Illuminati in popular culture

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Founded by Adam Weishaupt in Bavaria in 1776, the Illuminati have been referred to in popular culture, in books and comics, television and films, and games. A number of novelists, playwrights and composers are alleged to have been Illuminati members and to have reflected this in their work. Early conspiracy theories surrounding the Illuminati have inspired various creative works, and continue to do so.

Books and comics[edit]

Television and film[edit]



Many fans of modern African-American music, especially hip hop music, believe that an Illuminati conspiracy is active in its production and marketing. The methods and motives of the conspiracy, and its relation to the Bavarian order, are matters of speculation that change with each telling. Some artists, such as Jay-Z and Kanye West, are believed to be agents of the conspiracy who leave hints to their listeners through lyrics, eye of providence handsigns or other signals.[19] Conspiracy literature involving the Illuminati has been cited in the lyrics of several hip hop artists. Milton William Cooper's Behold a Pale Horse is one such work that both Nas and Public Enemy have made reference to. Other such conspiracy books circulate in African-American communities, where both artists and listeners encounter them.[19] Aside from this, the "Illuminati" are invoked to explain why some artists become rich and famous, some die suddenly, and others go unnoticed.[20]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Hogle, Jerrold E. The Cambridge Companion to Gothic Fiction. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002. ISBN 978-0-521-79124-3. pp. 51–55
  2. ^ Gothic immortals: the fiction of the brotherhood of the rosy cross by Marie Mulvey Roberts, passim.
  3. ^ Roberts.
  4. ^ Baldick, Chris. In Frankenstein's Shadow: Myth, Monstrosity, and Nineteenth-century Writing, ISBN 978-0-19-812249-4. p.36
  5. ^ Mary Shelley: Her Life, Her Fiction, Her Monsters, Anne K. Mellor, pp. 73, 83–84.
  6. ^ Colagrossi, Mike (March 28, 2019). "Behold, the '70s sci-fi book series that popularized the Illuminati conspiracy". Big Think. Retrieved January 14, 2022.
  7. ^ "Foucault's Pendulum (review)", New York, 6 November 1989, p. 120
  8. ^ Dice, Mark (2005). The Resistance Manifesto, The Resistance, San Diego, ISBN 0-9673466-4-9, p. 305
  9. ^ "The facts behind Angels and Demons". Philippine Daily Inquirer. May 2, 2005. Retrieved 30 September 2014.
  10. ^ Altner, Patricia (1998) Vampire Readings: An Annotated Bibliography, Scarecrow Press, ISBN 978-0-8108-3504-7, p. 60
  11. ^ The new inquisitions: heretic-hunting and the intellectual origins of modern totalitarianism By Arthur Versluis, pp. 121–122.
  12. ^ Ebert, Roger (2004) Roger Ebert's Movie Yearbook 2004, Andrews McMeel, ISBN 978-0-7407-3834-0, p. 362
  13. ^ Pocahontas in the Alps: Masonic traces in the stage works of Franz Christoph Neubauer, Chris Walton. Musical Times; Autumn 2005, pp. 50–51.
  14. ^ "Murali Gopy talks about the Illuminati references in Lucifer - Times of India". The Times of India. Retrieved 2020-03-28.
  15. ^ "Prithviraj viral statement on Illuminati presence in the world Lucifer Empuran". Behindwoods. 2020-02-15. Retrieved 2020-03-28.
  16. ^ Conspiracy theories: Secrecy and Power in American Culture Mark Fenster, University of Minnesota Press, 2008. pp. 173–178
  17. ^ "The Secret World". Retrieved 7 March 2012.
  18. ^ Young, Harrison (7 September 2016). "See What Urien Brings to the Table in the September Update!". Capcom Unity. Retrieved 18 November 2019.
  19. ^ a b Gosa, Travis L. (2011-06-01). "Counterknowledge, racial paranoia, and the cultic milieu: Decoding hip hop conspiracy theory". Poetics. 39 (3): 187–204. doi:10.1016/j.poetic.2011.03.003.
  20. ^ McManus, Brian. "The Illuminati: Conspiracy Theory or New World Order?". Archived from the original on April 20, 2015. Retrieved 30 September 2014.