Illinois's 4th congressional district
|Illinois's 4th congressional district|
|Area||52 sq mi (130 km2)|
In November 2017, incumbent Luis Gutiérrez announced that he would retire from Congress at the end of his current term, and not seek re-election in 2018. Jesús "Chuy" García was elected on November 6, 2018.
It was featured by The Economist as one of the most strangely drawn and gerrymandered congressional districts in the country, inspired the "Ugly Gerry" gerrymandering typeface, and has been nicknamed "earmuffs" due to its shape. It was created after federal courts ordered the creation of a majority-Hispanic district in the Chicago area. The Illinois General Assembly responded by packing two majority Hispanic parts of Chicago into a single district.
This district covers two strips running east–west across the city of Chicago, on the west side continuing into smaller portions of some suburban areas in Cook County, surrounding Illinois's 7th congressional district. The northern portion is largely Puerto Rican, while the southern portion is heavily Mexican-American. The two sections are only connected by a piece of Interstate 294 to the west; the highway is in the district while the surrounding areas are not. It is the smallest congressional district in area outside New York City and California.
|2000||President||Gore 76 – 19%|
|2004||President||Kerry 79 – 21%|
|2008||President||Obama 81 – 18%|
|2012||President||Obama 81 – 17%|
|2016||President||Clinton 82 – 13%|
|2020||President||Biden 81 – 17%|
The 4th District includes the Chicago community of Brighton Park, in addition to almost all of Hermosa, Lower West Side and Gage Park; parts of Albany Park, Irving Park, Avondale, Logan Square, West Town, Humboldt Park, Belmont Cragin, Austin, McKinley Park, South Lawndale, New City, West Elsdon and Archer Heights; portions of riverfront Bridgeport; the portion of North Center southwest of Clybourn Avenue; and the northwestern tip of Lincoln Park.
The Illinois 4th Congressional District was originally formed in 1842. It included 17 counties, which were Cook, Lake, McHenry, Boone, De Kalb, Kane, Du Page, Will, Kendall, Grundy, La Salle, Bureau, Livingston, Iroquois, McLean, Vermilion and Champaign Counties. Beyond this Ford and Kankakee Counties were part of Vermillion and Iroquois Counties respectively at this point and thus in the district's boundaries.
In the redistricting following the 1990 United States Census, Chicago Mayor Richard M. Daley and Governor Jim Edgar both wanted a Latino district, as Latinos were the fastest growing demographic group in the state at the time. In June 1991, Congressman Dennis Hastert, a suburban Republican, filed a federal lawsuit claiming that the existing congressional map was unconstitutional; the present congressional district boundaries emerged as a result of that lawsuit. A three-judge panel of the federal district court adopted the map proposed by Hastert and other Republican members of the Illinois Congressional delegation. Subsequent lawsuits challenging the redistricting as racially biased did not succeed in redrawing the district boundaries. The district, as it was in 2009, was in some places less than 50 metres wide and parts covered no more than one city block.
|Elected the 21st Mayor of Chicago (1860 – 1861)|
|Appointed Chief Justice of the Territorial Supreme Court of the Nebraska Territory (1865 – 1867)|
John B. Hawley
|Served as a captain for the Union Army during the American Civil War|
Daniel W. Mills
|Served as a captain for the Union Army during the American Civil War|
Stephen A. Hurlbut
|Served as a major general for the Union Army during the American Civil War (1861 – 1865)|
Appointed Minister Resident to the United States of Colombia (1869 – 1872)
Appointed Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary to Peru (1881 – 1882)
Walter C. Newberry
|Served as a brigadier general for the Union Army during the American Civil War (1861 – 1865)|
Abner C. Harding
|Served as a brigadier general for the Union Army during the American Civil War (1862 – 1863)|
George M. O'Brien
|Served as a lieutenant colonel for the U.S. Army Air Force during World War II (1941 – 1945)|
List of members representing the district
|Democratic||Luis Gutiérrez (incumbent)||133,226||83.0|
|Democratic||Luis Gutiérrez (incumbent)||79,666||78.1|
|Democratic||Luis Gutiérrez (incumbent)||171,297||100.0|
|Democratic||Jesús "Chuy" García||143,895||86.6|
|Democratic||Jesús "Chuy" García (incumbent)||187,219||84.05||-2.54%|
|Republican||Jesus E. Solorio Jr.||35,518||15.95||+2.54%|
- Illinois's congressional districts
- List of United States congressional districts
- United States House of Representatives elections in Illinois, 2006
- United States House of Representatives elections in Illinois, 2008
- United States House of Representatives elections in Illinois, 2010
- United States House of Representatives elections in Illinois, 2012
- United States House of Representatives elections in Illinois, 2014
- United States House of Representatives elections in Illinois, 2016
- "My Congressional District".
- "Partisan Voting Index – Districts of the 115th Congress" (PDF). The Cook Political Report. April 7, 2017. Retrieved April 7, 2017.
- Barone, Michael; McCutcheon, Chuck (2013). The Almanac of American Politics 2014. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. ISBN 978-0-226-10544-4. Copyright National Journal.
- Pearson, Rick; Byrne, John (November 28, 2017). "U.S. Rep. Luis Gutierrez won't run again, wants to rebuild Puerto Rico". ChicagoTribune. Chicago. Retrieved November 28, 2017.
- Korecki, Natasha (November 27, 2017). "Gutierrez won't seek reelection". Politico. Arlington, VA. Retrieved November 27, 2017.
- The Economist (April 25, 2002). "How to rig an election".
- Campbell-Dollaghan, Kelsey (August 2, 2019). "The world's most revolting font is made out of gerrymandered voting districts". Fast Company. Retrieved April 6, 2021.
- Aaron Blake (July 27, 2011). "Name that district! (Gerrymandering edition)". Washington Post. Retrieved July 28, 2011.
- "Congressional Districts by Land Area (National)". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original (ASCII text) on August 1, 2007. Retrieved November 11, 2006.
- Illinois Congressional District 4, Illinois Board of Elections
- Parson, Stanley B., William W. Beach and Michael J. Durbin. United States Congressional Districts and Data, 1843–1883 (Westport: Greenwood Press, 1986) p. 9
- Hastert v. State Bd. of Elections, 777 F.Supp. 634, 638 (N.D.Ill.1991).
- O'Grady, Patrick. "Illinois Redistricting History Since 1970" (PDF). Illinois General Assembly. p. 9. Retrieved January 10, 2019.
- James R. KING, v. State Bd. of Elections et al.. See ; 
- John N. Friedman; Richard T. Holden. "The Rising Incumbent Reelection Rate: What'sGerrymandering Got to Do With It?". ResearchGate. The Journal of Politics. p. 5. Retrieved January 18, 2020.
- "2012 General Election Official Vote Totals" (PDF). Illinois State Board of Elections. Archived from the original (PDF) on November 19, 2013. Retrieved March 26, 2012.
- "Illinois General Election 2014". Archived from the original on March 6, 2018.
- "Illinois General Election 2016". Archived from the original on March 27, 2019.
- "2018 General Election Official Vote Totals Book".
- "Election Results 2020 GENERAL ELECTION". Illinois State Board of Elections. December 4, 2020. Retrieved December 4, 2020.
- "Illinois 2020 Election Results". Chicago Sun-Times. November 20, 2020. Retrieved November 20, 2020.
- Martis, Kenneth C. (1989). The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company.
- Martis, Kenneth C. (1982). The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company.
- Congressional Biographical Directory of the United States 1774–present
- Washington Post page on the 4th District of Illinois
- U.S. Census Bureau – 4th District Fact Sheet
- "U.S. Census Bureau – 4th District map" (PDF). (1.12 MiB)