Coordinates: 8°14′N 124°15′E / 8.23°N 124.25°E / 8.23; 124.25
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

City of Iligan
Downtown Iligan City
Downtown Iligan City
Flag of Iligan
Official seal of Iligan
  • The Industrial Center of the South
  • City of Majestic Waterfalls
Anthem: Martsa Iliganon
English: Iligan March
Map of Northern Mindanao with Iligan highlighted
Map of Northern Mindanao with Iligan highlighted
Iligan is located in Philippines
Location within the Philippines
Coordinates: 8°14′N 124°15′E / 8.23°N 124.25°E / 8.23; 124.25
RegionNorthern Mindanao
ProvinceLanao del Norte (geographically only)
District Lone district
CityhoodJune 16, 1950
Highly urbanized cityNovember 22, 1983
Barangays44 (see Barangays)
 • TypeSangguniang Panlungsod
 • MayorFrederick W. Siao (NP)
 • Vice MayorMarianito D. Alemania (NP)
 • RepresentativeCelso G. Regencia (Lakas)
 • City Council
 • Electorate185,452 voters (2022)
 • Total813.37 km2 (314.04 sq mi)
262 m (860 ft)
Highest elevation
1,195 m (3,921 ft)
Lowest elevation
0 m (0 ft)
 (2020 census)[3]
 • Total363,115
 • Density450/km2 (1,200/sq mi)
 • Households
 • Income class1st city income class
 • Poverty incidence
% (2018)[4]
 • Revenue₱ 2,472 million (2020)
 • Assets₱ 11,534 million (2020)
 • Expenditure₱ 2,360 million (2020)
Service provider
 • ElectricityIligan Light and Power Incorporated (ILPI)
Time zoneUTC+8 (PST)
ZIP code
IDD:area code+63 (0)63
Native languagesMaranao

Iligan, officially the City of Iligan (Cebuano: Dakbayan sa Iligan; Filipino: Lungsod ng Iligan; Maranao: Inged a Iligan), is a 1st class highly urbanized city in the region of Northern Mindanao, Philippines. According to the 2020 census, it has a population of 363,115 people.[3]

It is geographically within the province of Lanao del Norte but administered independently from the province. It was once part of Central Mindanao (Region 12) until the province was moved under Northern Mindanao (Region 10) in 2001.[5] Iligan is approximately 90 kilometers away from the capital of the province, Tubod, and approximately 800 kilometers from the capital of the Philippines, Manila.

Iligan has a total land area of 813.37 square kilometres (314.04 sq mi), making it one of the 10 largest cities in the Philippines in terms of land area. Among the 33 highly urbanized cities of the Philippines, Iligan is the third-least dense, with a population density of 421 inhabitants per square kilometer, just behind Butuan and Puerto Princesa.[6]


The name Iligan is from the Higaunon (Lumad/Native of Iligan) word "Ilig" which means "to go downstream".[7] However, some also claim that the name of Iligan was taken and inspired by the Higaunon term "iligan" or "ilijan", which means "fortress of defense", an appropriate term due to frequent attacks incurred by pirates as well as other Mindanao tribes.[8]


Pre-Spanish colonial area[edit]

Iligan had its beginnings in the village of Bayug, four kilometers north of the present Poblacion. It was the earliest pre-Spanish settlement of native sea dwellers. In the later part of the 16th century, the inhabitants were subdued by the Visayan migrants from the island-nation called the Kedatuan of Dapitan, on Panglao island.

In the accounts of Jesuit historian Francisco Combes, the Moluccan Sultan of Ternate invaded Panglao. This caused the Dapitans to flee in large numbers to a re-established Dapitan, Zamboanga del Norte.[citation needed]

Spanish colonial era[edit]

Camp Overton in 1900, a U.S. Army base, currently the location of Global Steel Philippines Inc.

In Dapitan, the surviving Datu of Panglao Pagbuaya, received Legazpi's expedition in 1565. Later, Pagbuaya's son Manook was baptized Pedro Manuel Manook. Sometime afterward in by the end of the 16th century after 1565 Manook subdued the higaunon (animist) village of Bayug and turned it into one of the earliest Christian settlements in the country.[9] Although the settlement survived other raids from other enemies, especially Muslims from Lanao, the early settlers and converts moved their settlement from Bayug to Iligan, which the Augustinian Recollects founded in 1609,[10] thus establishing the oldest town in northern Mindanao.

The Jesuits replaced the Recollects in 1639. Iligan was the Spaniards' base of operations in attempting to conquer and Christianize the Lake Lanao area throughout its history. A stone fort called Fort St. Francis Xavier was built in 1642 where Iliganons sought refuge during raids by bandits. But the fort sank due to floods. Another fort was built and this was named Fort Victoria or Cota de Iligan.[citation needed]

In 1850, because of floods, Don Remigio Cabili, then Iligan's gobernadorcillo, built another fort and moved the poblacion of the old Iligan located at the mouth of Tubod River west of the old market to its present site.[citation needed]

Being the oldest town in Northern Mindanao, Iligan was already a part of the once undivided Misamis Province by the year 1832. However, it did not have an independent religious administration because its diocese by then was based at Misamis, the provincial capital. It was one of the biggest municipalities of Misamis Province.[citation needed]

The Spaniards abandoned Iligan in 1899, paving the way for the landing of the American forces in 1900.[citation needed]

American era[edit]

Iligan, circa 1903-1913

In 1903, the Moro Province was created. Iligan, because of its Moro residents, was taken away from the Misamis Province. Then, Iligan became the capital of the Lanao District and the seat of the government where the American officials lived and held office. Later in 1907, the capital of the Lanao District has transferred to Dansalan.[11]

In 1914, under the restructuring of Moroland after the end of the Moro Province (1903–1913), Iligan became a municipality composed of eight barrios together with the municipal district of Mandulog. After enjoying peace and prosperity for about 40 years, Iligan was invaded by Japanese forces in 1942.[citation needed]

The liberation of Iligan by the Philippine Commonwealth forces attacked by the Japanese held sway in the city until 1944 to 1945 when the war ended. On November 15, 1944, the city held a Commonwealth Day parade to celebrate the end of Japanese atrocities and occupation.[12]


Using the same territorial definition as a municipality, Iligan became a chartered city of Lanao del Norte on June 16, 1950.[13] It was declared a first-class city in 1969 and was reclassified as First Class City "A" on July 1, 1977, by virtue of Presidential Decree No. 465. In 1983, Iligan was again reclassified as a highly urbanized city.

Lone district[edit]

Republic Act No. 9724, an Act separating the City of Iligan from the First Legislative District of the Province of Lanao del Norte was approved by President Gloria Macapagal Arroyo on October 20, 2009.


Iligan is bounded on the north by three municipalities of Misamis Oriental (namely Lugait, Manticao and Opol), to the south by three municipalities of Lanao del Norte (Baloi, Linamon and Tagoloan) and two municipalities of Lanao del Sur (Kapai and Tagoloan II), to the north-east by the city of Cagayan de Oro, to the east by the municipality of Talakag, Bukidnon; and to the west by Iligan Bay.

To the west, Iligan Bay provides ferry and container ship transportation. East of the city, flat cultivated coastal land gives way to steep volcanic hills and mountains providing the waterfalls and cold springs for which the area is well known.


Climate data for Iligan, Philippines
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 30.6
Daily mean °C (°F) 26.1
Record low °C (°F) 21.7
Average rainfall mm (inches) 106.1
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm) 23.2 19.5 22.0 22.8 29.6 28.9 29.0 29.8 28.1 28.8 26.1 24.1 311.9
Mean monthly sunshine hours 390.6 370.1 545.6 573.0 378.2 225.0 229.4 254.2 246.0 294.5 360.0 421.6 4,288.2
Source 1: Average Climate of Iligan City[14]
Source 2: Climate of Iligan City[15]

Iligan falls within the third type of climate wherein the seasons are not very pronounced. Rain is more or less evenly distributed throughout the year. Because of its tropical location, the city does not experience cold weather. Neither does it experience strong weather disturbances due to its geographical location (being outside the typhoon belt) And also because of the mountains that are surrounding the city.


Lluch Street
Echiverri Street

Iligan is politically subdivided into 44 barangays.[16]

  • Abuno
  • Acmac-Mariano Badelles Sr.[17]
  • Bagong Silang
  • Bonbonon
  • Bunawan
  • Buru-un
  • Dalipuga
  • Del Carmen
  • Digkilaan
  • Ditucalan
  • Dulag
  • Hinaplanon
  • Hindang
  • Kabacsanan
  • Kalilangan
  • Kiwalan
  • Lanipao
  • Luinab
  • Mahayahay
  • Mainit
  • Mandulog
  • Maria Cristina
  • Pala-o
  • Panoroganan
  • Poblacion
  • Puga-an
  • Rogongon
  • San Miguel
  • San Roque
  • Santa Elena
  • Santa Filomena
  • Santiago
  • Santo Rosario
  • Saray
  • Suarez
  • Tambacan
  • Tibanga
  • Tipanoy
  • Tomas L. Cabili (Tominobo Proper)[18]
  • Tominobo Upper
  • Tubod
  • Ubaldo Laya
  • Upper Hinaplanon
  • Villa Verde


Population census of Iligan
YearPop.±% p.a.
1903 2,872—    
1918 10,078+8.73%
1939 28,273+5.03%
1948 25,725−1.04%
1960 58,433+7.07%
YearPop.±% p.a.
1970 104,493+5.98%
1975 118,778+2.60%
1980 167,358+7.10%
1990 226,568+3.08%
1995 273,004+3.56%
YearPop.±% p.a.
2000 285,061+0.93%
2007 308,046+1.08%
2010 322,821+1.72%
2015 342,618+1.14%
2020 363,115+1.15%
Source: Philippine Statistics Authority[19][20][21][22]

Iliganons are composed of a Cebuano-speaking majority and local minorities, mainly Maranaos, and other cultural minorities and immigrants. It is not only rich in natural resources and industries but it is also the home of a mix of cultures: the Maranaos of Lanao, the Higaonon of Bukidnon, and many settlers and migrants from other parts of the country. It is known for its diverse culture.


Cebuano is the most spoken language in the city, with 92.27% reporting it as their first language. Minor languages include Maranao, Hiligaynon, Ilocano, Chavacano, and Waray. The majority of the population can speak and understand Tagalog (Filipino) and English, the official languages of the country.[23] Tagalog (Filipino) and English are taught in the city's schools.


Interior of Saint Michael Cathedral in Iligan

The majority of Iligan citizens are Christians (mainly Roman Catholics). The city is also the center of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Iligan which has 25 parishes in Iligan City and twelve municipalities of Lanao del Norte (Linamon, Kauswagan, Bacolod, Maigo, Kolambugan, Tubod, Baroy, Lala, Kapatagan, Sapad, Salvador, and Magsaysay). It covers an area of 3,092 square kilometers with a population of 1,551,000, which 65.5% of the population are Roman Catholics.[24]

Muslims are the largest minority, comprising 11.48% of the population. They are mainly Sunnites.[25]



Iligan is known as the Industrial Center of the South as its economy is largely based on heavy industries. It produces hydroelectric power for the Mindanao region through the National Power Corporation (NAPOCOR), the site of the Mindanao Regional Center (MRC) housing Agus V, VI, and VII hydroelectric plants. Moreover, Holcim Philippines' largest Mindanao cement plant is located in the city. It also houses industries like steel, tinplate, cement, and flour mills.[citation needed]

After the construction of Maria Cristina (Agus VI) Hydroelectric Plant by National Power Corporation (NPC, NAPOCOR) in 1950, the city experienced rapid industrialization and continued until the late 1980s. The largest steel plant in the country, National Steel Corporation (NSC), was also established in 1962.[32]

During the 1997 Asian financial crisis, the city experienced a severe economic slowdown. A number of industrial plants were closed, notably the National Steel Corporation.[33]

The city saw its economic revival with the reopening of the National Steel Corporation, renamed Global Steelworks Infrastructures, Inc. (GSII) in 2004.[34] In October 2005, GSII officially took a new corporate name: Global Steel Philippines (SPV-AMC), Inc.[35]


Gazpachos, a homegrown local restaurant in Iligan

Aside from heavy industries, Iligan is also a major exporter and producer of various plants and crops.[citation needed]


  • Banana Plantations: 12,780.40 hectares
  • Coconut Plantations: 11,036.95 hectares
  • Corn Plantations: 4,193.86 hectares
  • Coffee Production: 969.43 hectares
  • Livestock: 28,992 heads
  • Poultry: 17,728 heads[citation needed]


As of the fiscal year 2018, Iligan has a current operating income of ₱2,052.89 million. The income grew by 8% compared to the fiscal year of 2017 in which Iligan's operating income was ₱1,900 million. According to the 2017 Financial Report by the Commission on Audit, Iligan's total assets amounted to ₱10.27 billion.[citation needed]

Cagayan de Oro-Iligan Corridor[edit]

Iligan along with its neighboring city, Cagayan de Oro, are the two major components for the Cagayan de Oro-Iligan Corridor, the fastest developing area in Northern Mindanao.[citation needed]


The Macapagal-Macaraeg Heritage House and Historical Marker

Diyandi Festival and Street Dancing is Iligan's month-long cultural celebration held every month of September and concludes on the feast day of Saint Michael the Archangel on September 29. The highlight of the event is Kasadya Street Dancing, a Comedia or ritual dance offered to the patron saint as thanksgiving.[citation needed]

The Kasadya Merry Making and Street Dancing has been renamed Sayaw Saulog in 2014.

Michael, the Archangel is widely regarded as the patron saint of the beloved city. The city fiesta in devotion to him is considered one of the Largest Religious Fiesta All over Mindanao and rising being ranked as one of the Pilgrim Festivals in the Major Islands of the country such as Traslacion of the Black Nazarene held in Manila, Peñafracia Festival of Bicol Region in Luzon and the Sinulog Festival in honor of Señor Sto Niño of Cebu in the Visayas. it is held every September 29 the Actual Feastday of the Archangel.[citation needed]

He is locally known by the Spanish version of his name, Señor San Miguel. Devotion to him is common to Christians in Iligan as he is mentioned in all the sacred scriptures in the Bible.[citation needed]


Iligan is commonly known as the "City of Majestic Waterfalls" because of the numerous waterfalls located within its area. The many waterfalls in the area attract tourists from all over the world with their beauty and power. There are about 24 waterfalls in the city. The most well-known is the Maria Cristina Falls. It is also the primary source of electric power of the city, harnessed by the Agus VI Hydroelectric Plant.

Other waterfalls in the city are Tinago Falls, accessible through a 300-step staircase in Barangay Ditucalan. Mimbalut Falls in Barangay Buru-un, Abaga Falls in Barangay Suarez, and Dodiongan Falls in Barangay Bonbonon.[citation needed]

Limunsudan Falls in Barangay Rogongon about 50 kilometers from the city proper of Iligan. These are the highest waterfalls in the Philippines, at 265 m (870 feet).[citation needed]


Iligan City Hall

Iligan is a highly urbanized city and is politically independent of the province of Lanao del Norte. Registered voters of the city no longer vote for provincial candidates such as the Governor and Vice Governor, unlike its nearby towns that make up the provinces as a result of its charter as a city in the 1950s.[citation needed]

Iligan's seat of government, the city hall, is located at Buhanginan Hills in Barangay Pala-o. The local government structure is composed of one mayor, one vice mayor, and twelve councilors. Each official is elected publicly to a 3-year term and can be re-elected up to 3 terms in succession. The day-to-day administration of the city is handled by the city administrator.[citation needed]

Mayors after People Power Revolution 1986[edit]

  • 1988–1992: Camilo P. Cabili
  • 1992–1998: Alejo A. Yañez
  • 1998–2004: Franklin M. Quijano
  • 2004–2013: Lawrence Ll. Cruz
  • 2013–2022: Celso G. Regencia
  • 2022–present Frederick W. Siao

Vice Mayors after People Power Revolution 1986[edit]

  • 1998–2001: Pedro B. Generalao
  • 2001–2004: Lawrence Ll. Cruz
  • 2004–2013: Henry C. Dy
  • 2013–2016: Ruderic C. Marzo
  • 2016–2022: Jemar L. Vera Cruz
  • 2022–present Marianito Dodong Alemania



The Port of Iligan is located along the northern central coastal area of Mindanao facing Iligan Bay with geographical coordinates of approximately 8°13′56″N 124°13′54″E / 8.23222°N 124.23167°E / 8.23222; 124.23167.[36]

It serves the port users and passengers coming from the hinterlands of the provinces of Lanao del Norte, Lanao del Sur, parts of Misamis Oriental, and the Cities of Iligan and Marawi.[36]

Passenger and cargo shipping lines operating in the Port of Iligan serve the cities of Manila, Cebu City, and Ozamiz.

There are around seven private seaports in Iligan operated by their respective heavy industry companies. These private seaports can be found in Barangays Maria Cristina, Suarez, Tomas L. Cabili, Santa Filomena, and Kiwalan.


Laguindingan Airport serves the City of Iligan and the rest of Northern Mindanao

The main airport is Laguindingan Airport, located in the municipality of Laguindingan, Misamis Oriental, which opened on June 15, 2013,[37] the airport replaced Lumbia Airport as the main airport of Misamis Oriental and Northern Mindanao.[38] It has daily commercial flights to and from Manila, Cebu, Davao, Zamboanga, Tagbilaran, Iloilo, Bacolod, Caticlan, Dumaguete and Clark via Philippine Airlines and Cebu Pacific.

Maria Cristina Airport (Momongan Airport), is located in Balo-i, Lanao del Norte, and was the main airport of Iligan in the late 1980s. Aerolift Philippines, a now-defunct regional airline, ceased its services when its passenger plane crashed into some structures at the end of the runway of the Manila Domestic Airport in 1990 which resulted to its bankruptcy.[39][40] Thus, it ended its service to Iligan's airport at Balo-i which also resulted in the closure of the airport. Philippine Airlines served the city for many years before ending flights in 1998 due to the Asian financial crisis.

Bus terminals[edit]

A highway portion of the Butuan–Cagayan de Oro–Iligan Road (National Route 9) at Iligan City.

There are two main bus terminals in Iligan.

Rural Transit (RTMI) and Super 5 Transport are the dominant public bus companies with daily trips from and to Iligan. Passenger vans and jeeps also service various municipalities in Lanao del Norte, Lanao del Sur, and Misamis Oriental.

City transportation[edit]

The public modes of transportation within the city are Jeepneys, Taxis, and Pedicabs. "Tartanillas" service main roads in Barangay Pala-o and Barangay Tambacan.


The City of Iligan has one state university and seven private colleges specialized in Engineering and Information Technology, Health Services, Maritime Science, Business and Administration, Primary and Secondary Education, and Arts and Social Sciences.

With a total of 181 schools (106 public; 75 private; 17 madaris) including vocational and technical schools, Iligan has an average literacy rate of 94.71, one of the highest in the whole Philippines.

Mindanao State University – Iligan Institute of Technology[edit]

The Mindanao State University – Iligan Institute of Technology (Iligan Tech) is one of the few autonomous external campuses of the Mindanao State University (MSU) and "the light-bearer of the several campuses of the MSU System."[41] It is considered one of the best universities in the Philippines with a standing of being within the top ten best universities in the country with excellence in Science and Technology, Engineering, Mathematics, Information Technology, and Natural Sciences.[citation needed] The institution has also produced many top-notchers and rankers in multiple board exams.


  • St. Michael's College, Iligan City, is known as the oldest school in the Lanao area, founded as a catechetical center way back in 1914 by Fr. Felix Cordova, S.J. It was formally established in 1915 as Escuela de San Miguel in honor of the patron saint, St. Michael the Archangel. Now on its active bid to become the city's first private Catholic university, Saint Michael's College of Iligan currently offers 8 disciplines: Business Administration, Accountancy, Hotel, and Restaurant Management, Engineering and Computer Studies, Nursing, Criminology, Education, Arts and Sciences and the Basic Education. It also offers the TESDA Ladderized Courses and the education-related Graduate Studies Program.[42]
  • St. Peter's College, Iligan City, is an engineering, accounting, and business administration school founded in 1952.
  • Capitol College of Iligan Inc., more popularly known as Iligan Capitol College (ICC), is a private, non-sectarian, coeducational institution of learning which was established in 1963 by the late Engr. Sesenio S. Rosales and Madame Laureana San Pedro Rosales. It was registered with the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) on February 12, 1964.[42] In 1997, Iligan Capitol College established Lyceum Foundation of Iligan which is to become its sister college beside Corpus Christi Parish in Tubod, Iligan City.
  • Iligan Medical Center College, is a private and non-sectarian Medicine and Health Services school founded in 1975.
  • Adventist Medical Center College – Iligan, formerly Mindanao Sanitarium and Hospital College, is one of the colleges of the Seventh-day Adventist Church. It is a medical school that focuses on healthcare courses like Nursing, Nutrition and Dietetics, Medical Technology, Physical Therapy, Pharmacy, and Radiology.
  • The Lyceum of Iligan Foundation, focuses on maritime and engineering courses. It also offers courses on Hotel and Restaurant Management, Nursing, Business Administration, and other allied Health Services.
  • Other notable colleges and technical schools are Iligan Computer Institute (ICI), Santa Monica Institute of Technology (SMIT), STI College, Picardal Institute of Technology (PISTEch), Saint Lawrence Institute of Technology, Masters Technological Institute of Mindanao, and ICTI Polytechnic College Inc. (formerly Iligan City Technical Institute (ICTI)).

Basic education[edit]

  • Iligan City National High School, the largest high school campus in Iligan.
  • Lanao Chung Hua School, the first and only Chinese school in Iligan which was founded on November 12, 1938.
  • La Salle Academy is a Lasallian school. It is the first of the third generation of La Salle schools founded by the De La Salle Brothers in the country.
  • Corpus Christi Parochial School of Iligan
  • Iligan City East National High School, formerly known as Regional Science High School for Region XII but was then transferred to Cagayan de Oro and was changed into Iligan City East National High School. The School was founded in February 1986. Specializes in research, sciences, mathematics, technology education, and others.
  • Integrated Developmental School, founded as Iligan High School, was established in 1946. On July 12, 1968, the school was annexed to Mindanao State University – Iligan Institute of Technology under R.A. No. 5363.
  • Del Carmen Integrated School

Notable personalities[edit]

Miss Universe 2011 3rd runner-up Shamcey Supsup was born in Iligan
Former Philippine President Gloria Macapagal Arroyo briefly resided in Iligan, the hometown of her maternal grandparents

Sister cities[edit]


See also[edit]


  1. ^ City of Iligan | (DILG)
  2. ^ "2015 Census of Population, Report No. 3 – Population, Land Area, and Population Density" (PDF). Philippine Statistics Authority. Quezon City, Philippines. August 2016. ISSN 0117-1453. Archived (PDF) from the original on May 25, 2021. Retrieved July 16, 2021.
  3. ^ a b Census of Population (2020). "Region X (Northern Mindanao)". Total Population by Province, City, Municipality and Barangay. Philippine Statistics Authority. Retrieved July 8, 2021.
  4. ^ "PSA Releases the 2018 Municipal and City Level Poverty Estimates". Philippine Statistics Authority. December 15, 2021. Retrieved January 22, 2022.
  5. ^ Godinez-Ortega, C. (September 9, 2001). Iligan City 'moves' to Northern Mindanao, Philippine Daily Inquirer. P. A13.
  6. ^ "Philippine Statistics Authority | Republic of the Philippines".
  7. ^ Ladaga, John Oliver (January 24, 2016). "Iligan: The City of Failing Waters". PressReader. SunStar Davao. Retrieved August 7, 2022.
  8. ^ "ILIGAN CITY". Department of the Interior and Local Government. DILG REGION 10. August 2, 2021. Retrieved August 7, 2022.
  9. ^ History of Iligan during Spanish times Archived June 12, 2018, at the Wayback Machine, Accessed July 28, 2022.
  10. ^ All About Iligan, Accessed July 28, 2022.
  11. ^ Prof. Patrocenia T. Acut, Iligan During the American Period, Iligan City Official Website
  12. ^ Prof. Leonor Buhion Enderes, Japanese Occupation in Iligan City, Iligan City Official Website
  13. ^ "R.A. No. 525, Iligan City Charter". Archived from the original on July 20, 2012. Retrieved April 9, 2011.
  14. ^ "Climate: Iligan". Climate Data Organization. Retrieved June 10, 2019.
  15. ^ "Climate of Iligan City". meteoblue. Retrieved June 10, 2019.
  16. ^ "Province: Lanao del Norte". PSGC Interactive. Quezon City, Philippines: Philippine Statistics Authority. Retrieved November 12, 2016.
  17. ^ "Republic Act No. 11902". The LawPhil Project. Retrieved December 5, 2022.
  18. ^ "Batas Pambansa Blg. 196". The LawPhil Project. Retrieved March 6, 2021.
  19. ^ Census of Population (2015). "Region X (Northern Mindanao)". Total Population by Province, City, Municipality and Barangay. Philippine Statistics Authority. Retrieved June 20, 2016.
  20. ^ Census of Population and Housing (2010). "Region X (Northern Mindanao)". Total Population by Province, City, Municipality and Barangay. National Statistics Office. Retrieved June 29, 2016.
  21. ^ Censuses of Population (1903–2007). "Region X (Northern Mindanao)". Table 1. Population Enumerated in Various Censuses by Province/Highly Urbanized City: 1903 to 2007. National Statistics Office.
  22. ^ "Province of Lanao del Norte". Municipality Population Data. Local Water Utilities Administration Research Division. Retrieved December 17, 2016.
  23. ^ "Lakbay Pilipinas Iligan City". Lakbay Pilipinas.
  24. ^ Diocese of Iligan (July 26, 2017). "Diocese of Iligan Statistics". Retrieved August 31, 2018.
  25. ^ Philippine Statistics Authority (July 26, 2017). "Muslim Population in Mindanao (based on POPCEN 2015". Retrieved August 31, 2018.
  26. ^ "Poverty incidence (PI):". Philippine Statistics Authority. Retrieved December 28, 2020.
  27. ^ Error: Unable to display the reference properly. See the documentation for details.
  28. ^ Error: Unable to display the reference properly. See the documentation for details.
  29. ^ Error: Unable to display the reference properly. See the documentation for details.
  30. ^ Error: Unable to display the reference properly. See the documentation for details.
  31. ^ "PSA Releases the 2018 Municipal and City Level Poverty Estimates". Philippine Statistics Authority. December 15, 2021. Retrieved January 22, 2022.
  32. ^ Prof. Geoffrey G. Salgado, Iligan: A History of the Phenomenal Growth of an Industrial City, Iligan City Official Website
  33. ^ Maricar T. Manuzon, A Giant Awakens Archived February 28, 2008, at the Wayback Machine, Philippine Business Magazine
  34. ^ Genalyn D. Kabiling, National Steel Plant reopens, Manila Bulletin
  35. ^ GSII Changes Name to Global Steel Philippines, PRWEB August 19, 2005
  36. ^ a b PMO Iligan Website Retrieved April 18, 2013, from
  37. ^ Amojelar, D. (April 16, 2013). Gov't defers transfer of flights to Laguindingan Airport until after summer, Retrieved April 18, 2013, from
  38. ^ Betonio, T., Managbanag, N. (February 27, 2013). Laguindingan airport to open in April, Retrieved April 18, 2013, from
  39. ^ "Aviation Safety Database, Accident Description". May 18, 1990. Retrieved September 14, 2013.
  40. ^ "The Philippines Air Accidents 1990-1999". Archived from the original on July 14, 2014. Retrieved September 14, 2013.
  41. ^ Macapado A. Muslim, "Commencement Address", a speech at MSU IIT's 38th Commencement Exercises, MSU-IIT Gymnasium, Iligan City, April 4, 2008.
  42. ^ a b Iligan City Schools Archived April 21, 2008, at the Wayback Machine, City Development Strategies in the Philippines.
  43. ^ Argen, April; Marzon, Pat B. (March 23, 2015). "Bb. Pilipinas Pia Alonzo Wurtzbach: Cdeo is my second home". Sun.Star. Archived from the original on December 25, 2015. Retrieved February 9, 2017.
  44. ^ "Makati and Iligan Sign Sister-City Pact". Makati city government.
  45. ^ "Bohol Sunday Post - June 19, 2011 - Tagbilaran is now Iligan's sister city".

External links[edit]