TNTJ management launch OLD AGE HOME for orphans named as AR RAHIM MADHARASA. They upgrade the orphanage,run successfully and served the people worldwide.
There is an Arabic madarasa in Pudur Road between Salaiyur and Pudur to teach Arabic and Islamic values. The college is built in a land donated by Thappathai Naina Mohamed for the cause. Teaching includes memorizing Quran.
- "Census of India 2001: Data from the 2001 Census, including cities, villages and towns (Provisional)". Census Commission of India. Archived from the original on 2004-06-16. Retrieved 2008-11-01.
- Indian Encyclopedia, Tamil Nadu District Encyclopedia - Ramanathapuram(1961-68), by Dr.A.Ramasamy, M.A., M.Lit., PHd (London)., Published by Tamil Nadu Government,1990
- Falling Rain Genomics, Inc - Ilaiyankudi
- Islamiya Kalai Kalanchiyam, Part-II, by AbdurRahim, Published by Universal Publishers & Book Sellers, 155-156, Ankappanaikken Street, Chennai 600 001
- The Indian National Army and Japan By Joyce C. Lebra
- "List of Parliamentary and Assembly Constituencies" (PDF). Tamil Nadu. Election Commission of India. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2008-10-31. Retrieved 2008-10-12.
Semi-protection: High level of IP vandalism. Akbeer 11:03, 11 September 2015 (UTC)