Illyrians

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The Illyrians (Ancient Greek: Ἰλλυριοί, Illyrioi; Latin: Illyrii or Illyri) were a group of Indo-European tribes, who inhabited the western Balkans in classical antiquity. They formed one of the three main groups of Indo-European populations in the Balkans prior to 2000 BC, along with Thracians and Greeks.[1]

The territory the Illyrians inhabited came to be known as Illyria to later Greek and Roman authors, who identified a territory that corresponds to most of Albania, Montenegro, Kosovo[a], much of Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina, western and central Serbia and some parts of Slovenia between the Adriatic Sea in the west, the Drava river in the north, the Morava river in the east and the mouth of the Aoos river in the south.[2] The first account of Illyrian peoples dates back to the 6th century BC, in the works of the ancient Greek writer Hecataeus of Miletus.

The name "Illyrians," as applied by the ancient Greeks to their northern neighbors, may have referred to a broad, ill-defined group of peoples. The Illyrian tribes never collectively identified as "Illyrians," and it is unlikely that they used any collective nomenclature at all.[3] Illyrians seems to be the name of a specific Illyrian tribe who were among the first to encounter the ancient Greeks during the Bronze Age.[4] The Greeks later applied this term Illyrians, pars pro toto, to all people with similar language and customs.[5]

In archaeological, historical and linguistic studies, research about the Illyrians, from the late 19th to the 21st century, has moved from Pan-Illyrian theories, which identified as Illyrian even groups north of the Balkans to more well-defined groupings based on Illyrian onomastics and material anthropology since the 1960s as newer inscriptions were found and sites excavated. There are two principal Illyrian onomastic areas: the southern and the Dalamatian-Pannonian, with the area of the Dardani as a region of overlapping between the two. A third area, to the north of them - which in ancient literature was usually identified as part of Illyria - has been connected more to the Venetic language than to Illyrian. Illyric settlement in Italy was and still is attributed to a few ancient tribes which are thought to have migrated along the Adriatic shorelines to the Italian peninsula from the geographic "Illyria": the Dauni, the Peuceti and Messapi (collectively known as Iapyges).

The term "Illyrians" last appears in the historical record in the 7th century, referring to a Byzantine garrison operating within the former Roman province of Illyricum.[6]

Names and terminology[edit]

The terms 'Illyrians', 'Illyria' and 'Illyricum' have been used throughout history for ethnic and geographic contextualizations that have changed over time. Re-contextualizations of these terms often confused ancient writers and modern scholars. Notable scholarly efforts have been dedicated to try to analyze and explain these changes.[7]

The first known mention of Illyrians occurred in the late 6th and the early 5th century BC in fragments of Hecataeus of Miletus, the author of Γενεαλογίαι (Genealogies) and of Περίοδος Γῆς or Περιήγησις (Description of the Earth or Periegesis). The Illyrians were described as a barbarian people by Hecataeus, appearing several times in his Periegesis.[8][9][b] In the Macedonian history during the 6th and 5th century B.C., the term 'Illyrian' had a political meaning that was quite definite, which denoted a kingdom established on the north-western borders of Upper Macedonia.[11] From the 5th century B.C. onwards the term 'Illyrian' was already applied to a large ethnic group whose territory extended deep into the Balkan mainland.[12]

Most scholars hold that the extension of the Illyrian designation to different peoples occurred approximately starting from the region of the south-eastern Adriatic (modern Albania and Montenegro) with the hinterland, to the whole Roman Illyricum (between the eastern Adriatic and the Danube).[7] This ethnic designation was extended including other peoples who for some reason were considered by ancient writers to be related with those peoples originally designated as Illyrians (Ἰλλυριοί, Illyrioi) who came to be widely known to the Greeks due to their proximity.[12][13] The original designation may have occurred during the Bronze Age, when Greek-speaking tribes may have been neighbors of the southernmost Illyrian tribe of that time that dwelled in the Zeta plain in Montenegro or in the Mat valley in Albania, being subsequently applied as a general term to people of the same language and manners.[4][14] Alternatively it may have occurred when at the beginning of the 8th century BC Ancient Greeks began to frequent the eastern Adriatic coast with the colonization of Corcyra, they started to have some knowledge and perceptions of the indigenous peoples of western Balkans.[3]

The Illyrian tribes evidently never collectively identified themselves as Illyrians and it is unlikely that they used any collective nomenclature at all.[15] Most modern scholars are certain that all the peoples of western Balkans that were collectively labeled as 'Illyrians' were not a culturally or linguistically homogeneous entity.[16][17] For instance, some tribes like the Bryges would not have been identified as Illyrian.[18] What criteria were initially used to define this group of peoples, or how and why the term 'Illyrians' began to be used to describe the indigenous population of western Balkans cannot be said with certainty.[19] Scholarly debates have been waged to find an answer to the question whether the term 'Illyrians' (Ἰλλυριοί) derived from some eponymous tribe, or whether it has been applied to designate the indigenous population as a general term for some other specific reason.[20]

Illyrii proprie dicti[edit]

Ancient Roman writers Pliny the Elder and Pomponius Mela mentioned the 'properly called Illyrians' (Illyrii proprie dicti), a people that was located in the coast of modern Albania and Montenegro.[20] Many modern scholars view the 'properly called Illyrians' as a trace of the Illyrian kingdom known in the sources from the 4th century BC until 167 BC, which was ruled in Roman times by the Ardiaei and Labeatae when it was centered in the Bay of Kotor and Lake Shkodra. According to other modern scholars the term Illyrii may have originally referred only to a small ethnos in the area between Epidaurum and Lissus, and Pliny and Mela may have followed a literary tradition that dates back as early as Hecataeus of Miletus.[8][20] The area of the Illyrii proprie dicti is largely included in the southern Illyrian onomastic province in modern linguistics.[21]

Origins[edit]

Possible ethnogenesis of the Illyrians.
Sites from prehistory in Illyria.

Scholars have long recognized a "difficulty in producing a single theory on the ethnogenesis of the Illyrians" given their heterogeneous nature.[22] Modern scholarship is unable to refer to the Illyrians as a unique and compact people and agrees that they were a sum of ill-defined communities without common origins that never merged to a single ethnic entity.[22] According to linguist Robert Elsie, "the term 'Illyrian' probably referred initially to the tribe with which the ancient Greeks first had contact, but it was later used as a collective term for a wide range of tribes in the region, although they may not have been culturally or linguistically homogenous at all."[17]

Older Pan-Illyrian theories are now generally dismissed by scholars, based as they were on racialistic notions of Nordicism and Aryanism.[16] The specific theories have found little archaeological corroboration, as no convincing evidence for significant migratory movements from the Luzatian culture into the west Balkans have ever been found.[23][24] Rather, archaeologists from former Yugoslavia highlighted the continuity between the Bronze and succeeding Iron Age (especially in regions such as Donja Dolina, central Bosnia-Glasinac, and northern Albania (Mat river basin)), ultimately developing the so-called "autochthonous theory" of Illyrian genesis.[24] The "autochthonous" model was most elaborated upon by Alojz Benac and B. Čović. They argued (following the "Kurgan hypothesis") that the 'proto-Illyrians' had arrived much earlier, during the Bronze Age as nomadic Indo-Europeans from the steppe. From that point, there was a gradual Illyrianization of the western Balkans leading to historic Illyrians, with no early Iron Age migration from northern Europe. He did not deny a minor cultural impact from the northern Urnfield cultures, however "these movements had neither a profound influence on the stability.. of the Balkans, nor did they affect the ethnogenesis of the Illyrian ethnos".[25]

Aleksandar Stipčević raised concerns regarding Benac's all-encompassing scenario of autochthonous ethnogenesis. He points out "can one negate the participation of the bearers of the field-urn culture in the ethnogenesis of the Illyrian tribes who lived in present-day Slovenia and Croatia" or "Hellenistic and Mediterranean influences on southern Illyrians and Liburnians?".[25] He concludes that Benac's model is only applicable to the Illyrian groups in Bosnia, western Serbia and a part of Dalmatia, where there had indeed been a settlement continuity and 'native' progression of pottery sequences since the Bronze Age. Following prevailing trends in discourse on identity in Iron Age Europe, current anthropological perspectives reject older theories of a longue duree (long term) ethnogenesis of Illyrians,[26] even where 'archaeological continuity' can be demonstrated to Bronze Age times.[27] They rather see the emergence of historic Illyrians tribes as a more recent phenomenon - just prior to their first attestation.[26] The proto-Illyrians during the course of their settlement along the Adriatic coast and its hinterland merged with populations of a pre-Illyrian substratum - like Enchelei might have been - which led to the formation of the historical Illyrians who were attested in later times. It has been suggested that the myth of Cadmus and Harmonia may be a reflection in mythology of that historical era.[28]

The impetus behind the emergence of larger regional groups, such as "Iapodes", "Liburnians", "Pannonians" etc., is traced to increased contacts with the Mediterranean and La Tène 'global worlds'.[29] This catalyzed "the development of more complex political institutions and the increase in differences between individual communities".[30] Emerging local elites selectively adopted either La Tène or Hellenistic and, later, Roman cultural templates "in order to legitimise and strengthen domination within their communities. They were competing fiercely through either alliance or conflict and resistance to Roman expansion. Thus, they established more complex political alliances, which convinced (Greco-Roman) sources to see them as ‘ethnic’ identities."[31]

Linguistic evidence and subgrouping[edit]

Modern studies about Illyrian onomastics, the main field via which the Illyrians have been linguistically investigated as no written records have been found, began in the 1920s and sought to more accurately define Illyrian tribes, the commnalities, relations and differences between each other as they were conditioned by specific local cultural, ecological and economic factors, which further subdivided them into differents groupings.[22][32] This approach has led in contemporary research in the definition of three main onomastic provinces in which Illyrian personal names appear near exclusively in the archaeological material of each province. The southern Illyrian or south-eastern Dalmatian province was the area of the proper Illyrians (the core of which was the territory of Illyrii proprie dicti of the classical authors, located in modern Albania) and includes most of Albania, Montenegro and their hinterlands. This area extended along the Adriatic coast from the Aous valley[21] in the south, up to and beyond the Neretva valley in the north.[21][33] The second onomastic province, the central Illyrian or middle Dalmatian-Pannonian province began to its north and covered a larger area than the southern province. It extended along the Adriatic coast between the Krka and Cetina rivers, covered much of Bosnia (except for its northern regions), central Dalmatia (Lika) and its hinterland in the central Balkans included western Serbia and Sandžak. The third onomastic province further to the north defined as North Adriatic area includes Liburnia and the region of modern Ljubljana in Slovenia. It is part of a larger linguistic area different from Illyrian that also comprises Venetic and its Istrian variety. These areas are not strictly defined geographically as there was some overlap between them.[34][35][33] The region of the Dardani (modern Kosovo, parts of northern North Macedonia, parts of eastern Serbia) saw the overlap of the southern Illyrian and Dalmatian onomastic provinces. Local Illyrian anthroponymy is also found in the area.[36] In its onomastics, southern Illyrian (or south-east Dalmatian) has close relations with Messapic. Most of these relations are shared with the central Dalmatian area.[37]

In ancient Greek and Roman literature[edit]

Different versions of the genealogy of the Illyrians, their tribes and their eponymous ancestor, Illyrius, existed in the ancient world both in fictional and non-fictional Greco-Roman literature. The fact that there were many versions of the genealogical story of Illyrius was ascertained by Ancient Greek historian Appian (1st–2nd century AD). However, only two versions of all these genealogical stories are attested.[38][39] The first version—which reports the legend of Cadmus and Harmonia—was recorded by Euripides and Strabo in accounts that would be presented in detail in Bibliotheca of Pseudo-Apollodorus (1st to 2nd century AD).[40] The second version—which reports the legend of Polyphemus and Galatea—was recorded by Appian (1st–2nd century AD) in his Illyrike.[38]

According to the first version Illyrius was the son of Cadmus and Harmonia, whom the Enchelei had chosen to be their leaders. He eventually ruled Illyria and became the eponymous ancestor of the whole Illyrian people.[41] In one of these versions, Illyrius was named so after Cadmus left him by a river named the Illyrian, where a serpent found and raised him.[40]

Appian writes that many mythological stories were still circulating in his time,[42] and he chose a particular version because it seemed to be the most correct one. Appian's genealogy of tribes is not complete as he writes that other Illyrian tribes exist, which he hasn't included.[40] According to Appian's tradition, Polyphemus and Galatea gave birth to Celtus, Galas, and Illyrius,[43] three brothers, progenitors respectively of Celts, Galatians and Illyrians. Illyrius had multiple sons: Encheleus, Autarieus, Dardanus, Maedus, Taulas and Perrhaebus, and daughters: Partho, Daortho, Dassaro and others. From these, sprang the Taulantii, Parthini, Dardani, Encheleae, Autariates, Dassaretii and the Daorsi. Autareius had a son Pannonius or Paeon and these had sons Scordiscus and Triballus.[5] Appian's genealogy was evidently composed in Roman times encompassing barbarian peoples other than Illyrians like Celts and Galatians.[44] and choosing a specific story for his audience that included most of the peoples who dwelled in the Illyricum of the Antonine era.[42] However, the inclusion in his genealogy of the Enchelei and the Autariatae, whose political stregth has been highly weakened, reflects a pre-Roman historical situation.[45][c]

Basically, ancient Greeks included in their mythological accounts all the peoples with whom they had close contacts. In Roman times, ancient Romans created more mythical or genealogical relations to include various new peoples, regardless of their large ethnic and cultural differences. Appian's genealogy lists the earliest known peoples of Illyria in the goup of the first generation, consisting mostly of southern Illyrian peoples firstly encountered by the Greeks, some of which were the Enchelei, the Taulantii, the Dassaretii and the Parthini.[46][47] Some peoples that came to the Balkans in a leater date such as the Scordisci are listed in the group that belongs to the third generation. The Scordisci were a Celtic people mixed with the indigenous Illyrian and Thracian population. The Pannonians have not been known to the Greeks, and it seems that before the 2nd century BC they did not come into contact with the Romans. Almost all the Greek writers referred to the Pannonians with the name Paeones until late Roman times. The Scordisci and Pannonians were considered Illyrian mainly because they belonged to Illyricum since the early Roman Imperial period.[48]

History[edit]

Pre-Roman period[edit]

The chromolithographic Bronze belt plaque of Vače, Slovenia of the Hallstatt culture.
Illyrian tribes in northern, central Illyria and Pannonia.
The southern ancient Illyrian tribes and northwestern ancient Greek tribes prior to the Roman occupation.

It is generally assumed that the Illyrians originated from an Indo-European group of nomadic tribes some time prior to the second millennium BC.[1] Depending on the complexity of the diverse physical geography of the Balkans, arable farming and livestock rearing had constituted the economic basis of the Illyrians during the Iron Age.

The structure of Illyrian society during classical antiquity was characterised by a conglomeration of numerous tribes and small realms ruled by warrior elites, a situation similar like that in most other societies at that time. Thucidides in the History of the Peloponnesian War (5th century BC) addresses the social organization of the Illyrian tribes via a speech he attributes to Brasidas, in which he recounts that the mode of rulership among the Illyrian tribes is that of dynasteia - which Thucidides used in reference to foreign customs - neither democratic, nor oligarchic. Brasidas then goes on to explain that in the dynasteia the ruler rose to power by no other means than by superiority in fighting.[49] Pseudo-Scymnus (2nd century BC) in reference to the social organization of Illyrian tribes in earlier times than the era he lived in makes a distinction between three modes of social organization. A part of the Illyrians were organized under hereditary kingdoms, a second part was organized under chieftains who were elected but held no hereditary power and some Illyrians were organized in autonomous communities governed by their own internal tribal laws. In these communities social stratification had no yet emerged.[50]

The Illyrian kingdoms frequently came into conflicts with the neighbouring Ancient Macedonians, and the Illyrian pirates were also seen as significant threat to the neighbouring peoples.

At the Neretva Delta, there was a strong Hellenistic influence on the Illyrian tribe of Daors. Their capital was Daorson located in Ošanići near Stolac in Herzegovina, which became the main center of classical Illyrian culture. Daorson, during the 4th century BC, was surrounded by megalithic, 5 meter high stonewalls, composed out of large trapeze stones blocks. Daors also made unique bronze coins and sculptures. The Illyrians even conquered Greek colonies on the Dalmatian islands. Queen Teuta was famous for having waged wars against the Romans.

After Philip II of Macedon defeated Bardylis (358 BC), the Grabaei under Grabos became the strongest state in Illyria.[51] Philip II killed 7,000 Illyrians in a great victory and annexed the territory up to Lake Ohrid. Next, Philip II reduced the Grabaei, and then went for the Ardiaei, defeated the Triballi (339 BC), and fought with Pleurias (337 BC).[52]

During the second part of the 3rd century BC, a number of Illyrian tribes seem to have united to form a proto-state stretching from the central part of present-day Albania up to Neretva river in Herzegovina. The political entity was financed on piracy and ruled from 250 BC by the king Agron. He was succeeded by his wife Teuta, who assumed the regency for her stepson Pinnes following Agron's death in 231 BC.[53]

In his work The Histories, Polybius (2nd century BC) reported first diplomatic contacts between the Romans and Illyrians.[54] In the Illyrian Wars of 229 BC, 219 BC and 168 BC, Rome overran the Illyrian settlements and suppressed the piracy that had made the Adriatic unsafe for Roman commerce.[55] There were three campaigns, the first against Teuta the second against Demetrius of Pharos and the third against Gentius.[56] The initial campaign in 229 BC marks the first time that the Roman Navy crossed the Adriatic Sea to launch an invasion.[57]

The Roman Republic subdued the Illyrians during the 2nd century BC. An Illyrian revolt was crushed under Augustus, resulting in the division of Illyria in the provinces of Pannonia in the north and Dalmatia in the south.[citation needed]

Roman Empire[edit]

Queen Teuta of the Ardieai orders the Roman ambassadors to be killed – painted by Augustyn Mirys

Prior to the Roman conquest of Illyria, the Roman Republic had started expanding its power and territory across the Adriatic Sea. The Romans came nevertheless into a series of conflicts with the Illyrians, equally known as the Illyrian Wars, beginning in 229 BC until 168 BC as the Romans defeated Gentius at Scodra.[58]

The Roman province of Illyricum or Illyris Romana or Illyris Barbara or Illyria Barbara replaced most of the region of Illyria.[59] It stretched from the Drilon river in modern Albania to Istria (Croatia) in the west and to the Sava river (between Bosnia and Herzegovina and northern Croatia) in the north.[59] Salona (Solin near modern Split in Croatia) functioned as its capital. The regions which it included changed through the centuries though a great part of ancient Illyria remained part of Illyricum as a province while south Illyria became Epirus Nova.[citation needed]

The Great Illyrian Uprising took place in the Roman province of Illyricum in the 1st century AD, in which an alliance of native peoples revolted against the Romans. The main ancient source that describes this military conflict is Velleius Paterculus, which was incorporated into the second book of "Roman History". Another ancient source about it is the biography of Octavius Augustus by Pliny the Elder.[60]

After 9 AD, the remnants of Illyrian tribes moved to new coastal cities and larger and more capable civitates.[61]

The prefecture of Illyricum was established in the Eastern Roman Empire (Byzantine Empire), existing between 376 and the 7th century.

Byzantine Empire[edit]

In 395 AD, the Roman Empire was split upon the death of Theodosius I into an Eastern and Western Roman Empire, in part due to the weakening and increasing pressure from threats during the Barbarian Invasions, therefore, Illyria remained in the eastern empire which was later referred to as the Byzantine Empire.

The early Byzantine Empire was predominantly ruled by emperors from the Balkan Peninsula with Byzantine emperors of Illyrian origin, amongst them Constantine the Great, Jovian, Valentinian I, Anastasius I Dicorus, Justinian I and their descendants from the Constantinian dynasty, Valentinian dynasty and Justinian dynasty.[62][63][64][65][66]

From the 6th century ongoing into the 7th century, the Slavs crossed the Danube and started to absorb the indigenous Illyrians alongside the Ancient Greeks, Dacians and Thracians into the emerging medieval states of the Slavs such as that of the Croats and Serbs. The term Illyrians last appears in the historical record in the 7th century AD, referring to a Byzantine garrison operating within the former Roman province of Illyricum.[6]

Society[edit]

Warfare[edit]

The history of Illyrian warfare and weaponry spanned from around the 10th century BC up to the 1st century AD in the region defined by the Ancient Greek and Roman historians as Illyria. It concerns the armed conflicts of the Illyrian tribes and their kingdoms in the Balkan Peninsula and the Italian Peninsula as well as their pirate activity in the Adriatic Sea within the Mediterranean Sea.

The Illyrians were a notorious seafaring people with a strong reputation for piracy especially common during the regency of king Agron and later queen Teuta.[67][68] They used fast and maneuverable ships of types known as lembus and liburna which were subsequently used by the Ancient Macedonians and Romans.[69] Livy described the Illyrians along the Liburnians and Istrians as nations of savages in general noted for their piracy.[70]

Illyria appears in Greco-Roman historiography from the 4th century BC. Illyrians were regarded as bloodthirsty, unpredictable, turbulent, and warlike by Greeks and Romans.[71] They were seen as savages on the edge of their world.[72] Polybius (3rd century BC) wrote: "the Romans had freed the Greeks from the enemies of all mankind".[73] According to the Romans, the Illyrians were tall and well-built.[74] Herodianus writes that "Pannonians are tall and strong always ready for a fight and to face danger but slow witted".[75] Illyrian rulers wore bronze torques around their necks.[76]

Apart from conflicts between Illyrians and neighbouring nations and tribes, numerous wars were recorded among Illyrian tribes also.[citation needed]

Language[edit]

The languages spoken by the Illyrian tribes are nowadays an extinct and poorly attested Indo-European languages and though it is not clear whether the languages belonged to the centum or the satem group. The Illyrians were subject to varying degrees of Celticization, Hellenization, Romanization and later Slavicization which possibly lead to the extinction of their languages.[77][78][79]

The vast majority of knowledge of Illyrian is based on the Messapian language if the latter is considered an Illyrian dialect. The non-Messapian testimonies of Illyrian are too fragmentary to allow any conclusions whether Messapian should be considered part of Illyrian proper, although it has been widely thought that Messapian was related to Illyrian. An extinct Indo-European language, Messapian was once spoken in Messapia in the southeastern Italian Peninsula. It was spoken by the three Iapygian tribes of the region, the Messapians, the Daunii and the Peucetii.

The Illyrian languages were once thought to be connected to the Venetic language in the Italian Peninsula but this view was abandoned.[80] Other scholars have linked them with the adjacent Thracian language supposing an intermediate convergence area or dialect continuum, but this view is also not generally supported. All these languages were likely extinct by the 5th century AD although traditionally, the Albanian language is identified as the descendant of Illyrian dialects that survived in remote areas of the Balkans during the Middle Ages but evidence "is too meager and contradictory for us to know whether the term Illyrian even referred to a single language".[81][82]

The ancestor dialects of the Albanian language would have survived somewhere along the boundary of Latin and Ancient Greek linguistic influence, the Jireček Line. There are various modern historians and linguists who believe that the modern Albanian language might have descended from a southern Illyrian dialect whereas an alternative hypothesis holds that Albanian was descended from the Thracian language.[83][81] Not enough is known of the ancient language to completely prove or disprove either hypothesis, see Origin of the Albanians.[84]

Religion[edit]

The Illyrians, as most ancient civilizations, were polytheistic and worshipped many gods and deities developed of the powers of nature. The most numerous traces—still insufficiently studied—of religious practices of the pre-Roman era are those relating to religious symbolism. Symbols are depicted in every variety of ornament and reveal that the chief object of the prehistoric cult of the Illyrians was the Sun,[85][86] worshipped in a widespread and complex religious system.[85] The solar deity was depicted as a geometrical figure such as the spiral, the concentric circle and the swastika, or as an animal figure the likes of the birds, serpents and horses.[87][86] The symbols of water-fowl and horses were more common in the north, while the serpent was more common in the south.[86] Illyrian deities were mentioned in inscriptions on statues, monuments, and coins of the Roman period, and some interpreted by Ancient writers through comparative religion.[88][89] There appears to be no single most prominent god for all the Illyrian tribes, and a number of deities evidently appear only in specific regions.[88]

In Illyris, Dei-pátrous was a god worshiped as the Sky Father, Prende was the love-goddess and the consort of the thunder-god Perendi, En or Enji was the fire-god, Jupiter Parthinus was a chief deity of the Parthini, Redon was a tutelary deity of sailors appearing on many inscriptions in the coastal towns of Lissus, Daorson, Scodra and Dyrrhachium, while Medaurus was the protector deity of Risinium, with a monumental equestrian statue dominating the city from the acropolis. In Dalmatia and Pannonia one of the most popular ritual traditions during the Roman period was the cult of the Roman tutelary deity of the wild, woods and fields Silvanus, depicted with iconography of Pan. The Roman deity of wine, fertility and freedom Liber was worshipped with the attributes of Silvanus, and those of Terminus, the god protector of boundaries. Tadenus was a Dalmatian deity bearing the identity or epithet of Apollo in inscriptions found near the source of the Bosna river. The Delmatae also had Armatus as a war god in Delminium. The Silvanae, a feminine plural of Silvanus, were featured on many dedications across Pannonia. In the hot springs of Topusko (Pannonia Superior), sacrificial altars were dedicated to Vidasus and Thana (identified with Silvanus and Diana), whose names invariably stand side by side as companions. Aecorna or Arquornia was a lake or river tutelary goddess worshipped exclusively in the cities of Nauportus and Emona, where she was the most important deity next to Jupiter. Laburus was also a local deity worshipped in Emona, perhaps a deity protecting the boatmen sailing.

It seems that the Illyrians did not develop a uniform cosmology on which to center their religious practices.[86] A number of Illyrian toponyms and anthroponyms derived from animal names and reflected the beliefs in animals as mythological ancestors and protectors.[90] The serpent was one of the most important animal totems.[91] Illyrians believed in the force of spells and the evil eye, in the magic power of protective and beneficial amulets which could avert the evil eye or the bad intentions of enemies.[85][88] Human sacrifice also played a role in the lives of the Illyrians.[92] Arrian records the chieftain Cleitus the Illyrian as sacrificing three boys, three girls and three rams just before his battle with Alexander the Great.[93] The most common type of burial among the Iron Age Illyrians was tumulus or mound burial. The kin of the first tumuli was buried around that, and the higher the status of those in these burials the higher the mound. Archaeology has found many artifacts placed within these tumuli such as weapons, ornaments, garments and clay vessels. The rich spectrum in religious beliefs and burial rituals that emerged in Illyria, especially during the Roman period, may reflect the variation in cultural identities in this region.[94]

Archaeology[edit]

Details of the late antique cathedral complex in Byllis, Albania and the Adriatic sea in the distance.
Walls of ancient Daorson, located at Ošanići near Stolac in Bosnia and Herzegovina.

There are few remains to connect with the Bronze Age with the later Illyrians in the western Balkans. Moreover, with the notable exception of Pod near Bugojno in the upper valley of the Vrbas River, nothing is known of their settlements. Some hill settlements have been identified in western Serbia, but the main evidence comes from cemeteries, consisting usually of a small number of burial mounds (tumuli). In the cemeteries of Belotić and Bela Crkva (sr), the rites of exhumation and cremation are attested, with skeletons in stone cists and cremations in urns. Metal implements appear here side by side with stone implements. Most of the remains belong to the fully developed Middle Bronze Age.[citation needed]

During the 7th century BC, the beginning of the Iron Age, the Illyrians emerge as an ethnic group with a distinct culture and art form. Various Illyrian tribes appeared, under the influence of the Halstatt cultures from the north, and they organized their regional centers.[95] The cult of the dead played an important role in the lives of the Illyrians, which is seen in their carefully made burials and burial ceremonies, as well as the richness of the burial sites. In the northern parts of the Balkans, there existed a long tradition of cremation and burial in shallow graves, while in the southern parts, the dead were buried in large stone, or earth tumuli (natively called gromile) that in Herzegovina were reaching monumental sizes, more than 50 meters wide and 5 meters high. The Japodian tribe (found from Istria in Croatia to Bihać in Bosnia) have had an affinity for decoration with heavy, oversized necklaces out of yellow, blue or white glass paste, and large bronze fibulas, as well as spiral bracelets, diadems and helmets out of bronze.[citation needed] Small sculptures out of jade in form of archaic Ionian plastic are also characteristically Japodian. Numerous monumental sculptures are preserved, as well as walls of citadel Nezakcij near Pula, one of numerous Istrian cities from Iron Age. Illyrian chiefs wore bronze torques around their necks much like the Celts did.[96] The Illyrians were influenced by the Celts in many cultural and material aspects and some of them were Celticized, especially the tribes in Dalmatia[97] and the Pannonians.[98] In Slovenia, the Vače situla was discovered in 1882 and attributed to Illyrians. Prehistoric remains indicate no more than average height, male 165 cm (5 ft 5 in), female 153 cm (5 ft 0 in).[75]

Middle Ages[edit]

The Illyrians were mentioned for the last time in the Miracula Sancti Demetrii during the 7th century.[99] With the disintegration of the Roman Empire, Gothic and Hunnic tribes raided the Balkan peninsula, forcing many Illyrians to seek refuge in the highlands.

It is also evident that in a region which stretches from the southern Dalmatian coast, its hinterland, Montenegro, northern Albania up to Kosovo and Dardania, apart from a uniformity in onomastics there were also some archaeological similarities. However, it cannot be determined whether these tribes living there also formed a linguistic unity.[100]

Since the Middle Ages the term "Illyrian" has been used principally in connection with the Albanians, although it was also used to describe the western wing of the Southern Slavs up to the 19th century,[101] being revived in particular during the Habsburg Monarchy.[102][103]

Nationalism[edit]

South Slavs[edit]

At the beginning of the 19th century, many educated Europeans regarded the South Slavs as the descendants of ancient Illyrians. Consequently, when Napoléon conquered part of the South Slavic lands, these areas were named after ancient Illyrian provinces (1809–1814).[104] After the demise of the First French Empire in 1815, the Habsburg Monarchy became increasingly centralized and authoritarian, and fear of Magyarization arouse patriotic resistance among Croatians.[105] Under the influence of Romantic nationalism, a self-identified "Illyrian movement", in the form of a Croatian national revival, opened a literary and journalistic campaign initiated by a group of young Croatian intellectuals during the years of 1835–49.[106] This movement, under the banner of Illlyrism, aimed to create a Croatian national establishment under Austro-Hungarian rule but was repressed by the Habsburg authorities after the failed Revolutions of 1848.[citation needed]

Albanians[edit]

The possible continuity between the Illyrian populations of the Western Balkans in antiquity and the Albanians has played a significant role in Albanian nationalism from the 19th century until the present day. For example, Ibrahim Rugova, the first President of Kosovo introduced the "Flag of Dardania" on October 29, 2000, Dardania being the name for a Thraco-Illyrian region including parts of eastern Kosovo, the Republic of North Macedonia and Southern Serbia.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Kosovo is the subject of a territorial dispute between the Republic of Kosovo and the Republic of Serbia. The Republic of Kosovo unilaterally declared independence on 17 February 2008, but Serbia continues to claim it as part of its own sovereign territory. The two governments began to normalise relations in 2013, as part of the 2013 Brussels Agreement. Kosovo is currently recognized as an independent state by 97 out of the 193 United Nations member states. In total, 112 UN member states recognized Kosovo at some point, of which 15 later withdrew their recognition.
  2. ^ Hecataeus' works can only be analyzed indirectly since the fragments have been preserved in the works of other ancient authors. The majority of the fragments are transmitted in the geographical lexicon (Ἐθνικά, Ethnica) of Stephanus of Byzantium (6th century AD), of which we possess only a later abridgment (epitome by Hermolaos). On the other hand, Stephanus is regarded by modern scholars a reliable source in general.[10]
  3. ^ According to some modern scholars Appian's Illyrian genealogy ultimately originated with Timaeus. Appian's immediate source probably was Timagenes, who was also used by Pompeius Trogus for the early history of the Illyrians.[45]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Frazee 1997, p. 89: "The Balkan peninsula had three groups of Indo-Europeans prior to 2000 BC. Those on the west were the Illyrians; those on the east were the Thracians; and advancing down the southern part of the Balkans, the Greeks."
  2. ^ Wilkes 1992, pp. 6, 92; Boardman & Hammond 1982, p. 261
  3. ^ a b Roisman & Worthington 2010, p. 280.
  4. ^ a b Boardman 1982, p. 629.
  5. ^ a b Wilkes 1992, p. 92.
  6. ^ a b Schaefer 2008, p. 130.
  7. ^ a b Dzino 2014, pp. 45–46.
  8. ^ a b Matijasić 2011, p. 293.
  9. ^ Dzino 2014, pp. 47–48.
  10. ^ Matijasić 2011, p. 295–296.
  11. ^ Katičić 1976, pp. 154–155.
  12. ^ a b Katičić 1976, p. 156.
  13. ^ Wilkes 1992, pp. 81, 183.
  14. ^ Hammond 1966, p. 241.
  15. ^ fnRoisman & Worthington 2010, p. 280.
  16. ^ a b Wilkes 1992, p. 38.
  17. ^ a b Elsie 2015, p. 2.
  18. ^ Joseph Roisman; Ian Worthington (7 July 2011). A Companion to Ancient Macedonia. John Wiley & Sons. p. 280. ISBN 978-1-4443-5163-7.
  19. ^ Dzino 2014, p. 47.
  20. ^ a b c Dzino 2014, p. 46.
  21. ^ a b c Wilkes 1992, p. 92
  22. ^ a b c Stipčević 1977, p. 15.
  23. ^ Wilkes 1992, p. 81.
  24. ^ a b Stipčević 1977, p. 17.
  25. ^ a b Stipčević 1977, p. 19.
  26. ^ a b Dzino 2012.
  27. ^ Wilkes 1992, p. 39 argues that "cannot fail to impress through their weight of archaeological evidence; but material remains alone can never tell the whole story and can mislead."
  28. ^ Šašel Kos 2005, p. 235.
  29. ^ Dzino 2012, pp. 74-76.
  30. ^ Dzino 2012, p. 97.
  31. ^ Dzino 2012, pp. 84-85.
  32. ^ Fine 1983, pp. 9–10.
  33. ^ a b De Simone 2017, p. 1869.
  34. ^ Wilkes 1992, p. 70.
  35. ^ Polomé 1982, p. 867.
  36. ^ Wilkes 1992, p. 86.
  37. ^ Polomé 1983, p. 537.
  38. ^ a b Šašel Kos 2004, pp. 493, 502.
  39. ^ Šašel Kos 2005, p. 124.
  40. ^ a b c Šašel Kos 2005, p. 124
  41. ^ Grimal & Maxwell-Hyslop 1996, p. 230; Apollodorus & Hard 1999, p. 103 (Book III, 5.4)
  42. ^ a b Šašel Kos 2004, p. 493.
  43. ^ Grimal & Maxwell-Hyslop 1996, p. 168.
  44. ^ Katičić 1995, p. 246.
  45. ^ a b Šašel Kos 2005, p. 123.
  46. ^ Šašel Kos 2004, p. 502.
  47. ^ Papazoglu 1978, p. 213.
  48. ^ Šašel Kos 2004, p. 503.
  49. ^ Matijasić 2011, p. 26.
  50. ^ Šašel Kos 1993, p. 120.
  51. ^ Hammond 1994, p. 438.
  52. ^ Hammond 1993, pp. 106–107.
  53. ^ Elsie 2015, p. 3.
  54. ^ Bajrić 2014, p. 29.
  55. ^ Wilkes 1992, p. 158.
  56. ^ Boak & Sinnigen 1977, p. 111.
  57. ^ Gruen 1986, p. 76.
  58. ^ Battles of the Greek and Roman Worlds: A Chronological Compendium of 667 Battles to 31Bc, from the Historians of the Ancient World (Greenhill Historic Series) by John Drogo Montagu, ISBN 1-85367-389-7, 2000, page 47
  59. ^ a b Smith 1874, p. 218.
  60. ^ Mesihović 2011, pp. 8, 15.
  61. ^ Wilkes 1969, p. 156.
  62. ^ Noel Lenski (2014-06-26). Failure of Empire: Valens and the Roman State in the Fourth Century A.D. Univ of California Press, 2014. pp. 45–67. ISBN 9780520283893.
  63. ^ Odahl, Charles M. (2001). Constantine and the Christian empire. London: Routledge. pp. 40–41. ISBN 978-0-415-17485-5.
  64. ^ Lenski, Noel Emmanuel (2002). Failure of empire: Valens and the Roman state in the fourth century A.D. University of California Press. p. 56. ISBN 978-0-520-23332-4. Retrieved 12 October 2010.
  65. ^ Croke, Brian (2001). Count Marcellinus and his chronicle. Oxford University Press. p. 89. ISBN 978-0-19-815001-5. Retrieved 12 October 2010.
  66. ^ Michael Maas (2005). The Cambridge Companion to the Age of Justinian. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-1139826877.
  67. ^ The Illyrians (The Peoples of Europe) by John Wilkes, 1996, page 158, "...Illyrian success continued when command passed to Agron's widow Teuta, who granted individual ships a licence to universal plunder. In 231 ac the fleet and army attacked Ells and Messenia..."
  68. ^ Møller, Bjørn. "Piracy, Maritime Terrorism and Naval Strategy." Copenhagen: Danish Institute for International Studies, November 16, 2008. 10.
  69. ^ Dell, Harry J. 1967. The Origin and Nature of Illyrian Piracy. Historia: Zeitschrift für Alte Geschichte 16, (3) (Jul.): 344-58. 345.
  70. ^ Livy. The History of Rome, Band 2 - The History of Rome, Livy. T. Cadell and W. Davies, 1814. p. 324.
  71. ^ Whitehorne 1994, p. 37; Eckstein 2008, p. 33; Strauss 2009, p. 21; Everitt 2006, p. 154.
  72. ^ Wilkes 1992, p. 4
  73. ^ Champion 2004, p. 113.
  74. ^ Juvenal 2009, p. 127.
  75. ^ a b Wilkes 1992, p. 219.
  76. ^ Wilkes 1992, p. 223.
  77. ^ Bunson 1995, p. 202; Mócsy 1974.
  78. ^ Pomeroy et al. 2008, p. 255
  79. ^ Bowden 2003, p. 211; Kazhdan 1991, p. 248.
  80. ^ Wilkes 1992, p. 183.
  81. ^ a b Eastern Michigan University Linguist List: The Illyrian Language, linguistlist.org; accessed April 3, 2014
  82. ^ Ammon et al. 2006, p. 1874: "Traditionally, Albanian is identified as the descendant of Illyrian, but Hamp (1994a) argues that the evidence is too meager and contradictory for us to know whether the term Illyrian even referred to a single language."
  83. ^
    • Ceka 2005, pp. 40–42, 59
    • Thunmann, Johannes E. "Untersuchungen uber die Geschichte der Oslichen Europaischen Volger". Teil, Leipzig, 1774.
    • see Malcolm, Noel. Origins: Serbs, Vlachs, and Albanians. Malcolm is of the opinion that the Albanian language was an Illyrian dialect preserved in Dardania and then it (re-?)conquered the Albanian lowlands
    • Indo-European language and culture: an introduction By Benjamin W. Fortson Edition: 5, illustrated Published by Wiley-Blackwell, 2004 ISBN 1-4051-0316-7, ISBN 978-1-4051-0316-9
    • Stipčević, Alexander. Iliri (2nd edition). Zagreb, 1989 (also published in Italian as "Gli Illiri")
    • NGL Hammond The Relations of Illyrian Albania with the Greeks and the Romans. In Perspectives on Albania, edited by Tom Winnifrith, St. Martin’s Press, New York 1992
    • Encyclopedia of Indo-European culture By J. P. Mallory, Douglas Q. Adams Edition: illustrated Published by Taylor & Francis, 1997 ISBN 1-884964-98-2, ISBN 978-1-884964-98-5
  84. ^ Mallory & Adams 1997, p. 9;Fortson 2004
  85. ^ a b c Stipčević 1977, p. 182.
  86. ^ a b c d Wilkes 1992, p. 244.
  87. ^ Stipčević 1977, pp. 182, 186.
  88. ^ a b c Wilkes 1992, p. 245.
  89. ^ West 2007, p. 15.
  90. ^ Stipčević 1977, p. 197.
  91. ^ Stipčević 1976, p. 235.
  92. ^ Wilkes 1992, p. 123.
  93. ^ F. A. Wright (1934). ALEXANDER THE GREAT. London: GEORGE ROUTLEDGE SONS, LTD. pp. 63–64.
  94. ^ Brandt, Ingvaldsen & Prusac 2014, p. 249.
  95. ^ Wilkes 1992, p. 140.
  96. ^ Wilkes 1992, p. 233.
  97. ^ Bunson 1995, p. 202; Hornblower & Spawforth 2003, p. 426
  98. ^ Hornblower & Spawforth 2003, p. 1106
  99. ^ Juka 1984, p. 60: "Since the Illyrians are referred to for the last time as an ethnic group in Miracula Sancti Demetri (7th century AD), some scholars maintain that after the arrival of the Slavs the Illyrians were extinct."
  100. ^ Matzinger, Joachim (2016). "Die albanische Autochthoniehypotheseaus der Sicht der Sprachwissenschaft" (PDF). Südosteuropa-Institut. Retrieved 9 August 2020. Das Albanische sei die Nachfolgesprache des Illyrischen: An der sprachlichen Realität des Illyrischen kann prinzipiell nicht gezweifelt werden. Auf welcher Basis beruht aber die heutige Kenntnis des Illyrischen? Nach moderner Erkenntnis ist das, was Illyrisch zu nennen ist, auf den geographischen Bereich der süddalmatischen Küste und ihrem Hinterland zu begrenzen (modernes Crna Gora, Nordalbanien und Kosovo/Kosova [antikes Dardanien]), wo nach älteren griechi-schen Autoren Stämme beheimatet waren, die gemeinhin illyrisch benannt wurden (Hei-ner EICHNER). Das Gebiet deckt sich mit einem auch relativ einheitlichen Namensgebiet (Radoslav KATIČIĆ) und es gibt es zum Teil archäologische Übereinstimmungen (Hermann PARZINGER). Ob diese Stämme auch eine sprachlicheEinheitgebildet haben, lässt sich nicht feststellen. Aus diesem Grund darf der Begriff ‘Illyrer’ und ‘illyrisch’ primär nur als Sammelbegriffverstanden werden
  101. ^ Ćirković 2004, p. 2: "The name Illyrian was used to identify the western wing of the Southern Slavs up to the nineteenth century, although since the Middle Ages it has been used primarily in connection with the Albanians."
  102. ^ Djilas 1991, pp. 20–21.
  103. ^ Stergar 2016, pp. 111–112.
  104. ^ Djilas 1991, p. 20.
  105. ^ Djilas 1991, p. 22.
  106. ^ Despalatovic 1975.

Bibliography[edit]

External links[edit]