|Former municipality of Switzerland|
|• Mayor||Stadtammann (list)|
|• Total||4.50 km2 (1.74 sq mi)|
|Elevation||699 m (2,293 ft)|
|Population (Dec 2011)|
|• Density||520/km2 (1,300/sq mi)|
|Surrounded by||Castrisch, Flond, Luven, Rueun, Ruschein, Schluein, Schnaus, Sevgein|
Ilanz in German and Glion in Romansh is a former municipality in the district of Surselva in the Swiss canton of Graubünden. On 1 January 1978 the former municipality of Strada merged into the new municipality of Ilanz. On 1 January 2014 the former municipalities of Ilanz, Castrisch, Ladir, Luven, Pitasch, Riein, Ruschein, Schnaus, Sevgein, Duvin, Pigniu, Rueun and Siat merged into the new municipality of "Ilanz/Glion." (Glion is the Romansh name of "Ilanz".)
Ilanz is first mentioned in 765 as "Iliande." Ilanz became the capital of the newly formed Grey League in 1395. The Grey League was the second of Three Leagues which eventually formed canton Graubünden. Johannes von Ilanz, the Abbott of Disentis, was among the three nobles instrumental in creating this "eternal alliance."
Ilanz has a special place in the history of the Protestant Reformation. In the 1520s, the Diet of Ilanz declared that citizens of the Three Leagues should be free to choose between Catholicism and the Protestant forms of Christianity then rising to the fore. The so-called “Ilanz Reformation” of 1526 resulted in another systemic shock to the Catholic Church (which had been under philosophical attack since Zurich in 1523, when Protestantism first rose to primacy in a major population center). These and other events resulted in a counter-reformation within the Swiss Confederation that reversed many of the gains of the Reformation in Switzerland.
Before the merger, Ilanz had a total area of 4.7 km2 (1.8 sq mi). Of this area, 24.9% is used for agricultural purposes, while 50.6% is forested. Of the rest of the land, 18.7% is settled (buildings or roads) and the remainder (5.7%) is non-productive (rivers, glaciers or mountains).
Illanz is the market town for the surrounding area. It is also the nearest major town to the Weisse Arena ski resort situated just further up the valley. In Ilanz are the major train station, large supermarket and nearest hospital of the area.
Ilanz is situated in a fork of the Surselva and the Vrin/Vals valley, which is split by Piz Mundaun. The neighbouring villages of Ruschein and Ladir are accessed from Ilanz, as well as Vrin, Vals and Obersaxen. It consists of the village of Ilanz and since 1978 the village of Strada.
Ilanz had a population (as of 2011) of 2,327. As of 2008[update], 15.4% of the population was made up of foreign nationals. Over the last 10 years the population has grown at a rate of 0.8%. Most of the population (as of 2000[update]) speaks German (59.3%), with Romansh being second most common (29.9%) and Serbo-Croatian being third ( 3.3%).
As of 2000[update], the gender distribution of the population was 45.2% male and 54.8% female. The age distribution, as of 2000[update], in Ilanz is; 247 children or 9.9% of the population are between 0 and 9 years old and 348 teenagers or 14.0% are between 10 and 19. Of the adult population, 306 people or 12.3% of the population are between 20 and 29 years old. 378 people or 15.2% are between 30 and 39, 347 people or 13.9% are between 40 and 49, and 285 people or 11.5% are between 50 and 59. The senior population distribution is 208 people or 8.4% of the population are between 60 and 69 years old, 200 people or 8.0% are between 70 and 79, there are 138 people or 5.5% who are between 80 and 89 there are 31 people or 1.2% who are between 90 and 99.
The entire Swiss population is generally well educated. In Ilanz about 67.3% of the population (between age 25-64) have completed either non-mandatory upper secondary education or additional higher education (either university or a Fachhochschule).
Ilanz has an unemployment rate of 1.44%. As of 2005[update], there were 24 people employed in the primary economic sector and about 8 businesses involved in this sector. 550 people are employed in the secondary sector and there are 39 businesses in this sector. 2,073 people are employed in the tertiary sector, with 202 businesses in this sector.
From the 2000 census[update], 1,577 or 63.4% are Roman Catholic, while 562 or 22.6% belonged to the Swiss Reformed Church. Of the rest of the population, there are 94 individuals (or about 3.78% of the population) who belong to the Orthodox Church, and there are 19 individuals (or about 0.76% of the population) who belong to another Christian church. There are 89 (or about 3.58% of the population) who are Islamic. There are 8 individuals (or about 0.32% of the population) who belong to another church (not listed on the census), 76 (or about 3.05% of the population) belong to no church, are agnostic or atheist, and 63 individuals (or about 2.53% of the population) did not answer the question.
The historical population is given in the following table:
- ^a Population includes Strada
|2002–2005||Rino Caduff||First term|
|2011–2013||Rino Caduff||Second term. Last mayor of Ilanz|
Ilanz has an average of 112.6 days of rain per year and on average receives 952 mm (37.5 in) of precipitation. The wettest month is August, during which time Ilanz receives an average of 102 mm (4.0 in) of precipitation. During this month there is precipitation for an average of 11.4 days. The month with the most days of precipitation is June, with an average of 11.5, but with only 93 mm (3.7 in) of precipitation. The driest month of the year is October with an average of 63 mm (2.5 in) of precipitation over 11.4 days.
Heritage sites of national significance
The ruins of Grüneck Castle (Ruine Grüneck), destroyed before 1544, are visible today. A Carolingian hoard of two ornately decorated salt containers and coins was discovered in the ruins of the castle in 1811. One of the containers, which is made from antler and T-shaped, is now kept in the British Museum.
American university professor Robert H. Billigmeier, spent his sabbaticals in Ilanz. Fluent in both German and Romansch, he was deeply interested in multiculturalism and authored several books to include the nationally acclaimed, Crisis in Swiss Pluralism, published in 1979. He was of German and Swiss origin with his maternal ancestry tracing back to Strada (now part of Ilanz/Glion).
- Nomenklaturen – Amtliches Gemeindeverzeichnis der Schweiz; (German) accessed 13 December 2014 Cite error: Invalid
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- Ilanz in German, French and Italian in the online Historical Dictionary of Switzerland.
- Durant, Will; The Reformation, A History of European Civilization from Wyclif to Calvin: 1300-1564; New York; Simon & Schuster; 1957; pp.403–414.
- Swiss Federal Statistical Office accessed 23 January 2014 Cite error: Invalid
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- Graubünden Population Statistics (German) accessed 21 September 2009
- Graubünden in Numbers (German) accessed 21 September 2009
- "Temperature and Precipitation Average Values-Table, 1961-1990" (in German, French, and Italian). Federal Office of Meteorology and Climatology - MeteoSwiss. Retrieved 8 May 2009., the weather station elevation is 705 meters above sea level.
- British Museum Collection
- Swiss inventory of cultural property of national and regional significance; 21.11.2008 version, (German) accessed 10 November 2009
- Ernesto Bernareggi (1983). Carolingian Gold Coins from the Ilanz Hoard. Studies in Numismatic Method: Presented to Philip Grierson. Editor: C. N. L. Brooke (CUP Archive). pp. 127–136. ISBN 9780521225038.
- Official website (German)
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