Ilex guayusa (/
Ilex guayusa is an evergreen dioecious tree which grows 6–30 meters tall. The leaves are ovate, elliptic, oblong or lanceolate; 7–22 cm long, 2.5–7 cm wide; with serrate or dentate margin. The flowers are small and white, arranged in thyrses. The fruit is spherical and red, 6–7 mm in diameter.
Distribution and habitat
I. guayusa is native to the upper Amazonian regions of Ecuador, Peru, and southern Colombia, between 200–2000 meters of elevation. However, it has also been collected in Bolivia in 1939. It is present in evergreen or deciduous premontane forests, especially ones dominated by Dictyocaryum palms. Guayusa has been collected only rarely in the wild by botanists and is known almost exclusively as a cultivated plant (especially in the Ecuadorian provinces of Napo and Pastaza).
This species is found wild and cultivated in sandy-loamy soils, of pH 4.34–5.01, with low cation-exchange capacity and high metal content. The vegetation type preferred is lowland and premontane neotropical jungle where conditions of soil, precipitation and humidity are appropriate for its development. Despite being a monoecious species and prone to floral polygamy, Ilex guayusa appears to yield little fertile material, so it relies mostly on asexual reproduction (basal shoots, sprouts and suckers). In its initial growth stages, Ilex guayusa behaves as an understory species, becoming a shrub with spreading branches when receives more amount of light and eventually becoming a tree.
The earliest evidence of human utilization of this species is a 1,500-year-old bundle of guayusa leaves found in a medicine man's tomb in the Bolivian Andes, far beyond the natural range of the plant.
In the 18th century, several missionaries in Colombia, Ecuador and Peru wrote about the uses of the plant, and some of them also consumed the infusion citing digestive and stimulant properties.
Jivaroan peoples in Ecuador and Peru, also prepare a drink from the leaves to be drunk in large amounts during pre-dawn ceremonies that involve the vomiting of the excess drink to wash out the stomach and small intestine and avoid absorbing too much caffeine. A ritual use by the Kichua people involves drinking guayusa infusion to have foretelling dreams for successful hunting expeditions.
Guayusa is also consumed in parties and local festivals as a social drink, especially by the Kichua people in Ecuador.
In the three aforementioned countries, guayusa is used in the preparation of artisanal alcoholic drinks.
Guayusa leaves contain caffeine (1.73–3.48 %), theobromine and other dimethylxanthines (among them paraxanthine and theophylline). Guayusa leaves also contain L-theanine, gallic acid, guanidine, isobutyric acid, nicotinic acid, ascorbic acid, riboflavin, choline, pyridoxine, triterpenes, chlorogenic acid and sugars among other compounds.
- Yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis) - South American caffeinated holly species used to make Mate.
- Yaupon holly (Ilex vomitoria) - southeastern North American caffeinated holly species used to make the Black Drink.
- Kuding (Ilex kudingcha) - Asian holly species used with Ligustrum robustum for Chinese kǔdīng chá tea.
- Jivaroan peoples
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- Schultes, R. E. (1972). "Ilex guayusa from 500 AD to the present". In Wassén, H.; et al. (eds.). A medicine-man's implements and plants in a Tiahuanacoid tomb in highland Bolivia. Etnologiska Studier. 32. Goteborgs Etnografiska Museum.
- Lewis, WH; Kennelly, EJ; Bass, GN; Wedner, HJ; Elvin, L (1991). "Ritualistic use of the holly Ilex guayusa by Amazonian Jivaro Indians". Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 33: 25–30. doi:10.1016/0378-8741(91)90156-8.
- Sequeda-Castañeda, L. G.; et al. (2016). "Ilex guayusa Loes.: Amazon and Andean native plant". Pharmacology Online. 3: 193–202. ISSN 1827-8620.
- Patino, Victor Manuel (1968). "Guayusa, a neglected stimulant from the eastern andean foothills". Economic Botany. 22 (4): 311–316. doi:10.1007/bf02908125. ISSN 0013-0001.
- Duenas, Juan; et al. (2016). "Amazonian Guayusa (Ilex guayusa Loes.): A Historical and Ethnobotanical Overview". Economic Botany. 70 (1): 85–91. doi:10.1007/s12231-016-9334-2.
- "Guayusa - Patrimonio Alimentario". patrimonioalimentario.culturaypatrimonio.gob.ec (in Spanish). Retrieved 2017-07-14.
- Spruce, R. (1996). Notas de un botánico en el Amazonas y los Andes. Quito, Ecuador: Colección Tierra Incógnita.