|Regions with significant populations|
(Ilocos Region, Cordillera, Cagayan Valley, Central Luzon, Metro Manila)
|Philippine languages (Ilokano, Filipino), English|
|Predominantly Roman Catholicism,
Aglipayan minority, Iglesia ni Cristo, Protestantism, Members Church of God International, Jehovah's Witnesses, Islam, Buddhism
|Related ethnic groups|
|Filipinos (Ibanag, Ivatan, Pangasinense, Kapampangan), Austronesian peoples|
The Ilokanos (Ilocano: Tattao a Iloko) or Iloko people are the third largest Filipino ethnolinguistic group that mostly reside within the Ilocos Region in the northwestern seaboard of Luzon, Philippines. Most Ilokanos speak the Ilokano language, which has 40 dialects.
- 1 Etymology
- 2 Ethnic homeland
- 3 Demographics
- 4 History
- 5 Notable Ilokanos
- 6 See also
- 7 Notes and sources
- 8 External links
The word Ilokano originates from Iloko (archaic form, Yloco), the conjugation of i- (meaning "of") and look (meaning "bay"), which means "from the bay" in Ilokano. Aside from being referred to as Ilokano, they are also identified as Samtoy, a portmanteau of the Ilokano phrase sao mi ditoy meaning "our language here" ("sao mi" = "our language;" "ditoy" - "here").
Ilocandia is the term given to the traditional homeland of the Ilokano people. From the original western strip of Northern Luzon, Ilocandia has spread throughout the Cordillera Administrative Region, Cagayan Valley and some parts of Central Luzon.
Many Filipino Americans are of Ilokano descent. They make up 85% of the Filipino-American population in Hawai'i.
The Austronesian ancestors of the present-day Ilocanos came to the Philippines through bilogs, or outrigger boats during the Iron Age.
Spanish Era to the Philippine Republic
The Spanish conquistador Juan de Salcedo explored the northern regions of the Philippines in 1571, where he traveled to the Ilocos region (among other places), pacifying the North, and establishing several Spanish municipalities, including Villa Fernandina and Tagudin.
The mounting population pressure due to the substantial population density during the mid-19th century caused the migration of the Ilokanos out of their historic homeland. By 1903, more than 290,000 Ilokanos migrated to Central Luzon, Cagayan Valley, and Metro Manila. More than 180,000 moved to Pangasinan, Tarlac, and Nueva Ecija. Almost 50,000 moved to Cagayan Valley; half of them resided in Isabela. Around 47,000 lived in Zambales and the Sultan Kudarat more than 11,000
The Ilokano Diaspora continued in 1906 when Ilokanos started to migrate to Hawaii and California. Ilokanos composed the largest number of expatriates in the United States, though most are bilingual with Tagalog. There is a significant Ilokano community in Hawai'i, in which they make up more than 85% of the Filipino population there.
Ilokanos boast of a somewhat healthy diet heavy in boiled or steamed vegetables and freshwater fish, but are particularly fond of dishes flavored with bagoong, fermented fish that is often used instead of salt. Ilokanos often season boiled vegetables with bagoong monamon (fermented anchovy paste) to produce pinakbet. Local specialties include the "abuos," soft white larvae of ants, and "jumping salad" or tiny, live shrimp with kalamansi juice. Another food that is popular for many Ilokanos is the Moringa or "Malunggay". It is a good condiment for meat soup(e.g. tinola) or it can be mixed with the famous "dinengdeng", a soup made of mainly vegetables with prawns "alamang". Most households grow this tree in their backyards and usually offered free for all the neighbors who may want them. Many Ilokanos from Hawai'i are fond of eating them.
One of the most well-known Ilokano literary works written in Iloco is the Biag ni Lam-ang (The Life of Lam-Ang), an epic poem about the fantastic life and escapades of an Ilokano hero named Lam-ang. The Ilokano writer Elizabeth Medina is probably the most remarkable living Ilokano writer in Spanish language.
Philippine nationals of Ilokano ancestry
- Marilou Diaz-Abaya, Filipina Director, her father is from Paoay, Ilokos Norte
- Mac Alejandre, Filipino Director,
- Gregorio Aglipay, founder of the Aglipayan Church.
- Pedro Almazan, leader from Laoag; proclaimed and crowned King of Ilokos; led the First Ilocos Revolt in January 1661.
- Sofia Andres (born August 24, 1998), Actress and Model, her roots are Ilokano from Gerona, Tarlac
- Magnolia Antonino (born December 14, 1915) was a Senator of the Philippines. She was married to Gaudencio Antonino, also a Senator.
- Rodolfo "Pong" Gaspar Biazon (born April 14, 1935) is a politician in the Philippines. He is currently a Senator. He was elected Senator in the 1992 election for a term of 3 years. He was elected to his first six-year term in the 1998 election, and was re-elected in the 2004 election. Biazon was born in Batac City, Ilocos Norte.
- Gregorio C. Brillantes from Camiling, Tarlac, a multi-award-winning fiction writer and magazine editor, is one of the Philippines' greatest writers in English.
- Jose Burgos, Filipino priest and martyr during Spanish times.
- Sonny Cabatu (born on October 10, 1960 in Cabugao, Ilocos Sur), is a Semi-retired Filipino professional basketball player in the Philippine Basketball Association and was the very first draft pick of the league in 1985. He is also the father of current Barangay Ginebra Kings player Junjun Cabatu.
- Antonio Carpio, Associate Justice, Ilokano father
- Conchita Carpio-Morales, Current Ombudsman of the Philippines.
- Nina Corpuz, Former Filipino Journalist
- Onofre Corpuz, from Camiling, Tarlac, writer and former secretary of the Department of Education; 13th president of the University of the Philippines; president of the Development Bank of the Philippines.
- Marcelino Crisologo, writer, playwright and first governor of Ilocos Sur
- Lilia Cuntapay, Filipina horror actress,
- Anne Curtis, Filipina actress, Her mother is Ilokano from Pangasinan.
- Isabelle Daza, Daughter of Gloria Diaz.
- Gloria Diaz, Miss Universe 1969 from Aringay, La Union.
- Ces Drilon, Filipina News Anchor, Her father is Ilokano.
- Juan Ponce Enrile, a Senator. He served as Senate President from 2008 - 2013. He is currently the Senate Minority Leader. He is from Gonzaga, Cagayan.
- Kathryn Bernardo, from Cabanatuan, Nueva Ecija.
- Josefa Llanes Escoda, women's rights activist, founder of the Girl Scouts of the Philippines.
- Darren Espanto, Filipino Singer, His parents are Ilokano From Nueva Vizcaya.
- Erlinda Fadera-Basilio, ambassador and permanent representative of the Philippines to the United Nations and other international organizations in Geneva, Switzerland; the first woman Vice President of the UN Human Rights Council; founding member of the English Speaking Union (ESU), Philippines Chapter. She is from Bacnotan, La Union.
- Leona Florentino, famous woman poet. *Coleen Garcia, Filipina actress,Her mother is Ilokana From La Union 
- Jhong Hilario, Filipino actor/host/dancer
- Danny Ildefonso a professional basketball player who played in San Miguel Beerman now Petron Blaze Boosters who won 8 PBA championships and 2 MVP's and rookie of the year award in 1998. He speaks fluent Iloko. He is from Urdaneta City, Pangasinan.
- Francisco Sionil José, prominent English-language novelist.
- Bianca King, Filipina Actress, Her mother is Ilokana.
- Doug Kramer, Filipino Basketball Player, His Mother is Ilokana From La Union.
- Carlo Lacana, Filipino actor.
- Japoy Lizardo, Filipino Actor/Athlete
- General Antonio Luna, general of Emilio Aguinaldo's era.
- Juan Luna, famous Filipino painter, older brother of Antonio.
- Guji Lorenzana, Filipino actor/singer,
- Ramon Magsaysay, 7th President of the Philippines, from Iba, Zambales.
- JB Magsaysay, Pinoy Big Brother (season 1) housemate and grandson of former President Ramon Magsaysay.
- Ferdinand Marcos, 10th President of the Philippines (1965 – 1986). Known for memorizing the world's thickest constitution, the Philippine Constitution.
- Ferdinand Marcos, Jr., also known as BongBong Marcos, is the only son of former president Ferdinand Marcos. He served as governor of Ilocos Norte from 1998 - 2007. He also served as a representative of Ilocos Norte's 2nd District. He is currently a Senator of the Philippines.
- Maria Imelda Josefa Romualdez Marcos, also known as Imee Marcos, daughter of former president Ferdinand Marcos, is a former representative of the 2nd District of Ilocos Norte in the Philippine House of Representatives (1998 to 2007). She is the governor of Ilocos Norte since 2010. She belongs to the Kilusang Bagong Lipunan political party.
- Mariano Marcos, father of Ferdinand Marcos, was a lawyer and a politician.
- Martha Vanessa Antonio del Moral, better known by her screen name Vaness del Moral (born on May 23, 1988 in Baguio City, Benguet, Philippines), is a Filipina actress and a talent at one of the top management groups in the Philippines, the GMA Artist Center.
- Jimboy Martin, Filipino Actor, He is originally from Nueva Vizcaya.
- Alma Moreno (born May 25, 1959 in Cervantes, Ilocos Sur) is a Filipina actress whose mother is Ilokano and father is from Pampanga.
- Bienvenido Nebres, the longest-serving university president of Ateneo de Manila University; member of the board of trustees of Georgetown University, Regis University, the Asian Institute of Management (where he sits as Vice-Chair), and other colleges and universities in the Philippines.
- Jane Oineza, Filipina actress,
- Camilo Osías (March 23, 1889 Balaoan, La Union - May 20, 1976 Manila) was a Filipino politician, twice for a short time President of the Senate of the Philippines.
- Bela Padilla, Filipina Actress, Her mother is Ilokano From Nueva Ecija 
- Daniel Padilla, Filipino Actor, His paternal grandmother is Ilokana and the sister of Bela Padilla's maternal grandmother.
- Kylie Padilla, Filipina Actress, Her father, Robin Padilla is also an Ilokano From Nueva Ecija
- Robin Padilla, Filipino Actor, from Nueva Ecija.
- Jim Paredes, Filipino Musician, his father is Ilokano from Abra
- Quintín Paredes (September 9, 1884 - January 30, 1973), a Filipino lawyer, politician, and statesman. He was born in Bangued, Abra.
- Marc Pingris,Filipino Basketball Player,
- Elpidio Quirino, 6th President of the Philippines (1948–1953) and native of Caoayan, Ilocos Sur.
- Nicanor Reyes, Sr., founder and first president of the Far Eastern University in Manila. He envisioned a school that would promote the teaching of accounting to Filipinos, a profession formerly available only to foreigners. His hometown was Paniqui, Tarlac.
- Artemio Ricarte (October 20, 1866 — July 31, 1945) was a Filipino general during the Philippine Revolution and the Philippine–American War. He is considered by the Armed Forces of the Philippines as the "Father of the Philippine Army". Ricarte is also notable for never having taken an oath of allegiance to the United States government, which occupied the Philippines from 1898 to 1946. Ricarte was born in Batac City, Ilocos Norte.
- Alden Richards, Filipino Actor, His paternal grandmother is Ilokana From Sinait, Ilocos Sur
- Ruby Rodriguez from San Marcelino, Zambales is a Filipina actress and a co-host of the television variety show Eat Bulaga! in the Philippines.
- Carmen Rosales, actress Pangasinan
- Jericho Rosales, Filipino actor
- Paulino Santos from Camiling, Tarlac, a former chief of staff of the Philippine Army during the time of Philippine President Manuel Luis Quezon; founder of Penal Colonies and a Philippine Constabulary Second Lieutenant.
- Gabriela Silang, wife of Diego, revolutionist.
- Luis "Chavit" Singson (born June 21, 1941), better known as Chavit Singson, is a Filipino politician. He was a former Governor of the province of Ilocos Sur, Philippines since 1998. He is the owner of the Partas Bus Company. He is from Vigan, Ilocos Sur
- Liza Soberano Hope Elizabeth Soberano (formerly known by the screen name Hope Soberano), is a young Filipina American model and actress, is a contract artist of ABS-CBN and Star Magic. She is currently starring in the teleserye FOREVERMORE and in the movie "THE BET" to be released in 2015. Her father and ancestors are Ilokanos from Sta. Maria, Ilocos Sur, Asingan, Pangasinan, and Baguio City.
- Jessica Soho (born March 27, 1964) is Filipino broadcast journalist, documentarian and news director who received a George Foster Peabody Award and was the first Filipino to win the British Fleet Journalism Award in 1998. She is from San Juan, La Union
- Fidel V. Ramos 12th President of the Philippines (1992-1998) from Lingayen, Pangasinan
- Benito Soliven, studied law at the University of the Philippines, graduated summa cum laude, placed third in the 1921 Bar Examinations, the first lawyer of Santo Domingo, Ilocos Sur, an intellectual, a linguist, a successful political leader, an Outstanding Congressman, a three-termer in the House of Representatives acclaimed as "Valedictorian" in congress having the greatest number of bills most of which were passed/approved by his Colleagues, a hero of World War II, and most of all a very saintly and charitable man, ready to help the needy and his clients free of charge to those who didn't have the money. He is the father of the late Maximo Villaflor Soliven, a prominent Filipino journalist and newspaper publisher and Realtor Victorio V. Soliven. A school and a town are also named after him, the Benito Soliven Academy, located in Santo Domingo, Ilocos Sur and Benito Soliven in the province of Isabela.
- Carlos P. Garcia, 8th President of the Philippines (1957-1961), his parents were natives from Bangued, Abra.
- Máximo Villaflor Solivén (September 4, 1929 – November 24, 2006) was a prominent Filipino journalist and newspaper publisher. In a career that spanned six decades, he attained his greatest peak and influence with the Philippine Star, which he co-founded in 1986, and where he served as publisher until his death. His daily column published in the Star, titled "By The Way", was one of the most widely read newspaper columns in the Philippines
- Bryan Termulo, Filipino Singer, His mother is Ilokana from La Union
- Fabian Ver, former General and Chief of the Armed Forces of the Philippines.
- Glennifer Perido, beauty pageant titleholder, from Tabuk, Kalinga.
- Teófilo Yldefonso, "the Ilokano Shark" (February 9, 1903 – July 19, 1943), was a Filipino swimmer who specialized in the breaststroke. He was the first Filipino to win an Olympic medal, and the only Filipino to win multiple medals. He was born in Piddig, Ilocos Norte.
- Nova Villa, Filipino Actress.
- Vice Ganda Also Known as Jose Mari Viceral, A Filipino Comedian, His Mother is Ilokana from La Union
Foreign nationals of Ilokano ancestry
- Jasmine Trias, 3rd-place winner in American Idol Season 3.
- Jocelyn Enriquez, Singer in the Dance Music Genre who did the hit songs A Little Bit Of Ectasy and Do You Miss Me.
- Benny Agbayani, professional baseball player.
- Thelma Buchholdt, J.D., elected member, Alaska State House of Representatives (1974–1982).
- Carlos Bulosan, writer from Binalonan, Pangasinan.
- David Bunevacz, athlete.
- Mikey Bustos, YouTube star and Canadian Idol finalist.
- Ben Cayetano, 5th Governor of Hawaii (1994–2002).
- Philip Vera Cruz, labor union leader.
- Emil Guillermo, journalist and 2000 American Book Award winner.
- Ana "The Hurricane" Julaton (from Pozorrubio, Pangasinan) is a boxer. She won the San Francisco Golden Gloves, the California State Championships, was a Diamond Belt champion, and closed out her amateur career by winning the silver medal in the United States Amateur Championships. As a professional boxer, Julation is close to the top in winning world titles with the fewest professional bouts. As of 2010[update], she is a world-title holder of the International Boxing Association and the World Boxing Organization.
- Matthew Libatique, an American cinematographer best known for his work with director Darren Aronofsky on such films as Iron Man 1 and 2, Inside Man, Miracle at St. Anna, Gothika, Cowboys and Aliens, π, Requiem for a Dream, The Fountain and Black Swan
- Rhoda Montemayor, Europe actress and model.
- Lt. Gen. Edward Soriano, first Fil-Am General of the US Army (ret).
- Maj. Gen. Antonio Taguba, second Fil-Am General of the US Army.
- Brian Viloria, light flyweight boxing champion.
Notes and sources
- "Ilokanos." Junior Worldmark Encyclopedia of World Cultures. The Gale Group, Inc. 1999. Retrieved December 10, 2009.
- "UCLA Language Materials Project". Retrieved 2012-09-28.
- Uhm Center For Philippine Studies
- YouTube sensation Mikey Bustos and how to be 'Pilipino' - Pinoy Abroad - GMA News Online gmanetwork.com
- Lauren Smiley. "The Eyes of the Hurricane". SF Weekly. March 10, 2010.
- "Ana Julaton: Her Side of the Ring". Mightygloves.com. November 28, 2009.
- "Munting Nayon News Magazine"
- Tarabay iti Ortograpia ti Pagsasao nga Ilokano - A free ebook version of the Guide on the Orthography of the Ilokano Language developed by the Komisyon ng Wikang Filipino (KWF) in consultation with various stakeholders in Ilokano language and culture. Developed back in 2012 as a resource material for the implementation of the Department of Education’s K-12 curriculum with the integration of MTB-MLE or Mother Tongue-Based Multilingual Education.
- Ilokano Wikipedia
- Most Popular Ilocano Website
- World's Most Famous Ilocanos
- Ilocano: Ti Pagsasao ti Amianan
- NAKEM Centennial Conference
- Tawid News Magasin Ilokano News and Literature Portal
- dadapilan.com - Iloko literature portal featuring original Iloko works by Ilokano writers and a forum for Iloko literary study, criticism and online workshop.
- Ilocano.org - An online community for Ilocanos.
- Quirino Province - An online community for Quirinians.
- your online portal for "HOMETOWN NEWS" of Northern Luzon
- Marunggay Article - An article entitled "Moringa, an icon for Most Filipinos"
- Learn Filipino A webpage to learn how people are called in Ilocano